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Family Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Pansi-pansi
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link.
COMMON LEUCAS
Feng chao cao

Scientific names Common names
Leucas aspera Willd. Karukansoli (Tag.)
Leucas dimidiata (Roth.) Spreng Pansi-pansi (Ting., Tag., Bis.)
Leucas dimidiata Benth.a Paysi-paysi (Bis.)
Leucas obliqua Buch.-Ham. ex DilwynBuch Sipsipan (Pamp.)
Leucas plukenetii (Roth) Spreng. Sula-sulasihan (Tag.)
Phlomis aspera Willd. Common leucas (Engl.)
Phlomis dimidiata Roth  
Phlomis esculenta Roxb.  
Phlomis plukenetii Roth.  
Pansi-pansi is a shared common name for several species of plant: (1) Pansi-pansi (Leucas aspera), sula-sulasihan (2) Salita (Leucas lavandulifolia) (3) Gatas-gatas (Euphorbia hirta) (Bik.) (4) Botonesan (Hyptis capitata) (Bik.) (5) Loktokong (Moschosma polystachyum)(Tag.) (6) Suob-kabayo (Hyptis suaveolens), pansipansian (Tag.).
Leucas aspera (Willd.) Link is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Ghal ghase.
CHINESE: Feng chao cao.
HINDI: Chhota halkusa, Gophaa.
NANIPURI: Mayanglambum.
MALAYALAM: Tumba.
MARATHI: Tamba.
SANSKRIT: Dronapushpi.
TAMIL: Thumbai.

Botany
Pansi-pansi is an erect and diffusely branched annual herb. Leaves are linear or oblong, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long with blunt tips and scalloped margins. Whorls are large, terminal and axillary, about 2.5 centimeters in diameter and crowded with white flowers. Calyx is variable, with an upper lip with short, triangular teeth. Corolla is small.

Distribution
- Found in Cagayan, Isabela, Ilocos Norte, Abra, La Union, Pampanga, Bataan, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon; in Mindoro; and in Mindanao (Lanao) in open, dry, sandy soil.
- A weed in waste places, and locally abundant.
- Also occurs in India to Mauritius and Java.

Parts used
Whole plant.

Constituents
• Studies have yield LC alipathic compounds, a triterpene-leucolactone, sterols – sitosterol, campesterol stigmasterol and a phenolic compound.
• Study yielded a liquid alkaloid, nicotine, from the aerial parts.
• Main constituents of leaf oil has been reported to be (Z,E)-farnesene.

• Methanol fractions of leaf extracts yielded fatty acid esters, fatty acid amide, triterpene, diterpene alcohols and phytol as major chemical compound groups. GC-MS analysis showed phytol (24.55%), 9, 12, 15-Octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester (z, z, z) - (22.97%), n-Hexadecanoic acid (17.17%), Squalene (5.28%) and 1, 2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, bis(2-methylpropyl) ester (4.44%). (16)
• Micro chemical (elemental) analysis of various plant parts yielded major elements of carbon, oxygen, calcium, silica, and aluminum. Other elements were iron, sodium, potassium, phosphorus, and chlorine. (25)
• Study of chemical composition of leaf oil yielded carvone, carvacrol, menthol, phellandral, farnesene, caryophyllene and two new compounds (Alloaromadendrene and Caryophyllene). (see study below) (
36)
• A liquid alkaloids was isolated from the aerial parts of Leucas aspera and identified as nicotine.
(37)

Properties
• Whole plant is fragrant.
• Considered antipyretic, diaphoretic, expectorant, stimulant, laxative and anthelmintic.

• Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, larvicidal, cytotoxic, antimalarial, anabolic, anti-diabetic properties.

