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Family Myrtaceae
Red gum tree
Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm.
FOREST RED GUM

Scientific names Common names
Eucalyptus insignis Naudin Red gum tree (Engl.)
Eucalyptus populifolia Desf. Forest red gum (Engl.)
Eucalyptus subulata A.Cunn. ex Schauer Horn-cap eucalyptus (Engl.)
Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. Mountain gum (Engl.)
Leptospermum umbellatum Gaertn. Queensland blue gum (Engl.)
  Red iron gum (Engl.)
  Stinking gum (Engl.)
There are over 500 different species sharing similar medicinal properties.
This Philippine compilation includes several species of Eucalyptus, a few with a sharing a confusing crossover of color-referring common names: (1) Eucalyptus globulus, blue gum eucalyptus (2) Eucalyptus deglupta, bagras, rainbow gum (3) Eucalyptus camaldulensis, red gum eucalyptus (4) Eucalyptus tereticornis, red gum tree, forest red gum. (5) Eucalyptus robusta, beakpod eucalyptus, brown gum, red gum.(6) Eucalyptus cinerea, silver dollar eucalyptus.
Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Eucalyptus bleu.
PORTUGUESE: Eucalipto de operculo rostrado.

Botany
Eucalyptus tereticornis is a tree reaching a height of 15 meters or more in the Philippines. Trunk is usually straight and at least half the total height. Crown is large and somewhat open. Bark is grayish and peels off in thin layers. Leaves are leathery, lanceolate, somewhat sickle-shaped, and 10 to 25 centimeters i length. Peduncles are axillary or lateral and up to 1.5 centimeters long, each bearing 3 to 5 short-peduncled flowers. Flowers are white, about 1.5 centimeters in diameter, in small clusters. Fruit is obovoid or somewhat rounded, about 8 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- Cultivated in Manila and other large towns.
- Grows vigorously in Baguio.
- Native of Australia.
- Also occurs in Papua New Guinea and India.
- Introduced to many tropical and subtropical countries in Africa, Asia, and South
America.

Constituents
- Particular species giving highest yields of eucalyptus oil were E. gloublus, E. tereticornis, E. polyanthemos, and E. citriodora.
- Qualitative analysis of leaf extract yielded biologically active compounds - tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, and steroids/triterpenes.
- Methanol extract yielded ursolic acid.
- Study of essential oil yielded: total citronelal (44.8%) and geraniol (9.78%). Two fractions were composed mostly of p-mentane-3,8-diol (18.95%) and geraniol acetate (24.34%).

- Phytochemical screening of methanol extract of bark and leaves yielded saponins tannins, steroids, and flavonoids; only the bark extract yielded cardiac glycosides. (see study below) (10)

Properties
- Stimulant, anesthetic, antiseptic, vulnerary.
- Studies have shown antibacterial, antihyperglycemic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, anti-inflammatory, anti-filarial properties.

Parts used
Oil, leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- A major source of pollen and nectar, producing a caramel-flavoured honey. (13)
- As bush food, gum put in solution and drunk, nectar is sucked from the flowers, and water extracted from the roots.
Folkloric
- Eucalyptus oil is used extensively in medicine.
- Eucalyptol is used internally and externally. Internally it is used as a stimulant. Locally, it possesses mildly antiseptic and anesthetic properties.
- As Bush medicine, used for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. Leaves chewed and placed on wounds to facilitate healing
.
- Decoction of leaves used to reduce fever and alleviate pulmonary problems. (13)
Others
- Firewood: Wood is hard, heavy, and strong. It produces first class fuelwood and makes good charcoal.
- Wood:
One of the most durable of timbers, immune to termites and dry rot. Valued for underground construction, poles, posts, fiberboard and particle board.
- Pulp:
Considered one of the best trees for fiber for paper pulp and rayon-grade pulp in India, Africa, the Pacific basin, and Latin America.
- Oil:
Leaves are among the commercial sources of eucalyptus oil.


