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Family Nephrolepidaceae
Alolokdo
Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl
ROUGH SWORD FERN

Scientific names Common names
Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl Alolokdo (Bis.)
Polypodium hirsutulum G. Forst. Bayangbang (Tag)
  Lagunton (Ilk.)
  Asian sword fern (Engl.)
  Rough sword fern (Engl.)
  Scaly sword fern (Engl.)
  Scurfy sword fern (Engl.)
Alolokdo is a local common name shared by two Nephrolepis species: N. biserrata and N. hirsutula.
Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AMERICAN SAMOA: Vao tuaniu.
COOK ISLANDS: Maire, Tuartou, Tu-rautou, Turei'aua, Turoutou.
CUBA: Helecho, Periquita, Puntero.
NEW ZEALAND: Lau maile kimoa, Maile kimoa.
INDONESIAN Pakis kinca, Paku jeler, Paku sepat, Paku jangkang.

Gen info
- Ferns are the informal name given to a diverse group of vascular plants with over 10,500 species.
- Nephrolepis is a pantropical genus of about 19 species, and is probably the most popular source of commercially used fern.
(3)

Botany
Nephrolepis hirsutula is a terrestrial fern forming tufts of 4–8 fronds (or more). Runners often forming stilts supporting the erect rhizome, 1–2 mm thick, branching angle narrow. scales on runners sparse or dense, appressed or spreading. Tubers absent. Fronds 90–210 by 15–20 cm, stipe 32–80 cm long. Lamina base reduced, tapering over 15–30 cm (or more), basal pinnae 3.5–8 cm long, 2–5 cm distant, middle pinnae straight (sometimes recurved). Sterile pinnae 8–10 by 1.2–1.6 cm, herbaceous, thick, base strongly unequal, basiscopic base truncate or rounded, acroscopic base truncate, strongly auricled (with narrow auricle), margin in basal part entire, towards apex crenate, apex acute. Fertile pinnae 7.5–11 by 0.9–1.1 cm, more strongly crenate than the sterile pinnae. Indument basal scales peltate, appressed, 1.5–23.5 by 1 mm, central part dark brown or blackish, shining, hyaline margin wide, ciliate, marginal glands, absent apex obtuse, rachis scales very dense, with a well-developed protracted acumen, spreading or squarrose, rufous, acumen strongly dentate. Scales on lamina usually persistent. Hairs absent from lamina and costae. Sori submarginal to nearly medial, 24–33 pairs on fully fertile pinnae, round, not impressed. Indusium reniform, with open sinus, attached at sinus. (Hovenkamp and Miyamoto (2005) (3)

Distribution
- Common in Philippine gardens.
- Ornamental cultivation.
- Native to Asia and the Pacific.
- Not considered invasive.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening of leaf extracts yielded alkaloids, phenols, tannins, flavonoids, reducing compounds, polyuronides, saponins, and terpenoids.Total phenol content was 6.41 ± 0.39 mg/g GAE. Flavonoid content 40.48 ± 0.44 mg/g quercitin. Tannic acid content was 9.79 ± 0.16 mg/g. (2)

Properties
- Study suggested phytoremediative property.

Parts used
Tubers, fronds.

Uses

Edibility
- In Indonesia, leaves consumed as stir-fry vegetable. (5)
Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Garhwal, decoction of fresh tubers and fronds drunk to treat cough, (4)
Others
- Ornamental: Used as backfrop for wreaths and bouquets.

Studies
Phytoremediation / Chromium:
Studiy evaluated the potential of ferns for phytoremediation. The ferns showed preferential absorption of some heave metals. Of the heavy metals, chromium was the most preferred, and among nontoxic ones, iron was the highly absorbed metal. Nephrolepis hirsutula showed Cr accumulatio in the leaf with 3244.44 ppm. (6)

Availability
- Wildcrafted.
- Cultivated.

August 2020

                                                 PHOTOS / ILLUSTRATIONS
IMAGE SOURCE: Photograph: Nephrolepis hirsutula / Tau'olunga / click on image to go to source page /CC by SA 3.0 / Wikimedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Nephrolepis hirsutula / click on image to go to source page / Lowe, E J; Ferns (A History of Ferns) British and exotic (1856-1860) / PlantIllustrations.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Nephrolepis hirsutula / Synonyms / The Plant List
(2)
PHYTOCONSTITUENTS OF NEPHROLEPIS HIRSUTULA AND PITYROGRAMMA CALOMELANOS, TWO MEDICINAL FERNS OF THE WESTERN GHATS / Sudha Sajeev, Pavithra Raj, Adarsh DB, Smitha Hegde
(3)
Nephrolepis hirsutula / Invasive Species Compendium / CABI
(4)
Antibacterial and Phytochemical Screening of Ferns
(5)
The use by local communities of plants from Sesaot Protected Forest, West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia / SYAMSUL HIDAYAT / BIODIVERSITAS, Jan 2017; 18(1): pp 238-247 / ISSN: 1412-033X / E-ISSN: 2085 -4722 / DOI: 10.13057/biodiv/d180131
(6)
Bioprospecting local ferns for phytoremediation of heavy and radioactive metals / Dr Smitha Hegde and Dr Fr Melwyn D'Cunha / Sanction No. 2011/35/6/BRNS/175 dated 19.04.2012

                                                                          DOI
It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page. (Citing and Using a (DOI) Digital Object Identifier)

                                                            List of Understudied Philippine Medicinal Plants

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