Uses
Culinary
- A fragrant herb used in cooking.
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, crushed plant is applied hot to wounds.
· Decoction of leaves and bark used to hasten menstruation.
· Decoction also used after childbirth.
· Used for fever, colds and scabies.
· Bruised leaves used for bites of snakes and poisonous insects.
· Juice of leaves used for psoriasis and other skin disorders.
· In Malabar and Reunion, plant is given for amenorrhea.
· Leaves used in rheumatism.
· In India, used as an insecticide and as traditional medicine for coughs, colds, painful swellings, skin eruptions, scabies, typhoid fever, and snake bites.
· In India, leaf juice used to relieve chronic headaches; roots used for dental pain; fresh leaf juice mixed with honey used for gonorrhea, sterility, spermatorrhea and impotency; whole plant taken orally as antidote to snake bites, also to relieve fever and insect stings; root paste taken orally for asthma.
· In Siddha medicine: (1) Samoolam of the plant is crushed and boiled in water, and the steam used for inhalation treatments of nasal congestion, cough, cold, fever, headache. (2) Flower juice for sinusitis. (3) Flower oil used for headaches and sinusitis. (4) Juice or decoction of flowers and leaves used for intestinal worms in children. (5) Leaves rubbed over scorpion bites. (
38)
· In India, seven young vegetative shoots and seven flowers of L. aspera, together with seven fruits of P. nigrum, are crushed and taken orally in the morning for two days for dysmenorrhea. (
42)

