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Family Rutaceae
Piris
Micromelum compressum (Blanco) Merr.
LIME BERRY

Ying mao xiao yun mu

Scientific names Common names
Micromelum ceylanicum Wight.  
Micromelum compressum (Blanco) Merr. Amian (Ting.)
Micromelum glabrescens Benth. Ayu-ayu (Sul.)
Micromelum hirsutum F.-Vill. Basar-basar (Ilk.)
Micromelum minutum (G. Forst.) Wight & Arn. Bialong (Sub.)
Micromelum molle Turez. Binting-dalaga (Tag.)
Micromelum pubescens Blume Buntog (Bik.)
Micromelum tephocarpus Turez. Buriñgot (Bik.)
Andromeda japonica Blanco Gindoen (Bag.)
Bergera compressa Blanco Hagasin (S. L. Bis.)
Bergera inodora Blanco Karinbubod (Ilk.)
Bergera koenigil Blanco Kalambahin (Tag.)
Limonia minuta Forst. f. Kiting-kiting (Tag.)
  Kulai-manok (Tag.)
  Lamlamuyot (Ilk.)
  Lañgin (Tag.)
  Luyong-luyong (Kuy.)
  Makabañgon (Bik.)
  Malalupai (Pamp.)
  Maligang (Sub.)
  Panias-panias (C. Bis.)
  Parinlas (Tag.)
  Patukod-lañgit (Tag.)
  Piris (Tag.)
  Pulet (Ibn.)
  Tabas (P. Bis.)
  Taboat-kobing (Bag.)
  Tulibas (Tag.)
  Lime berry (Engl.)
  Ying mao xiao yun mu (Chin.)
Micromelum compressum Merr. is an unresolved name (The Plant List)
Piris is a common name shared by: Kabuyaw, Citrus hystric, Piris (Pang.) and Micromelum compressum, Piris (Tag.).

Other vernacular names
INDONESIA: Sesi, Ki mangkok, Mentanen.
MALAYSIA: Chememar, Cherek, Kematu.
THAILAND: Samui, Saam sok, Sabaek.
VIETNAM: Cam n[us]i, Kim s[uw][ow]ng.

Botany
Piris is a small tree with hairy branches and leaves. Leaves are 20 to 40 centimeters in length, with 9 to 12 leaflets on each side of the hairy rachis. Leaflets are variable in shape and size, ovate to broadly lanceolate, the terminal ones being longest and up to 15 centimeters in length. Flowers are fragrant, greenish yellow or white, borne in considerable numbers on compound inflorescences. Fruit is yellow when ripe, ovoid-oblong, and less than 1 centimeter in length.

Distribution
- Throughout the Philippines, in most islands and provinces, in thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes.
- Also occurs in India to southern China through Malaya to tropical Australia and Polynesia.

Constituents
- Constituent studies yielded coumarins. (See studies below). (2) (3)

- Leaves yielded coumarin, 80methoxycapnolactone and stigmasterol. (5)
- Fractionation of crude petroleum ether and chloroform extracts isolated five new coumarins 3″,4″-dihydrocapnolactone, 2′,3′-epoxyisocapnolactone, 8-hydroxyisocapnolactone-29,39-diol, 8-hydroxy-3″,4″-dihydrocapnolactone-29,39-diol and 8,4″-dihydroxy-3″,4″-dihydrocapnolactone-29,39-diol, and two triterpenes. (See study below) (6)
- Fruits yielded new 7-oxygenated coumarin, 7-demethylmurralonginol isovalerate (1), and a new natural product, murralonginol (2), together with seven known 7-oxygenated coumarins, murralonginol isovalerate (3), murralongin (4), micromelin (5), scopoletin (6), microminutin (7), murrangatin (8), and minumicrolin (9). (See study below)
(8)

Properties
Considered febrifuge, analgesic, stomachic, carminative.

Parts used
Roots, shoots, leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, young shoots are heated with oil and used for infantile convulsions.
- Leaves and roots are used as febrifuge.
- Decoction or infusion of roots used for diarrhea in children; also, as carminative.
- Roots also used for toothaches.
- Plant used for stomachache and headache.
- In Sabah and Sarawak, leaves of M. minutum are traditionally used in the treatment of giddiness and fever; poultice of boiled roots are used for ague. (6)
Others
Wood: Used for handles of bolos and making furniture.

