Manzanilla is an erect
or ascending, aromatic,
somewhat hairy herb, 30 to 60 centimeters in height. Leaves are thin, pinnately lobed, ovate to oblong-ovate,
and 4 to 6 centimeters long. Lobes 2 to 3 on each side, ovate or oblong-ovate,
and sharply toothed. Upper surface of the leaves deep green while
the under surface gray-green. Flowering heads are yellow, peduncled, corymbosely
panicled, and 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter. Involucre bracts are oblong
or elliptic, as large as the achenes. Receptacle is smooth or
pitted, not paleaceous. Ray flowers are 1-seriate, female, ligule
spreading, disc flowers numerous, perfect, limb 4- to 5-fid. Fruits are achenes, very small, cuneate-oblong, somewhat
compressed and grooved.
- Widely scattered in cultivation, esteemed for ornamental
and medicinal purposes.
- Established in Benguet at 1,800 meters altitude.
- A native of China and Japan, now cultivated in most warm countries.
- Leaves and flowers of C. japonicum yielded a volatile oil (kiku oil),
0.16%; glucoside; chrysanthemin, 7%; anthocyanin.
- The active ingredient is chrysanthemin.
- Essential oil contains chrysanthenone.
- A glucoside, chrysanthemin, an isomer of asterin, has been isolated from the flowers of the red variety.
-From the "Ruby King" variety, a glucoside has been isolated, monoglucoside of cyanidine, 7 per cent.
- Study yielded aldose reductase inhibitors and three new eudesman-type
- Considered antifungal, antiviral, antiinflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, bactericidal, febrifuge, vulnerary, depurative and tonic.
- Glycoside chrysanthemin considered antibacterial.
· Flowering heads.
· Entire plant also used.
· Edible: Seeds,
for cough, flu, epidemic meningitis.
· Entire plant or flower used for whooping cough.
· For gas pains -- warm oil, add and mix the flower heads, let stand
for 30 mins and strain. Then apply the warm oily solution to abdomen.
· Used for eczema, poisonous snake bites, sprains and bruises. Also used for mammary carbuncles.
· Flowers used for hypertension.
· Emulsion of flowers used for infections of the cervix .
· Flowers are burned for use as Insect repellent.
· Tea used as a wash for sore eyes, open sores, and wounds.
· Infusion of flowering heads used as carminative.
· In Deccan, plant used in conjunction with black pepper for treatment of gonorrhea.
· Combined with bitter sweet as ointment, used for bruises, sprains,
· In China, used
for migraines, hypertension, inflammation, respiratory problems. Also, flowering heads are made into tonic and sedative preparations. Infusions are used as collyrium in eye affections.
· In Malaya flowers are used for sore eyes and to promote longevity.
· The Hindus consider the plant heating and aperient; used for affections of the brain, calculus, as well as antidote to mental depression.
· In Indo-China leaves are used as depurant and prescribed for migraine. Also, flowers are used for sore eyes and inflammation of the abdomen.
· In Guam infusion of flowers are used as remedy for intermittent fevers; also, used by women as remedy for hysteria and monthly irregularities.
· Antimicrobial: Study
yielded three essential oils with major constituents of 1,8-cineole, camphor, borneol and bornyl acetate. Results showed both essential oils from air-dried and processed flowers possessed significant antimicrobial effect. With higher camphor percentage, the oil of processed flowers greater bacteriostatic activity than air-dried ones.
• Antiinflammatory / Immunomodulatory:
(1) Anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities of the extracts from
the inflorescence of Chrysanthemum indicum Linné: Study showed
CI possesses antiinflammatory, humoral and cellular immunomodulatory
and phagocytic activity probably from its flavonoid contents. (2) Study showed C indicum extract to be an effective anti-inflammatory agent in murine phorbol ester-induced dermatitis and suggests a potential for treatment of immune-related cutaneouse diseases.
• Sesquiterpenes: Japanese study yielded aldose reductase inhibitors and three
new eudesman-type sesquiterpenes.
• Anti-Cancer: (1) Study of C indicum extract showed a significant apoptotic effect through a mitochondrial pathway and arrested cell cycle by regulation of cell cycle-related proteins in MHCC97H cells lines without effect on normal cells. The cancer-specific selectivity suggests the plant extract could be a potential new treatment for human cancer. (2) Study documents anti-metastatic effect through a decrease of MMP expression, simultaneous increase of TIMP expression. Results suggest CI is a potential novel medicinal plant for treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma or cancer invasion and metastasis. (3) Study performed in rats with human cells showed CI extract inhibited proliferation of human hepatocellular cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner without cytotoxicity.
• Flavonoids / Anti-Arthritis: Study showed the total flavonoids of C indicum, extracted from the dried buds could induce synoviocytes apoptosis and suppress proliferation of synoviocytes in adjuvant-induced arthritis rats.
• Flowers / Chemical Composition: Study of C. indicum flowers yielded 63 volatiles which included eucalyptol, a-pinene, a-neoclovene among others. Ten flavonoids were identified, including quercitrin, myricetin and luteolin-7-glucoside. It suggests C indicum flower is a good source of natural quercitrin and myricetin for the development of potential pharmaceuticals.
• Aldose Reductase Inhibitory Activity: Study has shown inhibitory activity against rat lens aldose reductase and nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages.
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study suggest the anti-inflammatory properties of CIE might results from the inhibition of inflammatory mediators, such as NO, PGE2, TNF-alpha and IL01beta, via suppression of MAPKs and NF-kappaB-dependent pathways.
• Flavanone Glycosides / Rat Lens Aldose Reductase Inhibition: (1) Study isolated two flavanone glycosides and a new phenylbutanoid glycoside from the flowers of Chrysanthemum indicum together with eight flavonoids. Both of the new flavanone glycosides showed inhibitory activity for rat lens aldose reductase. (2) Methanol extract of flowers yielded flavone and flavone glycosides, together twith three new eudesmane-type sesquiterpenes, kikkanols A, B, C
Cultivated for ornamental use.
Herbs, granules, extracts in the cybermarket.