Studies
Antimicrobial:
Study of methanol extract and methanol fraction of LA flowers showed good antibacterial activity; alkaloidal residue showed maximum activity. (1)
Antioxidant / Prostaglandin Inhibition: Extract study showed prostaglandin inhibition and antioxidant activity. Study yielded eight lignans and four flavonoids. (
2)
Hepatoprotective: Study showed hepatoprotective activity of LA attributed to the unconfirmed presence of flavonoids. (
3)
Antinociceptive / Antioxidant: Ethanolic extract of L aspera showed significant writhing inhibition and significant free radical scavenging activity and significant lethality to brine shrimp with an LC50 value. (
4)
Larvicidal: Study of crude extracts of
L aspera showed good larvicidal activity against the larvae of Culex quinquefasciatus and Aedes aegypti. (5)
Anti-inflammatory: Study showed L aspera to have significant anti-inflammatory effect in acute and subacute inflammation, more effective than acetylsalicylic acid and less than phenylbutazone. (6)
Alkaloid / Nicotine: Study yielded a liquid alkaloid from the aerial parts of L aspera, identified as nicotine, giving a characteristic tobacco-like odor. The insecticidal property of the herb could be due to the presence of nicotine. (
7)
Diterpenes / Inhibition of Prostaglandin-Induced Contractions: Study on the inhibitory activity on prostaglandin-induced contraction in guinea pig ileum yielded four new diterpenes (leucasperones A and B and lecasperols A and B) and three new isopimarane glycosides (leucasperosides A, B, and C) together with known compounds. Leucasperone A, leucasperosides A and B, and linifolioside (known compound) showed inhibition of prostaglandin-induced contractions. (10)
Antioxidant / Antibacterial: Study evaluated methanol extracts of various parts of L. aspera for biologic activity. A methanol extract of root showed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E. Crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity. A methanol root extract showed significant toxicity on brine shrimp lethality assay. (11)
Larvicidal and Pupicidal / Anti-Malarial: Study investigated the larvicidal and pupicidal activity of ethanolic extracts of L. aspera and B. sphaericus against first and fourth instar larvae and pupae of laboratory-reared mosquitoes. Results showed excellent potential for controlling the malarial vector, A. stephensi. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Lead Exposure / Leaves : Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of a leaf extract of L. aspera on male albino wistar rats during exposure to lead acetate. Results showed hepatoprotective activity with significant dose-dependent reduction of liver enzymes. (13)
Antivenom / Triterpenoid / Leaves: A triterpenoid, 1-hydroxytetratriacontane-4-one (C34H68O2), isolated from a methanolic leaf extract, was studied for antisnake venom activity. The plant significantly antagonized the cobra (Naja naja naja) venom induced lethal activity in a mouse model. There was significant attenuation of the venom-induced antioxidant status and LPO activity in different organs. (14)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Injury: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of L. aspera against carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver injury in rats. Results showed antioxidant and curative effects. Phytochemical screening yielded sitosterol, flavonoids and alkaloids which could have been responsible for the possible hepatoprotection. (15)
Antibacterial / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated L. aspera leaves for in vitro antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties. All extracts showed remarkable antibacterial activity against all studied organisms except E. coli. None showed antifungal activity. A methanol extract showed strongest cytotoxic activity in the brine shrimp lethality assay. (17)
Antiulcer / Leaves: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract for antiulcer activity by two experimental models. Results showed significant reduction i acid secretion and ulcer score, possibly through a combination antisecretory effect and protective effect on the gastric mucosa. (19)
Safety / Potential Anabolic Effect: Study evaluated an aqueous suspension of dried powder leaves in three different animal groups. There were no changes in behavioral responses indicating the safe nature of the plant. A significant increase in food consumption and body weight changes suggested a potential anabolic / nutraceutical property. (
20)
Hypoglycemic / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of leaves and stem on blood glucose of normoglycemic and diabetic rats. Chronic administration showed hypoglycemic activity with significant reduction in FBS levels comparable to the drug metformin. (
21)
Immunostimulatory Effect in Cyclophosphamide-Induced Immunosuppression: Study evaluated the immunostimulatory effect of an aqueous extract in cyclophosphamide induced immunosuppressed mice. There was significant increase in neutrophil and DTH activity with increase in RBC, WBC, and Hb. Results suggest L. aspera provoked both cellular and humoral immune responses. (
22)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study showed alkaloidal fractions of leaves caused significant reduction in inflammation in carrageenan induced paw edema testing. (
23)
Anti-Diabetic: Study showed extract of leaves caused a significant antihyperglycemic activities in alloxan-induced diabetic rats, with improvement in parameters such as body weight and lipid profile, as well as regeneration of pancreatic ß-cells. (
24) Study of a methanol extract of whole plant showed significant reduction of blood glucose in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 400 mg/kbw was more effective with the highest glycemic change. (27) Study evaluated Leucas aspera leaves on experimental diabetes (Type 1) in rats in terms of alterations in biochemical profiles. Results showed profound effect in lowering blood glucose in a dose dependent manner. Type-1 induced patho-biochemical changes were ameliorated more effectively by the ethanolic extract in a dose dependent manner. (39)
Analgesic / Antipyretic / Antimicrobial: Study of ethanolic extract of whole plant of L. aspera showed analgesic, antipyretic and antimicroblal activities. (
26)
Acute and Sub-Acute Toxicity Testing: Study evaluated the acute and sub-acute oral toxicity of ethanolic extract of L. aspera on albino mice and adult Wistar rats. Results showed no significant adverse effects on hematological and biochemical parameters with no damage to vital organs. Investigation demonstrates that in the usual doses used in traditional medicine, the ethanolic extract may be considered relatively safe. (
28)
Antioxidant / Anti-Arthritic Potential: Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts for anti-arthritic effect in adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory (P>0.001) and antioxidant activity (P>0.0010. It showed no mortality up to 2000 mg KBW. Histopathological studies confirmed cartilage regeneration. (
29)
CNS Depressant Activity / Roots: Study of an ethanolic extract of root of Leucas aspera showed a central nervous system depressant effect using pentobarbitone induced sleeping time test, the open field test, and the hold cross test in Swiss albino mice. (
31)
Angiosuppressive Activity / Leaves: A methanol leaf extract using Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) assay showed maximum concentration dependent angiosuppressive activity. The inhibition of angiogenesis is due to suppression of vascular endothelial cell spreading, migration, and angiogenesis. Results suggest Leucas aspera can be a useful source material as an antiangiogenic agent for human health. (
32)
Antitumor / Inhibition of Dalton's Ascitic Lymphoma / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated aerial parts of L. aspera for antitumor activity in Dalton's lymphoma (DAL) bearing mice. Results showed a cytotoxic effect of EALA in DAL cell lines, with a significant decrease in ascites tumor volume and viable cell count. Also, there was inhibition of neovascularization and production of macrophage stimulation in treated mice. (
33)
Wound Healing / Baicalin / Flowers: Study of flowers isolated baicalin (baicalein-7-O-ß-D-glucuronide). The compound showed wound healing activity in albino rats. The effect could be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (
34)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial Studies: Silver nanoparticles were synthesized using L. aspera leaf extracts. The nanoparticles were examined for antibacterial activities against multidrug resistance human pathogens. (
35)
Leaf Volatile Oil / Antimicrobial: Study showed Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenza, and Candida albicans were highly sensitive to the volatile oil of Leucas aspera. (see constituents above) (
36)
Nicotine / Aerial Parts: Study isolated a liquid alkaloid from the aerial parts of Leucas aspera and identified as nicotine, based on physiochemical, TLC, HPTLC, and RP-HPLC analysis. (
37)
Nephroprotective / Lead Acetate Induced Nephrotoxicity: Study evaluated the nephroprotective and antioxidant activities of methanol extract on lead acetate induced toxicity in rats. Results showed protective activity against lead acetate induced necrotic damage of renal tissue and significant improvement in biochemical parameters. Activity was likely mediated through antioxidant activities. (
40)
Antiparkinsonism: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of L. aspera on rotenone-induced parkinson's disorder in mice. Results showed a protective effect in both behavioral and biochemical parameters, with increased motor coordination, protective changes in oxidative marker levels and no depletion of dopamine content. (
41)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Seeds in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update August 2015

Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Wild Leucas aspera / This photo was taken in Nilgiris Dist., Tamil Nadu, India. The flower gives its name to the "tumpaittinai", one of the seven Puram themes (tinai) of classical Tamil poetry, dealing with the heat of battle / Fasciculus:Tumpai-cropped.jpg / VADAKKAN / Creative Commons Attribution / Click on image to go to source page / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antimicrobial activity of Leucas aspera flowers
/ K Mangathayaru, J Lakshmikant et al / Fitoterapia Volume 76, Issues 7-8, December 2005, Pages 752-754
(2)
Separation of Leucas aspera, a Medicinal Plant of Bangladesh, Guided by Prostaglandin Inhibitory and Antioxidant Activities / Samir Kumar Sadhu, emi Okuyama et al / Chem Pharm Bull / /VOL.51;NO.5; Pp.595-598(2003) / doi:10.1248/cpb.51.595
(3)
Effect of Leucas aspera on hepatotoxicity in rats / K Mangathayaru, X Fatima Grace et al / Indian Journ of Pharmacol, Oct 2005, Vol 37, Issue 5, Pp329-330.
(4)
Preliminary antinociceptive, antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of Leucas aspera root / M S Rahman et al / Fitoterapia • Volume 78, Issues 7-8, December 2007, Pages 552-555 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.06.018
(5)
Larvicidal activity of Leucas aspera against the larvae of C quinquefasciatus and A aegypti / R Maheswaran et al / International Journal of Integrative Biology
(6)
ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF HELIOTROPIUM INDICUM LINN. AND LEUCAS ASPERA SPRENG. IN ALBINO RATS
/ K Srinivas et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology 2000; 32: 37-38
(7)
Isolation and identification of nicotine from leucas aspera (willd) link / K Mangathayaru et al / Indian J Pharm Sci 2006;68:88-90 / DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.22972
(8)
Effect of alcohol extract of Achyranthes aspera Linn. on acute and subacute inflammation / T Vetrichelvan and M Jegadeesan / Phytotherapy Research • Volume 17 Issue 1, Pages 77 - 79
(9)
Leucas aspera / Siddha Medicine
(10)
Diterpenes from Leucas aspera Inhibiting Prostaglandin-Induced Contractions / Samir Kumar Sadhu, Emi Okuyama et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2006, 69 (7), pp 988–994 / DOI: 10.1021/np058118m

