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Family Rosaceae
Sapinit
Rubus moluccanus Linn.
BROAD LEAF BRAMBLE

Scientific names Common names
Rubus moluccanus Linn. Bunut (Bon.)
Rubus commersonii Poir. Bunbunutan (Bon.)
Rubus jamaicensis Blanco Dagamit (Bis.)
Rubus comintanus Blanco Kinubot (Ig.)
Rubus apoensis Elm. Kobot (Ig.)
Rubus rosifolium Sm. Pakauit (Bon.)
Rubus minusculus Lev. & Van. Salampinit (Sub.)
  Sampinit (Sul.)
  Sapinit (Ig., Bag.)
  Siit (Mbo.)
  Broad-leaf bramble (Engl.)
  Eelkek (Engl.)
  Molucca bramble (Engl.)
  Molucca raspberry (Engl.)
  Roseleaf raspberry (Engl.)
  Wild raspberry (Engl.)
Sapinit is a local name shared by: (1) Sagmit, Rubus rosaefolius, and (2) Sampinit, Rubus moluccanus.
Siit is local name shared by: (1) Sapinit, Rubus moluccanus, and (2) Siit, Caesalpinia sumatrana

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Grosse ronce, Piquant lou-lou, Vigne marron.
GUJARATI: Shumukan khasheba.
HINDI: Katsol.
NEPALESE: Bipemkanta.
SINHALESE: Welbute.

Botany
Sapinit is a climbing, straggling, prickly shrub, reaching a height of 2 to 3 meters, with branches covered by wooly hairs. Stems, buds, petioles, and lower surfaces of the leaves are velvety. Leaves are thin, flat, usually 3- to 5-lobed, deeply cordate at the base, broadly ovate, and 5 to 15 centimeters wide. Upper surface is hairy and prominently reticulate when dry. Flowers are about 2 centimeters across, usually in small clusters, and borne in racemes at the axils of leaves and at the ends of branches. Calyx lobes are ovate to lanceolate, entire or pectinate. Petals are obovate, white, and shorter than the calyx segments. Berries are bright red, about 1 centimeter in diameter, succulent, slightly acid, with numerous carpels, and hairy receptacle.

Distribution
- In forests at medium and higher altitudes, and in very wet regions at low altitudes, from northern Luzon to Mindanao and Palawan.
- Also occurs in India, through Malaya to Australia and Fiji.

Constituents
- Bark contains 10 percent tannin and considered astringent.
- Fruit contains malic and citric acids, pectin and albumin.

Properties
- Leaves considered emmenagogue and abortifacient.
- Root is astringent.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, and fruit.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruit is edible with sour flavor; used in jams and sauces.
Folkloric
- Root, leaves, and fruit used for diarrhea.
- Malayans use the fruit as remedy for nocturnal micturition in children.
- Leaves considered a powerful emmenagogue and abortifacient.
- Root decoction used for dysentery.
- In India, decoction of tender leaves of R. moluccanus, together with Psidium guajava, Perilla ocimoides and Vernonia volkameriaefolia and Urena lobota root prepared in water administered in an empty stomach once daily for 2-3 days for abdominal pain.
- Leaf used as antihypertensive.
- In Papua, New Guinea, heated leaves are applied to the abdomen for abdominal pain.
Others
- Dyes: Fruit yields a purple dye.

Studies
Anthocyanin / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Anticancer:
Study evaluated three wild Jamaica-grown species: Rubus jamaicensis, Rubus rosifoius, and Rubus racemosus. The hexane extracts of Rubus spp. exhibited moderate COX inhibitory adtivity and the greatest potential to inhibit cancer cell growth (colon, breast, lung, and gastric human tumor cells). The high anthocyanin content of the fruits suggest a health benefit for a functional food. (5)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last Update July 2013

IMAGE SOURCE / PHOTO / Close-up Fruit/Leaf / Rubus moluccanus jpg / click on image to go to source page / /WELLGROW Horti Trading
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Rubus moluccanus Blanco2.393-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE Seeds / Rubus moluccanus L. [excluded] - eelkek RUMO4 / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Traditional medicine in the treatment of gastrointestinal diseases in Upper Assam / P K Borah, P Gogoi et al / Indian Journ of Traditional Medicine, Vol 5(4), Oct 2006, pp 510-512
(2)
Sources of antioxidant activity in Australian native fruits. Identification and quantification of anthocyanins / Netzel M, Netzel G, Tian Q, Schwartz S, Konczak I. / J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Dec 27;54(26):9820-6.
(3)
Medicinal Plants of Asia and the Pacific / Drugswell
(4)
Sorting Rubus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne)
(5)
Anthocyanin content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of blackberry and raspberry fruits / Camille S Bowen-Forbes, Yanjun Zhang, Muraleedharan G Nair / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23(2010)554-560.



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