Niog-niogan is a large climbing, woody shrub reaching a length of 2 to 8 meters. Brown hairs give the younger parts a rusty appearance. Leaves are oblong to elliptic, opposite, 7 to 15 centimeters long, rounded at the base and pointed at the tip. Flowers
are fragrant, tubular, showy, first white, then becoming red, reddish-purple or orange, exhibiting the range of colors in clusters, on
the same flower stalk. Fruit is narrowly ellipsoid, 2.5 to 3 centimeters long, with five, sharp, longitudinal angles or wings. Seeds are pentagonal and black.
- In thickets and secondary forests throughout the Philippines.
- Ornamentally planted for its flowers.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya.
- Introduced in most tropical countries.
- Phytochemical screening yields major classes of constituents: alkaloids, carbohydrates, protein, amino acid, saponins, glycosides, steroids, tannins, flavonoids and phenolic compounds.
- A water extract of gum from the seeds gave an alkaloidal reaction; 3.87% of potassium sulphate was found.
- Seeds yielded the presence of oleic acid and palmitic acids in the oil; and sitosterol and isolated acetyl derivative from the saponifiable matter.
- Plant yields a fatty oil, 15%; gum; resin.
- The nut yields 12.96 percent moisture; a yellow oil, 28.37 percent of the original nut.
- Studies yield quisqualic acid, quisqualin A.
- An analysis of the seed reported the presence of oleic and palmitic acids in the oil, in addition to sitosterol, and an acetyl derivative from the saponifiable matter.
- Leaves yield rutin, trigonelline, L-proline, L-aspargine, and quisqualic acid.
- Flower gum yields pelargonidin-3-glucoside.
- Floral volatiles by n-hexane extraction yielded 24 constituents, amounting to 74.88% of the total composition. Major components of the oil were hydrocarbons (61.38%) among which α-pinene, the major terpenoid,
and 1-ethyl-1-phenyl decane (8.13 %), the dominant aromatic. Petroleum ether extract of of leaves yielded palmitic acid (27.73%) as the major component of the saponifiable component, and α-amyrin, of the unsaponifiable portion. Crude protein was 2.06%. An unusual protein, dihydro-quisqualic acid, was isolated for the first time. Galactose, glucose, arabinose and L-rhamnose were identified as free sugars.
- Study of Q. indica bark extract showed an extractive yield of 0.96 g and a total flavonoid content of 61.43 ± 1.16 mg rutin equivalent/g DW.
- The taste resembling coconuts.
Oil from the seeds are purgative.
- Considered anthelmintic, anti-inflammatory.
- Study on ascariasis reported the plant to possess anthelmintic properties.
- Excessive dosing reported to cause hiccups.
- Fruit is considered tonic and astringent.
Seeds (dried nuts)
• Flowers are edible.
• Tender shoots are edible.
• Anthelmintic: Dried seeds preferable for deworming.
• Adults: Dried nuts-chew 8 to 10 small- to medium-sized dried
nuts two hours after a meal, as a single dose, followed by a half glass
of water. If fresh nuts are used, chew only 4-5 nuts. Hiccups occur
more frequently with the use of fresh nuts.
• Children 3-5 years old: 4-5 dried nuts; 6 - 8 years old: 5-6
dried nuts; 9-12 years old: 6-7 dried nuts.
• Roasted seeds
for diarrhea and fever.
• Plant used as a cough cure.
• Leaves applied to the head to relieve headaches.
• Pounded leaves externally for skin diseases.
• Decoction of boiled leaves used for dysuria.
• Ifugao migrants use it for headache.
• Ayta communities in Dinalupan, Bataan, apply heated leaves on snake and animal bites.
• Ripe seeds roasted and used for diarrhea and fever.
• In Thailand, seeds used as anthelmintic;
flowers for diarrhea.
• In India and Ambonia, leaves used in a compound decoction to relieve flatulent distention of the abdomen. Leaves and fruits are reported to be anthelmintic; also used for nephritis.
• In India and the Moluccas, seeds are given with honey as electuary for the expulsion of entozoa in children.
• In Indo-China, seeds are used as anthelmintic and for rickets in children.
• The Chinese and Annamites reported to use the seeds as vermifuge.
• In China,
seeds macerated in oil are applied to parasitic skin diseases. Seeds are also used for diarrhea and leucorrheal discharges of children.
