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Family Rosaceae
Sagmit
Rubus rosaefolius Sm.
ROSELEAF RASPBERRY
Kong xin pao

Scientific names Common names
Rubus comintanus Blanco Baknit (C. Bis.)
Rubus commersonii Poir. Daguinot (Bis.)
Rubus glandulosopunctatus Hayata Init (Ilk.)
Rubus hopingensis Y.C.Liu & F.Y.Lu Lagiauat (Lan.)
Rubus jamaicensis Blanco Pinit (If., Bon.)
Rubus minusculus Lev. & Van. Ragini (Bik.)
Rubus rosaefolius Sm. Sagmit (Tag.)
Rubus rosifolius Sm. Sampinit (Bag.)
Rubus rosifolius Sm. ex Baker Sapinit (Tag.)
Rubus tagallus Cham. & Schltdl. Sapinitatana (Bag.)
Rubus taiwanianus Matsum. Saponit (Bag.)
  Suting (Ig.)
  Roseleaf bramble (Engl.)
  Roseleaf raspberry (Engl.)
  Thimbleberry (Engl.)
  Wild raspberry (Engl.)
Sapinit is a local name shared by: (1) Sagmit, Rubus rosaefolius, and (2) Sampinit, Rubus moluccanus.
Rubus rosifolius Sm. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Kong xin pao.
FRENCH: Framboise marron, Framboise pays.
INDIA: Kibo-lepum.
MADAGASCAR: Voandroy.
PORTUGUESE: Amora Do Mato, Amora-Preta, Amora-Vermelha, Moranguinho.

Botany
Sagmit is a spreading, low, spiny shrub, rarely exceeding a meter in height. Leaves are pinnate with 5 to 7 leaflets. Leaflets are smooth or hairy, with lobed margins, oblong-ovate or broadly lanceolate, and 2 to 7 centimeters in lenght. Flowers are borne upon slender, prickly, hairy, 3 to 5 centimeter-long stalks and arise from the uppermost leaf axils. Calyx is hairy. Petals are white, broadly oblong, and constricted toward the base. Berries are red, conically elongated, and 1.5 to 2 centimeters across.

Distribution
- In thickets and forests at medium and higher altitudes ascending in some places to 1,900 meters, throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in tropical to South Africa to Japan and Australia.
- Introduced into tropical America.

Properties
- Leaves and fruit considered astringent.
- Leaves and roots are considered anodyne, astringent, and depurative.
- Considered anodyne, astringent, depurative and febrifuge.
- Studies have suggest antitumor, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antioxidant properties.

Parts used
Leaves, roots, stems, fruit.

Uses

Edibility
- Fruit is edible, juicy but rather insipid; eaten raw or cooked.
- Leaves are somewhat astringent; eaten raw or cooked.
- A recent botanical object of technological interest. It is being processed into jam and wine, and incorporated into a vinagrette for salad dressing.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines decoction of roots given as expectorant.
- Syrup of fruit used as demulcent.
- Green fruit is astringent; decoction used as a gargle for angina.
- Decoction of leafy stems used for fevers.
- In Madagasar, decoction of leaves used for stomachache. (11)
- Australian aborigines use decoction of leaves for diarrhea. (12)
- In large quantities, fruit is laxative. (12)
Others
- Dye: A purple to blue dye is obtained from the fruit.


Studies
Phytochemicals / Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Tumor / LPO Inhibition:
Study of ethyl acetate extract of the fruit yielded 8 compounds of the 19-a-hydroxyursane type. Compounds 3 and 6 exhibited growth inhibition specific to colon tumor cells. Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed selective COX-1 enzyme inhibitory activity. Four compounds showed lipid peroxidation inhibition.
Natural Preservative: Study evaluated Rubus rosaefolius extract for its efficiency as a natural preservative in base formulations. It was studied for its antimicrobial protection in emulsion and gel formulations. Results demonstrated R. rosaefolius extract reduced the bacterial inocula at the studied concentration in both formulations. The study of new natural substances with preservative properties provide a potential for application in pharmaceutical and cosmetic products while decreasing the concentration of synthetic preservatives. (4)
Phytochemicals / Analgesic: Study evaluated various extracts from the aerial parts of Rubus rosaefolius. Results showed the hexane fraction and an isolated compound, 28-methoxytormentic acid, exhibited potent and dose-related analgesic activity in two models of pain in mice: writhing and formalin-induced pain. (6)
Anthocyanin / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory / Anticancer: Study evaluated three wild Jamaica-grown species: Rubus jamaicensis, Rubus rosifoius, and Rubus racemosus. The hexane extracts of Rubus spp. exhibited moderate COX inhibitory adtivity and the greatest potential to inhibit cancer cell growth (colon, breast, lung, and gastric human tumor cells). The high anthocyanin content of the fruits suggest a health benefit for a functional food. (9)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update April 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Starr 020803-0133 Rubus rosifolius.jpg / Forest & Kim Starr / click on image to go to source page / 3 Aug 2002 / Creative Commons Attribution/ Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Dessin anciens couleur de fleur de jardins d'apres "Herbier general de l'amateur, contenant la description, l'historie, les proprietes et al culture des vegetaux utiles et agreables" par Mordant de Launay et Loiseleur-Deslongchamps - 8- tomes - Paris 1816-1827 / Dessin dfe P Bensa / raf.dessins.free.fr/

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
TechCom project to conserve Philippine wild raspberry in progress / Christmas B. de Guzman
(2)
Rubus rosaefolius - Sm. / Mauritius Raspberry / Plants For A Future
(3)
Ursolic acid analogues: non-phenolic functional food components in Jamaican raspberry fruits / Camille S Bowen-Forbes et al / Food Chemistry, Volume 116, Issue 3, 1 October 2009, Pages 633-637 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.02.075
(4)
Rubus rosaefolius Extract as a Natural Preservative Candidate in Topical Formulations / Elissa Arantes Ostrosky, Elda Maria Cecilio Marcondes, Suzana de Oliveira Nishikawa et al / AAPS PharmSciTech
Vol. 12 Number 2, Jun 2011 / DOI: 10.1208/S12249-011-9635-9
(5)
TechCom project to conserve Philippine wild raspberry in progress / Christmas de Guzman / Bar OnLine
(6)
Phytochemical and analgesic activity of extract, fractions and a 19-hydroxyursane-type triterpenoid ohtained from Rubus rosaefolius Rosaceae / Natural Sciences Repository
(7)
Rubus rosaefolius / Common namesv / Zipcodezoo
(8)
Sorting Rubus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(9)
Anthocyanin content, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties of blackberry and raspberry fruits / Camille S Bowen-Forbes, Yanjun Zhang, Muraleedharan G Nair / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 23(2010)554-560.
(10)
Rubus rosifolius Sm. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(11)
Medicinal plants used to treat the most frequent diseases encountered in Ambalabe rural community, Eastern Madagascar / Nivo H. Rakotoarivelo, Fortunat Rakotoarivony, Aro Vonjy Ramarosandratana, Vololoniaina H. Jeannoda, Alyse R. Kuhlman, Armand Randrianasolo and Rainer W. Bussmann / Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine, 2015, 11:68 / DOI: 10.1186/s13002-015-0050-2
(12)
FRUIT VERT FRAMBOISE RUBUS ROSIFOLIUS / Uses / http://www.picture-worl.org

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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