Studies
Antibacterial:
Study investigated the inhibitory effect of ethanol and methanol extracts of E. tereticornis leaf against three contaminant bacterial isdolaytes P. aeruginosa, B. cereus, and B. thuragenisis isolated from steel industry coolants. P. aeruginosa was inhibited the most. Results concluded ET leaf may be pursued as an antibacterial agent for prevention and delaying of contamination of coolants. (2)
Ursolic Acid / Hepatoprotective : Study yielded ursolic acid as active material from the leaves of hybrid E. tereticornis. It showed a significant dose-dependent preventive effect in vitro against ethanol-induced toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes. (3)
Antioxidant / Antifungal / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil from foliage of E. tereticornis possesses strong antioxidant and antifungal activity. It showed strong fungitoxicity against three phytopathogenic fungi, viz., Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia colani and Heminthosporum oryzae. (4)
Study of essential oil and 2 fractions against Fusarium oxysporum showed concentration-dependent fungicidal activity. (5)
Larvicidal Against Malaria Vector / Leaf Oil: Study evaluated the essential leaf oil extract against mature and immature mosquito vector Anopheles stephensis under laboratory conditions. Extract showed strong larvicidal, pupicidal and adulticidal activity. First and second instar larvae were more susceptible to all treatments. Highest dose of 160 ppm plant extract evoked almost 100% mortality. Results suggest E. tereticornis has potential as a natural mosquitocide. (8)
Antihyperglycemic / Anti-Inflammatory: In a nutritional model using diabetic mice, study demonstrated through in vitro assays that E. tereticornis extracts increase glucose uptake and inhibit their production in insulin resistant C2C12 and HepG2 cells, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract also reduced the expression of proinflammatory cytokines in a T2DM mouse model, which could contribute to the improvement in cell-signaling pathways in target organs as muscles and liver. Study identified 3β-Hydroxy-urs-11-en-28,13β-olide as one of the main molecules of the bioactive F2 extract and is responsible for the antihyperglycemic effects. (9)
Antimicrobial / Bark and Leaves: Study evluated methanolic bark and leaf extracts of E. teraticornis for antimicrobial activity against common human pathogens, viz., Streptococcus mutans, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and yeast Candida albicans. The bark and leaf extracts showed antimicrobial potential. The methanolic back extract was more effective in inhibiting all four test pathogens. (see constituents above) (10)
Anti-Inflammatory: Three species of Eucalyptus oil (E. citriodora, E. tereticornis, and E. globulus) showed dose dependent and time-dependent peripheral and central acting analgesic properties in rodents. E. tereticornis showed the highest anti-inflammatory action in a model of rat paw edema. The anti-infammatory action compared to dexamethasone. (11)
Anti-Filarial / Ursolic Acid: Study of leaves isolated and characterized an anti-filarial agent, ursolic acid, as a major constituent. Ursolic acid was evaluated for anti-filarial activity against humn lymphatic filarial parasite Brugia malayi. Results suggest UA is a promising, inexpensive, widely available natural lead, with the potential for design and development into a microfilaricidal drug. (12)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds, oil in the cybermarket.

Last Update July 2016
January 2012


IMAGE SOURCE: File:Eucalyptus tereticornis flowers, capsules, buds and foliage.jpeg / Rockhampton, Queensland./ Ethel Aardvark / Creative Commons / Wikipedia
IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / Leaves / Botanical illustrations: Janet Hauser / Noosa's Native Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Eucalyptus tereticornis (Horn-Cap Eucalyptus) / zipcodezoo
(2)
Antibacterial activity of Eucalyptus tereticornis extracts for use in coolants of steel industry / Badrunnisa. S, Vinitha Ramanath Pai, Manjula Shantaram / International Journ of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences / Vol. 2(4) Oct - Dec 2011
(3)
Ursolic acid isolated from Eucalyptus tereticornis protects against ethanol toxicity in isolated rat hepatocytes / Saraswat B, Visen PK, Agarwal DP. / Phytother Res. 2000 May;14(3):163-6.
(4)
Chemical characterization, antioxidant and antifungal activity of essential oil from Eucalyptus tereticornis
/ Shalinder Kaur, Harminder Pal Singh, Daizy Rani Batish, and Ravinder Kumar Kohli / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(19), pp. 4788-4793, 23 September, 2011
(5)
Fungicidal activity of Eucalyptus tereticornis essential oil on the pathogenic fungus Fusarium oxysporum / Walter Murillo Arango; José Miguel Acevedo Ruíz; Carlos Alberto Peláez Jaramillo
(6)
Eucalyptus tereticornis / Noosa's Native Plants
(7)
Eucalyptus tereticornis / Synonyms / The Plant List
(8)
The use of Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm. (Myrtaceae) oil (leaf extract) as a natural larvicidal agent against the malaria vector Anopheles stephensi Liston (Diptera: Culicidae). / Senthil Nathan S / Bioresour Technol. 2007 Jul;98(9):1856-60
(9)
Antihyperglycemic Activity of Eucalyptus tereticornis in Insulin-Resistant Cells and a Nutritional Model of Diabetic Mice / Alis Guillén, Sergio Granados, Kevin Eduardo Rivas, Omar Estrada, Luis Fernando Echeverri, and Norman Balcázar / Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
Volume 2015 (2015) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/418673
(10)
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHYTOCHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF EUCALYPTUS TERETICORNIS BARK AND LEAF METHANOLIC EXTRACTS / Pranay Jain, Shekhar Nimbrana and Gaurav Kalia /
International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Volume 4, Issue 2, September – October 2010
(11)
Immune-Modifying and Antimicrobial E ects of Eucalyptus Oil and Simple Inhalation Devices
/ Angela E. Sadlon, ND, and Davis W. Lamson, MS, ND / Alternative Medicine Review, Vol 15, No 1
(12)
n Vitro, In Silico and In Vivo Studies of Ursolic Acid as an Anti-Filarial Agent / Komal Kalani, Vikas Kushwaha, Pooja Sharma, Richa Verma, Mukesh Srivastava, Feroz Khan, P. K. Murthy, Santosh Kumar Srivastava* / PLOS ONE, Nov 2014, Vol 9, Issue 11, e111244
(13)
Eucalyptus tereticornis / PROTA

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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