HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT

Family Rutaceae
Kabuyaw
Citrus hystrix DC.

KAFIR LIME
Ma feng gan

Scientific names  Common names 
Citrus hystrix DC. Kamuntai (Bik.) 
Citrus echinata St. Lag. Kapitan (Ilk., Ibn.) 
Citrus torosa Blanco Kobot (Tag.) 
  Kolison (Bis.) 
  Kolobot (Tag., Bis.) 
  Kolong-kolong (Tag.)
  Kopalian (C. Bis.) 
  Malatbas (Sbl.) 
  Mayagarin (C. Bis.) 
  Muntai (Sub.) 
  Pinukpuk (Klg.) 
  Piris (Pang.) 
  Kafir lime (Engl.)
  Amongpong (C. Bis.) 
  Amontau (C. Bis) 
  Buyak (Tag.) 
  Buyog (Tag.) 
  Daruga (Sul.) 
  Duroga (Sul.) 
  Kabog (Bik.) 
  Kabuan (Tag.) 
  Kabugau (Tag.) 
  Kabuyau (Tag.)
  Kabuyaw (Tag.)
  Kabugau (Tag.) 
  Kamulau (Ilk.)
  Kamukau  (Ilk.)
  Kamuntai  (Bik.)
  Kapalian (C. Bis.)
  Kobot (Tag.)
  Kolobot  (Tag., Bis.)
  Kolison  (Bis.)
  Kolong-kolong  (Tag.)
  Kolo-oi (C. Bis.)
  Kapitan (Ilk., Ibn.)
  Malatbas (Sbl.)
  Mayagarin (C. Bis.)
  Muntai (Sub.)
  Piris (Pang.)
  Pinulpuk (Klg.)
  Caffir lime (Engl.)
  Kaffir lime (Engl.)
  Ma feng gan (Chin.)
Piris is a common name shared by: Kabuyaw, Citrus hystric, Piris (Pang.) and Micromelum compressum, Piris (Tag.).

Other vernacular names
BURMESE : Shauk cho, Shauk nu, Shauk waing.
CHINESE: Jian ye cheng, Mao li qiu si ku cheng, Ma feng cheng, Ma feng mao gan.
DUTCH: Indonesische citroenboom, Kaffir limoen.
FINNISH: Kaffir limetti.
FRENCH: Combava, Limettier hérissé.
GERMAN: Indische Zitrone, Indische Zitronenblätter, Indonesische Zitronenblätter, Kaffir Limette, Langdorniger Orangenbaum.
HEBREW: Aley kafir laim.
JAPANESE: Bai makkuruu, Kobu mikan, Moorishasu papeda, Purutto, Kafaa raimu, Kafiiru raimu.
KHMER: Krauch soeuch.
MALAY: Jeruk purut (Java), Juuk purut (Bali), Limau purut (Malaysia),
RUSSIAN: Kaffir laim, Kobu mikan.
SINHALESE: Kahpiri dehi, Kudala dehi, Odu dehi.
SPANISH: Hojas de Lima cafre, Hoja de lima kaffir, Lima kaffir.
TAMIL: Kolumiccai.
UKRAINIAN: Kafrskii laim, Makrut.
VIETNAMESE : Chanh Kaffir, Chanh sác , Trúc.

Botany
Kabuyau is a small, slender, erect tree. Leaves are smooth, oblong, 10 to 15 centimeters long, 3 to 5 centimeters wide. Flowers are cream-colored, borne in fascicles upon short, green axillary spikes. Fruit is variable in size, globose, up to 10 centimeters in diameter; slightly raised at the apex, and many seeded. Flesh is white and astringently sour. Rind is thick, lemon yellow.

Distribution
- Common in primary and secondary forests, sometimes in or near settlements, at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines.
- Native to the Archipelago.

Constituents
-Rind: volatile oil, 4%; citral, 40%.
- Leaves: volatile oil, 0.08%.
- From the essential oil: Limonene (most abundant), B-pinene, terpinen-4-ol and a-terpinol.
- Three coumarins have been reported: bergamottin, oxypeucedanin and 5-[(6',7'-dihydroxy-3',7'-dimethyl-2-octenyl)oxy] psoralen.