• In Amboina, compound decoction of leaves used for flatulent abdominal distention.
• In Bangladesh, used for diarrhea,
fever, boils, ulcers and helminthiasis.
• In Vietnam, fruits used for treatment of ascariasis and oxyuriasis in children and for infantile malnutrition due to intestinal parasitosis. Fruit decoction used as gargle for toothache. In Thailand, seeds used as anthelmintic and leaves used for healing of abscesses. In the Moluccas and India, seeds given with honey as electuary for expulsion of entozoa in children; roasted ripe seeds used for diarrhea and fever. Malays use leaf juice as lotion for boils and ulcers; leaves applied directly to headaches. (31)
Adverse reactions - diarrhea, abdominal pain,
distention and hiccups - are more likely if nuts are eaten in consecutive
days or when fresh nuts are eaten.
• Polyphenols / Antioxidant: Flower extract yielded high polyphenol contents
and showed strong antioxidant activity.
• Anti-Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitor: Acetylcholine is one of the most important neurotransmitters in the central or peripheral nervous system. The methanolic extract of Q indica flower dose-dependently inhibited
acetylcholinesterase activity. (1)
• Fixed Oil Storage Effect: Study showed one year storage does not significantly affect the physical constants of the fixed oil. (2)
• Larvicidal Activity / Aedes aegypti Mosquito: In a study screening 11 plant species of local flora against the IV instar larvae of Aedes aegypti, Quisqualis indica was one of the plants that showed some larvicidal activity against Ae aegypti, albeit, at comparatively higher doses. (4)
• Antipyretic: Study evaluated the antipyretic activity of the methanolic extract of leaves of Q. indica in brewer yeast-induced pyrexia model in rat. Results showed significant dose-dependent antipyretic activity. (5)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of a hydroalcoholic extract in Wistar rats. Oral administration of the extract showed dose-dependent and significant anti-inflammatory activity in acetic acid- induced vascular permeability and cotton-pellet granuloma model, comparable to Diclofenac. the anti-inflammatory activity was attributed to bradykinin and prostaglandin synthesis inhibition property of the polyphenols. (6)
• Immunomodulatory: Study evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of a hydroalcoholic extract of flowers in Wistar rats in a cyclophosphamide-induced myelosuppression model. Results showed significant immunomodulatory activity. (7)
• Phytochemicals / Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Anticonvulsant / Antihyperglycemc / Antipyretic:Phytochemical studies floral volatiles and leaves were done. (See constituents above) Alcoholic extract showed remarkable anti-inflammatory, analgesic, anticonvulsant and antipyretic effects. The isolated mucilage exhibited significant anti-hyperglycemic effect. Antimicrobial testing showed pronounced effects against most of the tested microorganisms. (11)
• Intestinal Ascariasis / Comparative Study with Pyrantel Pamoate: In a comparative study of Q. indica and pyrantel pamoate in the treatment of intestinal ascariasis, 85% complete cure was seen with Quisqualis indica and 90% for Pyrantel pamoate. There was 15% and 10% decrease in ova count for Q. indica and P. pamoate, respectively. A second dose resulted in compete eradication. QI had 10% side effects compared to 55% with PP. (12)
• Anti-Diarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated a petroleum ether extract of leaves of Q. indica against experimentally induced diarrhea. The plant extracts showed dose-dependent significant anti-diarrheal effects in all treated groups, with results compared to loperamide PO and atropine sulfate IP. (13)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of Q. indica leaves in rodents. Results showed significant anti-inflammatory and both central and peripheral analgesic activities. (14)
• Hypolipidemic Effect / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of methanolic extracts of aerial parts and flowers on passive smoking induced hyperlipidemia in rats. Results showed significant concentration- and dose-dependent reduction of harmful lipid layer in blood serum. There was reduction of LDL, VLDL, cholesterol, and triglycerides with elevation of HDL. (16)
• Antimicrobial Effect / Flowers: In a study of methanol extract of flowers of Q. indica, C. gigantea, P. tuberose, the dry flower extract of Quisqualis indica showed the best antimicrobial property of the flowers studied. (17)
