Pungapung is a perennial, stemless herb. Corm is depressed-globose, up to 30 centimeters in diameter, flowering before leafing every year from the previous year's corm. Stem-like structure, which bears the lamina, is merely the petiole, 1 meter or more high, radically developed from the corm. Leaves are usually solitary, the blades up to 1 meter in diameter,
trisected, the segments dichotomous, the ultimate ones pinnately divided into oblong to oblong-obovate, acuminate lobes. Spathe is sessile, broadly campanulate, dull-purplish, the margins somewhat spreading or recurved, waved and crenulate, up to 30 centimeters
in diameter. Spadix (a spike of flowers contained in the spathe)
is hardly longer than the spathe, the appendage ovoid, variously sulcate or depressed, up to 15 centimeters long, are malodorous when
- Common in most or all, provinces of Luzon and in Mindoro, in thickets
and secondary forests, along roads, trails, etc., at low and medium altitudes in settled
- Occurs in India through Malaya to Polynesia.
• Corm analysis: 74% moisture; 0.73% ash; 5.1% protein; 18% carbohydrate, 0.61% crude fiber, giving 1,000 calories per kilo. In food value, comparable to kalabasa, superior to sinkamas.
• Yields amblyone, a tritepenoid with antibacterial and cytotoxic activities.
• Phytochemical screening of various tuber extracts yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, coumarins, steroids, saponins.
• Tubers yielded an active diastatic enzyme- amylase, betulinic acid, B-sitosterol, stigmasterol, B-sitosterol palmitate, lupeol, triacontane, amino acids, carbohydrates, saponin, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin and carotene.
• Study evaluated methanol (ME) and 70% hydroalcoholic (AE) extracts of tubers for flavonoidal and total phenolic content. Flavonoidal content was 46.33 mg/g (ME) and 36.88 mg/g (AC). Total phenolic content were 12.67 mg/g (ME) and 6.25 mg/g (AE). (24)
Spathe prior to
malodorous flowering stage.
- Corms are caustic, stomachic
- Corms considered acrid, astringent, thermogenic, irritant, anodyne, anti-inflammatory, anti-hemorrhoidal, haemostatic, expectorant, car
- Raphide crystals on the corm, petiole and leaves produce irritation upon contact with the skin.
- Tubers are considered appetizer, antibacterial, antifungal, anodyne, aphrodisiac, antiinflammatory, antihemorrhoidal, cytotoxic, emmenagogue, hemostatic, expectorant, carminative, digestive, stomachic, anthelmintic, liver tonic, rejuvenating and tonic.
Corm, roots, leaves.
• Leaves and roots.
• Rhizomes preferably cooked, acrid when raw. May cause
perioral burning and itching.
• Petioles of young unexpanded leaves are edible when thoroughly
• In time of scarcity, corms are sometimes eaten. Corms provides about 1,000 calories per kilo; comparable in food value
to kalabasa, superior to singkamas.
• In India, corms used in curries and pickles.
• Poultices of corm are antirheumatic. Also used for hemorrhoids.
• Plants used for cough.
• Roots are used for boils and hemorrhoids.
• Tubers are also used for hemorrhoids.
• In India, corm is considered stomachic and tonic; used in piles and given as restorative in dyspepsia and debility. Tuberous roots are used for treatment of piles, abdominal
pains, tumors, spleen enlargement, asthma and rheumatism. Also, corms used as restorative in dyspepsia, debility, etc. Roots used for boils and ophthalmia; also as an emmenagogue. Petioles used in scorpion bites and dysmenorrhea. Tubers also used for post delivery problems, migraine, and neck swelling.
• In Ayurveda, traditionally used in arthralgia, elephantiasis, tumors, inflammations, hemorrhoids, hemorrhages, vomiting, cough, bronchitis, asthma, dyspepsia, colic, constipation, hepato-splenopathies, amenorrhea, dysmenorrhea, seminal weakness, fatigue and general debility.
• In Unani medicine, given as vegetable in sluggish liver.
• Corms applied externally to relive the pain of rheumatic swellings. When fresh, acts as acrid stimulant and expectorant.
• Feed: Leaves and corms are common feed for hogs.
• Antibacterial / Cytotoxic / Amblyone:
Amblyone, a triterpenoid isolated from A campanulatus showed to
have good antibacterial activity and moderate cytotoxic activity. (1)
• Antibacterial / 3,5-diacetylambulin: 3,5-diacetylambulin, a flavonoid isolated from A. campanulatus showed antibacterial activities against 4 gram positive and 6 gram-negative bacterial. (6)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Induced Damage / Antioxidant: Study on
ethanolic and aqueous extracts of Amorphophallus campanulatus showed antioxidant activity. Results showed potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage. The possible mechanism of antioxidant activity may be due to the free radical scavenging potential from the flavonoids in the extracts. (2)
• Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen-Induced Damage Study of dried tuber on acetaminophen-induced hepatic injury in albino rats showed increase in levels of superoxide dismutase (DOS), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) suggesting hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties.
