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Family Malvaceae
Bulak-bulakan
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz. and Gibs

COMMON MALLOW
Shan mian hua

Scientific names  Common names
Abelmoschus zollingeri (Alef.) Müll.Berol Amagong (Tag.) 
Bupariti lampas (Cav.) Rothm. Bulak-bulak (Tag.) 
Hibiscus callosus Blume (Unresolved) Bulak-bulakan (Tag.) 
Hibiscus lampadius St.-Lag. Dadlallupang (Neg.) 
Hibiscus lampas Cav. Dalimokan (Bag.)
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz. Kapas-kapas (Ilk.)
  Marakapas (Ting.)
  Maratarong (Ilk.)
  Common mallow (Engl.)
Bulak-bulakan is a shared common name of (1) Merremia peltata, bulakan (2) Thespesia lampas, common mallow, and (3) Asclepias curassavica, bulak-damo
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalzell is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ASSAMESE: Bon kapas
BENGALI: Ban kapas.
CHINESE: Bai jiao tong mian, Bai jiao tong, Xiao jin, Shan mian hua.
GUJARATI: Jungli bhindo, Jungli paras piplo.
FRENCH: Polompom.
INDONESIAN: Kapas utan, Kapasan, Kemiren.
MALAYALAM: Katthurparathi, Katupuvarasu.
SANSKRIT: Vanakarpasah.
TELUGU: Adavi benda.
THAI: Pho paa, Po eio, Khwaai kwaang.

Botany
Bulak-bulakan is an erect, slightly branched shrub growing to 2 to 3 meters high. Leaves are ovate, 10-20 centimeters long, somewhat 3-lobed or nearly entire, green and nearly smooth in the upper surface, hairy beneath, pointed at the tip, and broad and heart-shaped at the base. Flowers are large and borne in threes in the apex of the branches or at the axils of the leaves. Calyx is green with 5 pointed lobes united below the middle. Corolla is bell-shaped, 6 to 8 centimeters long, yellow and dark-purple at the center. Capsules are ovoid, about 3 centimeters long, with 4 to 5 valves.

Distribution
- In open places and thickets at low and medium altitudes.
- In Abra, Lepanto, Bontoc, La Union, Pangasinan, Bulacan, Rizal, Bataan, and Laguna Provinces in Luzon; and in Culion, Negros, and Panay.
- Also reported from India to tropical Africa, and Indo-China to Malaya.

Constituents
- Coloring matter from the yellow petals contain quercetin and protocatechuic acid.
- Study has confirmed quercetin as the principal coloring matter of the flowers.
- Phytochemical screening of methanol and aqueous extracts of roots yielded flavonoids, phenolic acids, triterpenoids and tannins. (see study below) (13)

Properties
- Studies have suggested antimicrobial, antioxidant, anti-lipoxygenase, antihyperlipidemic, and anthelmintic properties.

Parts utilized
Roots and fruits.

Uses
Folkloric
- In India, roots and fruits used for gonorrhea and syphilis.
- Root paste used by the Korku tribe of Maharashtra and Nepal to cure jaundice.
- Stem of plant used traditionally for treatment of inflammation, hyperacidity, epistaxis, bronchitis, cough, dysentery, fever, sun stroke, carbuncles, and worms.
- In the Indian system of medicine, root juice used in various ailments and as health tonic.
Others
- Fiber: Bast makes a weak rope.
- Dye: Yellow petals yield a coloring matter; study yielded quercetin and protocatechic acid.
- Cotton from the seeds used to make clothing.

