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Family Compositae / Asteraceae
Rosas de Japon
Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.
CHRYSANTHEMUM

Chu hua

Scientific names Common names
Anthemis grandiflora Ramat. Mansanilla (Ilk.)
Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. Rosas de Japon (Sp., Tag.)
Dendranthema grandiflorum (Ramat.) Kitam. Chrysanthemum (Engl.)
Dendranthema morifolium (Ramat.) Tzvelev  
Pyrethrum sinense DC.  
Mtricaria morifolia Ramat.  
Tanacetum morifolium Kitam.  
Some compilations list C. indicum and C. sinense as synonyms. Quisumbing's compilation lists them separately. Mansanilla is a shared common name by the two species. C. sinense is similar to C. indicum, burt usually taller.
Scientific names EOL

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ju hua, Chu hua.

Botany
Rosas de Japon is similar to manzanilla in botanical description, but usually taller. Flowering heads are white or variously colored in the Philippines, up to 10 centimeters or more in diameter, and composed of numerous rows of ray-flowers.

Distribution
- Cultivated for ornamental purposes.
- Grows especially well in Baguio.
- Native of China.

Constituents
- Flowers yield adenine 0.023 %, choline 0.017 %,, and traces of stachydrine.
- Leaves yield adenine 0.016 %, a trace of choline and stachydrine 0.006 %.

- Study yielded flavonoids, caffeoylquinic acid derivatives, phenolics and a monoterpenoid glucoside.

Properties
- Considered aromatic, cooling, anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, febrifuge, demulcent, hypotensive.
- The ordinary cultivated varieties is considered beneficial to the blood and circulation and to preserve vitality.

Parts used
Leaves and flowers.

Uses

Folkloric
- Plant is used like manzanilla.
- Decoction of leaves and flowers used for stomachache and as an enema.
- Flowers are prescribed for colds, headaches and inflamed eyes. For the same afflictions, pillows are filled with flowers and leaves.
- White variety considered especially useful in preserving hair from falling out or turning grey.
- Flowers soaked in wine, producing "chrysanthemum wine," is used for a variety of digestive, circulatory and nervous difficulties.
- Dew collected from the flowers is held in repute to preserve and restore vital functions.
- Decoction of flowers used for promotion of menses, as a wash for infected and cancerous sores, and as fomentation for enlarged glands.
- Mixed with Japanese honeysuckle for the treatment of hypertension.
- In traditional Chinese medicine, used for hypertension, angina, fevers, inflammation, and cancer.
- In East Asia, traditionally used for poor eye sight, dizziness, blurred vision, high cholesterol, high blood pressure, chronic inflammation.
Others
- Tea:
Steep the flowers gently in hot water for no more than 10 minutes in a closed vessel, to preserve the essential oil.


Studies
Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitors / Flowers:
Study on the MeOH extract of flowers of C. sinense yielded a new flavone glucoside, acacetin 7- O-(3- O-acetyl- beta- D-glucopyranoside) together with 27 known compounds. Compounds displayed significant xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity in a concentration-dependent manner, greater than the allopurinol control. (1)
Antioxidant: Study isolated two dicaffeoylquinic acids from C. morifolium which were found to show strong antioxidant activities in the DPPH radical and superoxide anion radical scavenging systems.
Flavonoids / Volatiles: Study of flavonoids and volatiles in the C. morifolium Ramat flowers yielded 8 flavonoids and 58 volatiles. Luteolin-7-glucoside and quercitrin were the most abundant flavonoids accounting for 85.7% of the detected flavonoids. B-humulene was the most abundant volatile. The health benefits of C. morifolim may be related to the abundant flavonoids and volatiles. (2)
Antimicrobial: Study of extracts of seven species of C. morifolium Ramat showed 9 of 21 extracts with antimicrobial activity against S aureus, while 3 had activity against methicillin resistant Staph aureus. (3)
Toxicity Study: Study of CM extract in rats showed no toxicological changes in the acute toxicity and long-term toxicity studies and is considered to be safe in general to rats at limited dose level.
(4)
Vasorelaxant Effect: Study showed the CME induces both endothelium-dependent and independent relaxation. (5)
Neuroprotective: Study showed that CM possesses potent neuroprotective activity with a potential for application in neurodegenerative diseases such as Parkinson's diseases.
(6)
Neuroprotective Against Cerebral Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury:Study evaluating the neuroprotective effect of total flavones extracted from C. morifolium showed pretreatment with TFCM provided significant protection against cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats, at least in part, by its antioxidant action and consequent inhibition of mitochondrial swelling. (7)
Bone Marrow Toxicity with Chrysanthemum Flower and Azathioprine: C. sinense is a known inhibitor of XO (xanthine oxidase) and its coadministration with azathioprine is likely to result in an increase in shunting of 6-MP to form 6-TGN metabolites which are incorporated into DNA resulting in decreased WBC replication/activation which can facilitate apoptosis of WBCs. (9)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Herbs, granules, flower extracts in the cybermarket.

Last Update July 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: GNU Free Documentation License / Matricaria chamomilla / Walter Hood Fitch - Illustrations of the British Flora (1924) / / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Favourite Flowers by Edward Step Brightly coloured antique lithographs of flowers / Chrysanthemum sinense Pompon var. Mont d'Or - / FINE RARE PRINTS BOTANICAL

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Xanthine oxidase inhibitors from the flowers of Chrysanthemum sinense / Nguyen MT, Awale S et al /
Planta Med. 2006 Jan;72(1):46-51.
(2)
Flavonoids and volatiles in Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat flower from Tongxiang County in China / Qing-Lei Sun, Sun Hua, Jian-Hui Ye et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(25), pp. 3817-3821, 21 June, 2010
(3)
Antimicrobial activity of seven species Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat cultivated in Kaifeng
/ Lin Zhao, Ling Yang et al / Modern Pharmaceutical Research Dec. 2009, Vol.2, No.5
(4)
Toxicity Study of Ethanolic Extract of Chrysanthemum morifolium in Rats / Liping Li, Liqiang Gu et al / Journal of Food Science, Vol 75, Issue 6, pages T105–T109, August 2010 / DOI: 10.1111/j.1750-3841.2010.01702.x
(5)
Vasorelaxant effect and underlying mechanism of EtOAc extract from Chrysanthemum morifolium in rat / Chinese Journal of Pathophysiology
(6)
Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat (CM) extract protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against MPP+-induced cytotoxicity / Kim InSu, Koppula S, Park PyoJam et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 2009 Vol. 126 No. 3 pp. 447-454 / DOI 10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.017
(7)
Antioxidant Action of a Chrysanthemum morifolium Extract Protects Rat Brain Against Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury / Guo-Hua Lin, Lin Lin, Hua-Wei Liang, Xin Ma, Jing-Ye Wang, et al / Journal of Medicinal Food. April 2010, 13(2): 306-311 / doi:10.1089/jmf.2009.1184.
(8)
Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat. / Catalogue of Life, China
(9)
How does the coadministration of Chrysanthemum sinense along with azathioprine cause significant reductions in WBCs? / Pharmacology Weekly

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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