• Analgesic: Study in mice was done on a methanol extract of A campanulatus tuber for in-vivo analgesic activity using a tail flick and acetic acid induced writhing methods. Results showed significant dose-dependent analgesic activity. Effect might be due to plant phytoconstituents which inhibit cyclooxygenase enzyme or through an effect on central opioid receptors (µ-receptors). (3)
• Immunomodulatory: Study of a methanol extract of AC tuber on immunological function in mice exhibited immunomodulatory activity by causing a decrease in charcoal clearance, spleen index and delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) response. (7)
• Phytochemicals / Anthelmintic: Corms yielded steroids, alkaloids, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates, phenols, flavonoids, saponins, starch and proteins. Results showed the corm chloroform and methanol extracts and crude tannins showed good anthelmintic activity close to the standard drug albendazole. (8)
• CNS Depressant Activity / Acute Toxicity Study / Tuber: Study showed a dose-dependent decrease in CNS activity with sedation and decrease in locomotor activity of the experimenting animal. Acute toxicity studies showed mortality at 2500 mg/kg body weight. Results suggest that petroleum ether extract can be safely used up to dose of 1500 mg/ kg body weight. (9)
• Antioxidant: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of a methanolic and aqueous extract of tubers for free radical scavenging property on DPPH, NO, and reducing power assays. Results showed the aqueous extract with more antioxidant activity compared to the methanolic extract. (13)
• Hepatoprotective in Paracetamol-Induced Liver Damage: Study of methanol and aqueous extracts of tubers in paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats showed hepatoprotective activity. There was significant reduction of hepatic enzyme values, almost comparable to silymarin. The hepatoprotective activity was confirmed by histopathologic examination of control and treated animals. (14)
• Cytotoxicity / Anticancer Potential: Study evaluated the cytotoxic property of different solvents of A. paeoniifolius tuber using Allium cepa root tip cells and HEp-2 cell line invitro models. Results exhibited cytotoxic activity, predominant in the petroleum ether and ethanolic extracts with dose-dependent antiproliferative activity on HEp2 cells. (15)
• Antioxidant Against Thioacetamide-Induced Oxidative Stress: Study evaluated the protective effect of extracts against thioacetamide-induced oxidative stress in rats. Silymarin was used as control. Results showed a methanolic extract to have higher antioxidant and radical scavenging activity than an n-hexane extract, attributed to higher phenolic and flavonoid content. There was histopathological support for the dose-dependent effects. (16)
• Anticonvulsant: Study evaluated petroleum ether extracts of A. paeoniifolius for anticonvulsant activity. Diazepam was used as standard drug. Results showed dose-dependent activity regarding onset of convulsion. (18)
• Cytotoxic / Apoptotic / Tubers / Human Colon Carcinoma Cell Line: Study evaluated dose-dependent cytotoxic and apoptosis inducing effects of sub fractions of methanolic extract of tubers on colon cancer cell line, HCT-15. Among the subfractions, the chloroform fraction showed potent cytotoxic and apoptotic activity. Results suggest the fractions dose-dependently suppress proliferation of HCT-15 cells by inducing apoptosis. (20)
• Antioxidant / Protective Against H2O2 Induced Oxidative Damage: Study evaluated tuber extracts against H2O2 induced oxidative damage in human erythrocytes and leucocytes. Results showed benefits of the tuber extracts in preventing H2O2 oxidative human RBC damage and improving RBC membrane permanence. The methanol extract was more effective than others. (21)
• Chemopreventive / Tuber / Induced Colon Carcinogenesis: Study evaluated a tuber methanolic extract on aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, colonic cell proliferation, lipid peroxidation damage and antioxidant status in a long term preclinical model of DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Results showed significant chemopreventive effect. (22)
• Synergistic Depressant Activity with Diazepam: Study of a petroleum ether extract was found to have CNS depressant activity. A significant synergistic effect of the PE extract with diazepam was found, with little synergistic effect with phenobarbitone. PE extract components may bind with the α subunit and facilitate the GABA mediated Cl- channel opening causing cell hyperpolarization and CNS depressant action. (23)
• Gastroprotective / Corms: Study evaluated the gastroprotective activity of a methanolic extract of corms against pylorus ligation induced gastrotoxicity in albino rats. Results showed significant dose dependent reduction in the elevated gastric parameters with significant restoration of protective GSH levels and suppression of LPO levels in tissues. Lansoprazole was used as standard. The activity may be due to the polyphenolic compounds known to possess anti-ulcer activity. (24)
• Oral Toxicity Evaluation / Tuber: Study evaluated acute and subacute oral toxicity studies of methanolic and aqueous extracts of A. paeoniifolius tuber in Swiss albino mice. In acute toxicity testing with single 2000 mg/kg dose of the extracts, there was not treatment related mortality and morbidity in any group. In subacute testing withe repeated dose of 1000 mg/kg daily for 28 days, there were not significant changes in behavior, body weight, hematologic and histological parameters, and not treatment related mortality or morbidity. (26)