Studies
Coumarins:
Chemical investigation of Micromelum minutum collected from Sepilok, Sabah, Malaysia yielded four new coumarins: 3",4"-dihydrocapnolactone 1, 2',3'-epoxyisocapnolactone 2, 8-hydroxyisocapnolactone-2',3'-diol 3 and 8-hydroxy-3",4"-dihydrocapnolactone-2',3'-diol 4. (2)
Coumarins:
Acetone extract of stems yielded six coumarins, micromarin-A ,B,C,F,G,H along with six known coumarins. (3)
Cancer Prevention and Carcinogenesis Potentials:
Study evaluated the effect of dietary Micromelum minutum leaves common eaten among Southern Thai people. The susceptibility of biological systems to chemical carcinogenesis is partly controlled by the balance between phase I enzyme and phase II enzymes systems, and the protective effect of vegetables and chemical compounds maybe the result of modulation of carcinogen metabolism, especially the induction of phase II detoxification enzymes. Study results show M. minutum leaves possess phase II enzyme inducing property, as well as a reducing phase I activities in rat liver. The vegetable's cancer preventing potential also carries concerns on the potential to activate chemical carcinogenesis. (4)
Cytotoxicity / Coumarins:
Crude petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of M. minutum showed strong cytotoxic activity against a T-lymphoblastic leukemia cell line. Fractionation
isolated five new coumarins and two triterpenes. Some of the compounds showed strong activity against T. lymphoblastic leukemia (CEM-SS), promyelocytic leukemia (HL60), cervical cancer (HeLa) and liver cancer (HepG2) cell lines. (6)
Cytotoxicity / Coumarins: Leaves yielded two bioactive compounds, 2',3'-Epoxyisocapnolactone and 8-hydroxyisocapnolactone-2',3'-diol. Study showed both compounds to induce apoptosis. Furthermore, 8- hydroxyisocapnolactone-2',3'-diol also exhibited earlier induction time and better cytotoxicity compared to 2',3'-epoxyisocap- nolactone. Results show both to have potential as anticancer agent. (7)
Fruits / C-7 Oxygenated Coumarins / Anti-Cancer: Fruits yielded new 7-oxygenated coumarin, 7-demethylmurralonginol isovalerate (1), and a new natural product, murralonginol (2), together with seven known 7-oxygenated coumarins, murralonginol isovalerate (3), murralongin (4), micromelin (5), scopoletin (6), microminutin (7), murrangatin (8), and minumicrolin (9). Among these isolates, compounds 2 and 4–9 exhibited cytotoxicity against cholangiocarcinoma cell line, KKU-100. (8)
Fruits / Coumarins / Anti-Cancer: A carbon tetrachloride fraction of Micromelum minutum was found active against most test fungal test organisms.
The VLC fractions showed marked inhibition against the six fungi tested; fraction D showed 62 to 88% inhibition at 500 µg/ml dose. (9)
Mahanine / Apoptosis Induction: Mahanine, a naturally occurring carbazole alkaloid in some Asian vegetables. Study investigated the effect of mahanine on the activation of the apoptotic pathway in human leukemia U937 cells. Mahanine-induced apoptosis involved the activation of caspases, release of cytochrome c in cytosol, loss of mitochondrial membrane permeability, and decreased levels of cellular ATP. (10)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

:Last Update August 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Micromelum minutum / Rutaceae / Micromelum cf. minutum; fruiting twig/ / Copyright © 2011 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL37985]/ Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Micromelum minutum flowers and foliage.jpg / Mark Marathon / CC BY-SA 3.0 / Wikipedia
Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Pe, Justin Alfred R. III. Antitubercular screening of selected Philippine plants; Isolation and characterization of secondary metabolites from the leaves of Micromelum compressum Blanco (Merr.) & a preliminary study of its stems and bark (Poster Presentation / Asia–Pacific Conference on Chemistry Education and 24th Philippine Chemistry Congress, 2009)
(2)
Coumarins from Malaysian Micromelum minutum. / Rahmani M, Susidarti RA, Ismail HB, Sukari MA, Hin TY, Lian GE, Ali AM, Kulip J, Waterman PG. / Phytochemistry. 2003 Oct;64(4):873-7.
(3)
Chemical constituents of Micromelum minutum. Isolation and structural elucidation of new coumarins /
Ito C, Otsuka T, Ruangrungsi N, Furukawa H. / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 2000 Mar;48(3):334-8.
(4)
EFFECTS OF DIETARY MICROMELUM MINUTUM LEAVES ON THE METABOLIZING ENZYMES AND IN VITRO METABOLIC ACTIVATION OF CHEMICAL CARCINOGENS IN RATS / Nuntana Meesiripan, Anong Tepsuwan, Piengchai Kupradinum / Senkyo.co.jp
(5)
8-Methoxycapnolactone and stigmasterol From Micromelum minutum / Ratna Asmah Susidarti et al /Majalah Farmasi Indonesia, 18(2), 105 – 109, 2007
(6)
Cytotoxic activity of coumarins from Micromelum minutum / Ratna Asmah Susidarti, Mawardi Rahmani, Hazar B.M. Ismail, M. Aspollah Sukari, Taufiq-Yap Yun Hin, Gwendoline Ee Cheng Lian, Abdul Manaf Ali / Pharmaceutical Biology, February 2009, Vol. 47, No. 2 , Pages 182-185
(7)
Cytotoxic effect of 2', 3'-epoxy isocapnolactone and 8- hydroxyisocapnolactone-2'3'-diol isolated from Micromelum minutum (G.Forst.) Wight and Arn. in human T-lymphocyte leukemia CEM-SS cells / B. K. Tan, N. B. Alitheen*, S. K. Yeap, A. M. Ali and R. Mawardi / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (18), pp. 4632-4641, 15 September, 2009
(8)
C-7 oxygenated coumarins from the fruits of Micromelum minutum / Ratsami Lekphrom, Somdej Kanokmedhakul, Veerapol Kukongviriyapan, Kwanjai Kanokmedhakul / Archives of Pharmacal Research, April 2011, Volume 34, Issue 4, pp 527-531
(9)
Studies on Antimicrobial Activities of Plant Secondary Metabolites of Mikania cordata, Lawsonia inermis and Micromelum minutum / Sharmin Afroza Sultana / Thesis / Department of Microbiology, University of Chittagong
(10)
Mahanine, a carbazole alkaloid from Micromelum minutum, inhibits cell growth and induces apoptosis in U937 cells through a mitochondrial dependent pathway / Molay Kumar Roy, Vipaporn Na Thalang, Gassinee Trakoontivakorn & Kazuhiko Nakahara / British Journal of Pharmacology (2005) 145, 145–155

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