• Antimutagenic: Expressions from 17 plants, including Quisqualis indica, reduced the mutagenicity potential of mitomycin C, dimethylnitrosamine and tetracycline and exhibited antimutagenic effects. (18)
• Antibacterial / Flowers / Aerial Parts: Study investigated the antibacterial activity of crude flower extracts of Combretum indicum against gram-positive and gram-negative pathogenic bacterial strains. Different solvent extracts showed marked inhibition against the tested human pathogenic bacterial strains, with Staphylococcus aureus showing higher susceptibility compared to the other bacterial strains. The methanol extract was the most effective compared to ethanol and aqueous extracts. (20) Study of various extracts from dried aerial parts showed significant activity against four bacteria viz., E. coli, K. pneumonia, S. aureus, and S. pneumonia, comparable with ampicillin. (28)
• Cytotoxicity / Leaves and Flowers: Study investigated crude extracts of leaves and flowers of Quisqualis indica for cytotoxic activity on MTT assay of L269 cells. Various extracts of leaves and flowers showed varying cytotoxic activity. The ethyl acetate extract of flower showed the most effective cytotoxic activity at 500 µg mL-1 (70.3%). (21)
• Acute and Subacute Toxicity Study / Seeds: Study investigated the toxicity of seeds of Quisqualis indica in mice and rat to gain information on safety as a human anthelmintic. Mice receiving a water extract equivalent of 20.0 g/k/d orally showed no acute toxicity. Subacute toxicity study in Wistar rats showed that after receiving the extract equivalent to the seed of 6.0, 10.0 and 20.0 g/kg/day for 2 days the animals showed abnormal clinical signs; the notable ones were clonic with tonic seizures followed by respiratory arrest and death. All rats died after receiving the highest dose only for 3 consecutive days. (22)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Petals: Study reports on the ecofriendly, cost effective, and convenient green synthesis of AgNPs using flower petal extract of Combretum indicum. (23)
• Natural Indicator in Acid-Base Titration / Flowers: Study reports on the use of Combretum indicum flower ethanol extract in the development of a green indicator as alternative to synthetic acid-base titration indicators in the laboratory. (24)
• Insecticidal / Flower: Study evaluated methanol and EA extracts of Quisqualis indica flowers for antifeedant and insecticidal action against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura Fabricius under laboratory conditions. Antifeedant activity was significantly superior in crude 5% methanol extract of flower (31.87%) compared to other treatments. Maximum insecticidal action (93.51% larval mortality) was seen with the 5% methanol extractant, comparable to chemical quinalphos 0.05%. Results suggest a potential for botanical pesticide production. (25)
• Phytoconstituents / Biologic Activities: Quisqualis indica yields phytoconstituents such as trigonelline (alkaloid), L-proline (a-amino acid), L-asparagine (a-amino acid), quisqualic acid (agonist for AMPA receptors), rutin (flavonoid), and two forms of cysteine synthase, isoenzyme A and isoenzyme B. Various activities are attributed to these phytoconstituents viz., anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, immunomodulatory, anti-staphylococcal, anthelmintic, antiseptic activities, among others. (26)
• Effect on Experimental Esophagitis / Flowers: Study investigated a flower extract of Q. indica for free radical scavenging effects against experimental esophagitis in albino Wister rats. Results showed treatments with pantoprozole and flower extracts significantly inhibited gastric secretion, total acidity, and esophagitis index. Various oxidative stress parameters were restored to normal level. Collectively, the findings suggest anti-esophagitis potential for the flower extract. (27)
• Antioxidant / Total Phenolic Content / Cytotoxic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant, cytotoxic, and total phenolic content (TPC) of different fractions of Q. indica leaves. Antioxidant activity on DPPH assay ranged from 24.38 to 72.10 µg/ml. Among all tested fractions EtOAc was the most active. Cytotoxic activity was evaluated by brine shrimp lethality test (BSLT) and MTT assay against liver carcinoma cell line (HepG2). Defatted 90% MeOH and n-BuOH fractions showed highest TPC (345.99 ± 1.45 and 3.8078 ± 1.46 mg GAE / g DE, respectively). Cytotoxic activity against HepG2 showed the CH2Cl2 and n-BuOH to be the most cytotoxic fractions (IC50=11.9, 17.9 µg/ml, respectively) compared to Doxorubicin (IC50=4 µg/ml). (32)
- Plants, seeds in the cybermarket.