Studies
Anthelmintic: Aqueous extract of T lampas tested against earthworms, tapeworms and roundworms showed vermicidal activity and found it effective as an anthelmintic. (1)
Antioxidant: Study showed in vitro antioxidant activity, with a relationship between extract concentration and percentage of inhibition of free radicals, metal chelating, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition. (2)
Hepatoprotective: Study in carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatocellular damage, T lampas exhibited a statistically significant reduction of elevated enzymes. Hepatoprotective effect was confirmed by histopathological liver exam. Results provide pharmacologic support for its folkloric use as a hepatoprotective agent. (3)
Antioxidant / Anti-Lipoxygenase Activity: Study of extracts of T lampas showed both antioxidant activity and anti-lipoxygenase activity. Results elucidates a possible contribution of the radical scavenging effect on the lipooxygenase inhibitory mechanism. Lipoxygenases are critical in the biosynthesis of leukotrines which play an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory disease. (4)
Anti-Hyperlipidemic: Study established the lipid lowering properties of the aqueous extract of roots of Thespesia lampas. Total cholesterol, LDL, VLDL and triglycerides were significantly reduced, while HDL was significantly increased. (5)
Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study of stem extract showed significant antioxidant activity and hepatoprotection against carbon tetrachloride induced damages. (6)
Hepatoprotective / Geraniin / Roots: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of the butanol fraction of an alcohol extract of T. lampas root against paracetamol toxicity in rats. Study isolated a major principle, geraniin, which showed promising hepatoprotective activity against both CCl4 and paracetamol-induced liver damages in rats. (9)
Antihyperglycemic / Antihyperlipidemic : Study evaluated methanol and aqueous extracts of TL for antihyperglycemic, antihyperlipidemic and spermatogenetic effects on STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant improvement in glucose tolerance in rats. The extract also exhibited anti-hyperlipidemic effects. (10)
Anti-Diabetic: Methanol and aqueous extracts of roots of T. lam[as produced significant fall in blood glucose levels in alloxan induced diabetic rats. The extracts of T. lampas may have stimulating effect on the beta cells. (13)
Lignocellulosic Fibers: Study reports on the extraction and characterization of novel lignocellulosic fibers from T. lampas, the effects of alkali treatment on composition, tensile properties, morphological and structural changes, and thermal degradation. Results suggest an alternative suitable source for composite construction. (14)


Availability
Wildcrafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / FLOWER CLOSEUP / Thespesia lampas / -- Dinesh Valke / Sept 30, 2007 / CREATVE COMMONS • Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic / click on image to go to source page / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Digitally modified / PD / Pterospermum diversifolium Blanco1.182-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / 1880 - 1883 / Francisco Manuel Blanco (O.S.A) / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
INVESTIGATION OF IN VITRO ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF THESPESIA LAMPAS (CAV.) / Satish Kosalge and Ravindra Fursule / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research • Volume 2, Issue 2, April- June, 2009
(2)
IN VITRO ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ROOTS OF THESPESIA LAMPAS DALZ AND GIBS / Sangameswaran B et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.22, No.4, October 2009, pp.368-372
(3)
Hepatoprotective Effects of Thespesia lampas Dalz & Gibs in CCl4 Induced Liver Injury in Rats / B Sangameswaran et al / Dhaka Univ. J. Pharm. Sci. 7(1): 11-13, 2008 (June)
(4)
Antioxidant and Anti-Lipoxygenase Activity of Thespesia lampas Dalz & Gibs / M V Kumaraswamy and S Satish / Advances in Biological Research 2 (3-4): 56-59, 2008
(5)
Anti-hyperlipidaemic Effect of Thespesia Lampas Dalz and Gibs on Triton Induced Rats / B Sangameswaran and B R Balakrishnan et al / Research J. Pharm. and Tech. 1(4): Oct.-Dec. 2008
(6)
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activity of Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalz & Gibs
/ Deshraj Shyamkant Chumbhale, Chandrashekhar Devidas Upasani / Phytopharmacology 2012, 2(1) 114-122
(7)
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalzell et A. Gibson (accepted name)
/ Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(8)
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Daizell & A. Gibson / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(9)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Geraniin Isolated fromThespesia lampas Dalz. and Gibson / S. Stephen Ambrose, P. Solairaj and A. Subramoniam* / International Research Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 2(4), pp.92-96, April 2012
(10)
Evaluation of Antihyperglycemic and other Complication Effects of Extracts of Thespesia lampas Dalz and Gibs on Streptozotocin Induced Diabetic Rats / Balakrishnan, Sangameswaran; Singh, Baljeet; Gill, Gurpreet S.; Kaliappan, Ilango; Dubey, Govind P. / Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences; Sept 2012, Vol. 5 Issue 3, p161
(11)
Thespesia lampas / Common names / Flowers of India
(12)
Thespesia lampas (Cav.) Dalzell / Synonyms / The Plant List

(13)
Anti-diabetic activity of Thespesia lampas Dalz & Gibs on alloxan induced rats / Jayakar B and Sangameswaran B* / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine 2008 8(4), 349-353 / DOI 10.3742/OPEM.2008.8.4.349
(14)
Extraction and Characterization of Novel Lignocellulosic Fibers From Thespesia Lampas Plant / K. Obi Reddy*, B. Ashok, K. Raja Narender Reddy, Y. E. Feng, Jun Zhang & A. Varada Rajulu / International Journal of Polymer Analysis and Characterization, Volume 19, Issue 1, 2014, pages 48-61 / DOI:10.1080/1023666X.2014.854520

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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