(11)
Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera / Ai Lan Chew, Jeyanthi James Antony Jessica, and Sreenivasan Sasidharan* / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. Mar 2012; 2(3): 176–180. / doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(12)60037-9
(12)
Studies on larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Leucas aspera Willd. (Lamiaceae) and bacterial insecticide, Bacillus sphaericus, against malarial vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston. (Diptera: Culicidae)
/ Kovendan K, Murugan K, Vincent S, Barnard DR. / Parasitol Res. 2012 Jan;110(1):195-203. doi: 10.1007/s00436-011-2469-2. Epub 2011 May 31.
(13)
EVALUATION OF HEPATOPROTECTIVE ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS ASPERA HYDROALCOHOLIC LEAF EXTRACT DURING EXPOSURE TO LEAD ACETATE IN MALE ALBINO WISTAR RATS / M.THENMOZHI, M.DHANALAKSHMI, K.MANJULA DEVI, K.SUSHILA, S.THENMOZHI / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 1, 2013
(14)
Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. against Naja naja naja venom induced toxicity Antioxidant and histological study in mice / C Venkatesan, M Sarathi, G Balasubramanian, John Thomas, V Balachander, V Sarath Babu, S Mohammed Yusuf Bilal, S Abdul Majeed, N Madan, N Sundar Raj, S Vimal, KSN Nambi, AS Sahul Hameed / Hum Exp Toxicol July 15, 2013 0960327113494901 /
doi: 10.1177/0960327113494901
(15)
ANTIOXIDANT AND CURATIVE EFFECT OF LEUCAS ASPERA METHANOLIC EXTRACT AGAINST CARBONTETRA CHLORIDE INDUCED ACUTE LIVER INJURY IN RATS / B. LATHA AND M.S. LATHA* / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 5, Issue 1, 2013
(16)
CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS INVESTIGATION OF LUCAS ASPERA LEAVES – A POTENTIAL FOLKLORE MEDICINAL PLANT / A. ANANDAN, R. ESWARAN, A.DOSS, G. SANGEETHA and S. P. ANAND */ Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 5, Issue 1, 2012, 86-88
(17)
In vitro studies on antibacterial, antifungal, and cytotoxic properties of Leucas aspera / M Akter, MAI Khan, MDA Muhsin, K Hamid, M Obayed Ullah, IJ Bulbul, A Firoz, M Burhan Uddin, KF Urmi* / Biology and Medicine, 4 (4): 183–187, 2012
(18)
Hepatoprotection by fresh juice of Leucas Aspera leaves / Shirish S. Pingale / Pelagia Research Library
(19)
ANTI-ULCER ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS ASPERA SPRENG / M. KANNAPPA REDDY, S. VISWANATHAN, P. THIRUGNANASAMBANTHAM and LALITHA KAMESWARAN / Ancient Science of Life, Vol No. XII Nos. 1 & 2, July – October 1992, Pages 257 - 260
(20)
Selected neurobehavioural evaluation of Leucas Aspera in wistar albino rats / Kavitha R, Kannan R, Glory Josephine I. / Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2013; 2(4): 433-437 / doi: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20130817
(21)
Evaluation of the Effect of Leucas Aspera Alcoholic Extract on Blood Glucose level in Normoglycemic and Diabetic Rats. / Adiga, Shalini and Sagar, V and Ravindrasingh, R and Vasantha */ Pharmacologyonline, 2011, 3. pp. 1046-1050.
(22)
Immunostimulatory Effect Of Aqueous Extract Of Leucas aspera In Cyclophosphamide Induced Immunosuppressive Mice / S.Stalin*, P.Sampath Kumar / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.5, No.3, pp 910-914, July-Sept 2013
(23)
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Different Fractions of Leucas Cephalotes Leaves Extract / Mathur Abhishek *, Gupta Vinay, Verma Satish K., Singh Santosh K., Prakash Archana, Prasad GBKS , Dua VK / International Journal of Current Pharmaceutical Review and Research Volume 1, Issue 3, February 2011 – April 2011
(24)
Antidiabetic and Hypoglycaemic Activity of the Crude Extracts of the Plant Leucas Aspera / Gupta N*, Subhramanyam EVS, Sharma R K / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF PHARMACEUTICAL INNOVATIONS, Volume 1, Issue 1, March-April 2011
(25)
Micro Chemical (Elemental) Analysis of Leucas aspera (Willd) Link Employing SEM-EDAX / Sunkara Yashvanth*, Satla Shobha Rani, S. S. Madhavendra / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Drug Research 2013; 5(1): 32-35
(26)
ANALGESIC, ANTIPYRETIC, ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF WHOLE LEUCAS ASPERA ETHANOLIC EXTRACT / Dr.R.SRINIVASAN*, G.LAKSHMANA, D.RAJESH KUMAR, B.ANJANEYULU, K.SHALEEM RAJU, D.ANIL KUMAR / An International Journal of Advances in Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 5, Issue 2, March-April 2014, Pages 1980-1986