• Underutilized Crop / Synopsis: Synopsis reports on Amorphophallus paeoniifolius as an underutilized crop with remarkable nutritional quality and potential as a valuable food source for human consumption. Despite its economic potential as food material, there is very limited scientific information on post-harvest characteristics and marketing potential. The research evaluates and assesses the complete utilization of A. paeoniifolius and its potential in the food industry. (27)
• Gastrokinetic Activity / Tubers: Study evaluated the effect of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on gastrointestinal motor functions. Pretreatment of extracts significantly increased the number of feces, wet and dry weight of feces, moisture content, gastric emptying and intestinal transit. Results were comparable to metoclopramide. The aqueous and methanol extracts also showed contraction of fundus and ileum in isolated preparations. Extracts yielded fair amounts of glucomannan, total phenolics and flavonoids. The gastrokinetic potential of the tuber extracts may be attributed to glucomannan and betulinic acid in the extracts. (28)
• Antidiarrheal / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-diarrheal activity of A. paeoniifolius leaves in a castor oil-induced diarrhea model in Swiss albino mice. At doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, there was a statistically significant (p<0.05) dose dependent reduction of total number of diarrheic feces. (29)
• Antioxidant / Tuber: Study evaluated the antioxidative and radical scavenging potential of a tuber extract of A. paeoniifolius. The extract showed a maximum of 68.6% of DPPH scavenging activity and maximum inhibition of 74% and 67.2% in ABTS and H2O2, respectively. The antioxidant efficiency and inhibition of oxidation was found to be dose-dependent. HPTLC profile of the extract yielded the presence of polyphenols such as gallic acid, resveratrol, quercetin, and two unidentified compounds. (30)
• Diabetic Neuropathy / Tubers: Study evaluated the effect of methanolic extract of tubers of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy in STZ-induced diabetic rats using tail flick test, swim endurance test, and tota-road methods. Results showed significant improvement in the measured parameters compared to negative control group and suggest potential use in the management of diabetic neuropathy. (31)
• Population Structure / Potential for Breeding for Global Acceptance: Corms and leaves of elephant foot yams are important foods in the local diet of many Asian regions. The crop has high agroecological adaptation and suitability for agroforestry system. Study suggests regional action should be incorporated in genetic conservation and breeding efforts to develop new varieties with global acceptance. (32)
• Combined Effect of Vigna radiata and A. paeoniifolius / Lipid Lowering Potential and Antiatherogenic Effect: Study evaluated the combined effect of Mung bean (V. radiata) and elephant foot yam (A. paeoniifolius) on serum lipids and atherogenic indices in albino rats and compared it with standard drug Cholestyramine. Results showed lowering of total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and VLDL (p<0.01) along with a significant increase (p<0.01) in HDL in rats. The combination of powdered sprouted mung bean and yam powder showed excellent lipid lowering potential and reduced atherogenic indices. (33)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antinociceptive / Corms: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potential of methanol extract of A. campanulatus corms in Swiss albino mice. At highest dose level using oral glucose tolerance tests in glucose loaded mice, results showed a near equivalent antihyperglycemic potency as that of glibenclamide. In acetic acid induced pain model in mice, the extract, even at lowest dose, was more potent than the lower dose of aspirin. (34)
• Beneficial Effect on Experimental Ulcerative Colitis / Tuber: Study evaluated the effects of tuber extracts of A. paeoniifolius on acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats compared to standard drug prednisolone. (35)
• Antihyperlipidemic / Tuber: Study evaluated the antihyperlipidemic activity of amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber in Triton WR-1339 induced hyperlipidemic rats. Tubers contained high concentration of total phenols which possess strong anti-hyperlipidemic activity. Results showed significant decrease in serum cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL along with a significant increase in HDL. Results suggest a potential protective role in coronary heart disease. (36)
• Curative Effect on Experimental Hemorrhoids / Tuber: Study evaluated the effect of methanolic and aqueous extract of A. paeoniifolius tuber on hemorrhoids in rats induced by croton oil applied in the ano-rectal region. Results showed aqueous extract showed more pronounced effect than methanolic extract. Effect was attributed to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Results validate its ethnomedicinal use of tuber in hemorrhoids. (37)
Capsules, supplements in the cybermarket.