(27)
ANTIHYPERGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEUCAS ASPERA WILD WHOLE PLANT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVELS OF STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / K. ATCHUTKUMAR*, T.SATYANARAYANA, K. RAJ KIRAN AND K.RAJESH / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 5, Suppl 2, 2013
(28)
Acute And Sub-Acute Toxicity Evaluation Of Ethanolic Extract Of Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) In Experimental Rats / K.G.KRIPA, D.CHAMUNDEESWARI*, J.THANKA / Int. J. Drug Dev. & Res., Jul-Sep 2011, 3 (3): 339-347
(29)
Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of aerial parts of Leucas aspera (Willd.) link on inflammatory markers in complete freund's adjuvant induced arthritic rats / KG Kripa, D Chamundeeswari, J Thanka, C Uma Maheswara Reddy / Cytokine Antibody Arrays, 2010, Vol 4, Issue 4, Pp 281-287
(30)
Leucas aspera / Synonyms / The Plant List
(31)
Central nervous system depressant activity of Leucas aspera root / Shafiur Rahman*, Mokaddez Sarder, Yusuf Ali and Abdur Rashid / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2006 6(3), 174-178
(32)
Angiosuppressive activity of Leucas aspera (Willd) Linn. using Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane (CAM) assay / Sri Devi M, Vinothini K, Veronica Shalini, Krishnamoorthy Masilamani, Dharini Sivakumar and Arjun Pandian* / International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology, Vol. 2, Issue 11, November 2013
(33)
Leucas aspera inhibits the Dalton's ascitic lymphoma in Swiss albino mice: A preliminary study exploring possible mechanism of action / Bibin Baby Augustine, Suvakanta Dash, Mangala Lahkar, Usha Sarma, Pavan Kumar Samudrala, Jaya Mary Thomas / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2014, Vol 10, Issue 38, Pp 118-124 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.131022
(34)
Evaluation of wound healing activity of baicalein-7-O- β-D- glucuronide isolated from Leucas aspera / Prabakaran Kalaivanan, Ilayaraja Sivagnanam and Manivannan Rajamanickam* / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science Vol. 3 (12), pp. 046-051, December, 2013 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2013.31208
(35)
A Facile Green Synthesis Of Silver Nanoparticle Using The Medicinal Plant Leucas Aspera And Their Antibacterial Activity / D Vijayaraj, J. Anarkali, K. Rajathi, S. Sridhar / Nano Biomedicine and Engineering, Vol 4, No 2 (2012)
(36)
GC-MS analysis and inhibitory efficacy of Leucas aspera l. leaf volatile oil against selected microbes / S J Gerige, M K Yadav, D M Rao, R Ramanjeneyulu / Nigerian Journal of Natural Products and Medicine, Vol 11, 2007
(37)
Isolation and identification of nicotine from leucas aspera (willd) link / K Mangathayaru, D Thirumurugan, PS Patel, D V.V Pratap, DJ David, J Karthikeyan / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2006, Vol 68, Issue 1, Pp 88-90 / DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.22972
(38)
The antioxidant and DNA protection potential of Indian tribal medicinal plants / Gunjan GUHA, Venkatadri RAJKUMAR, Lazar MATHEW, R. Ashok KUMAR / Turk J Biol 35 (2011) 233-242
(39)
Evaluation of the Extracts of Leucas aspera on Biochemical Profiles in Experimental Model of Diabetes Mellitus (Type-I) in Rats / T. Tukaram, C.V. Parvati, N. Venkat Rao, Patil Prakash, and K. Sreenivas Rao / IRJP 2(3), 2011, Pp 246-248.
(40)
Therapeutic Efficiency of Leucas aspera (Lamiaceae) on Lead Acetate Induced Nephrotoxicity and Oxidative Stress in Male Wistar Rat / Padmaja M., Praveen B.*, Reddy B. Raghunath, Madhav P. Venu / Asian Journal of Research in Chemistry, 2011, Vol 4, Issue 10
(41)
ANTIPARKINSON'S STUDIES OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEUCAS ASPERA IN MICE / Ramalingam Ramani*, Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli, Sujeevana Kandati, Ravinder Nath Anisetti, Nalgulu Malothu, Raja Rao Proddoku / WORLD JOURNAL OF PHARMACY AND PHARMACEUTICAL SCIENCES, Volume 3, Issue 7, 1226-1235
(42)
Some folk medicines used by the Sonawal Kacharis tribe of the Brahmaputra valley, Assam / Dilip Kalita and Bikash Deb / Natural Product Radiance, Vol 3(4), July-August 2004

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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