Properties
- Leaves yield an oil resembling the odor of oil distilled from the leaves of C. grandis.
- Fruit is considered stimulant and stomachic.


Parts used
Leaves and fruits.

Uses
Edibility / Culinary
- Fruit flesh is astringently sour; juice used for seasoning and makes a good drink.
- Rind is squeezed to extract oil
- Rind is often mixed with gogo to impart a sweet smell.
- Leaves used to season food.
- Leaves used in preparation of Thai and Malay dishes.
Folkloric
- Aromatic baths: Squeeze fruit and juice to gogo (for shampoo) or water (bath).
- Nausea and fainting: Inhale oil from rind.
- Malays use the peel as a tonic ingredient.
- Fresh peels and dried fruits used to relieve nausea, flatulence, and control menstruation.
- Rind used in treatment headache and worms in children.
- In Malaysia, used for stomachaches and dyspepsia.
- Fruit juice is expectorant and antidandruff.
- With ginger and other aromatics, used to treat postpartum septicemia.
Others
Scent: Volatile oil used in perfumery, toiletries, handwash and shampoo.
Juice of fruit used as insecticide. (Read)

Studies
Insect Repellent:
(1) Essential oil effective in repelling mosquitoes, but less than tumeric or citronella grass. (2) Except at 10% and 25% of Kaffir lime oil, the studied oils at all concentrations were able to protect mosquito bites more than 2 hrs. with dose dependence .
Coumarins:
Study isolated three known coumarins from CH as inhibitors of both lipopolysaccharide and interferon-y-induced nitric oxide generation in in Mouse Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells. (2)
• Anti-Tumor / Glyceroglycolipids:
Glyceroglycolipids from Citrus hystrix, a Traditional Herb in Thailand, Potently Inhibit the Tumor-Promoting Activity of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-Acetate in Mouse Skin: Study isolated two glyceroglycolipids from the leaves of Citrus hystrix. Both showed to be potent inhibitors of tumor promoter-induced Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation. The anti-tumor promotion may involved the inhibition of arachidonic acid cascade. (3)
• Anti-Microbial / Thai Herbs: Study of fresh and oil extracts fifteen medicinal herbs were tested for potential use as natural antimicrobial additives in foods. Tested against B cereus, S typhi and S aureus, six , including Citrus hystrix, showed high activities on first screening. C. hystrix, together with A. ascalonicum and C aurantifolium were selected as potential antimicrobial food additives (4).

• Antimicrobial / Peel: Study showed the ethyl acetate extract of kaffir lime (C hystrix) peel showed broad spectrum inhibition against all Gram-positive bacteria, yeast and molds including S aureus, B cereus, Listeria monocytogenes, Saccharomyces cerevisae and A fumigatus.
• Flavonoid / Antioxidant / Effect of Processing: Study compared fresh use with effects of boiling and deep-fat frying on the leaf of Citrus hystrix's phenolic, flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities. Results showed boiling decreased total antioxidant capacity and that the method of processing can significantly affect the flavonoid content and their total antioxidant capacities.
(5)
• Antioxidant In a study of four Citrus species, C. hyxtrix exhibited the highest antioxidant activity by DPPH and FRAP methods, and the highest flavanoid and phenolic content. (18)
• Antiproliferative / Anticancer: Study on the anti-proliferative activity of essential oil
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity: Study on 10 methanolic extracts from various medicinal plants commonly used in Thai traditional medicine, the extract from leaves and peels of Kaffir lime exerted the strongest effect on production of the hydroxyl radical (OH). (7)
• Stimulating Effect of Oil / Aromatherapy: Study of kaffir lime essential oil from fresh peels of Citrus hystrix showed a significant increase in blood pressure and decrease in skin temperature. Findings likely represent stimulating / activating effects of the kaffir lime oil, providing some evidence for use in aromatherapy. (8)
• Anti-Fertility: Study of extracts of C hystrix fruit peel showed effective inhibition of implantation, producing abortion and slight hastening of labor time. The extract stimulated uterine contractions in an in situ study. (9)
• Anxiolytic Effect: Study provided evidence that smelling oils of C hystrix and C microcarpa have anxiolytic property, with the C hystrix having a stronger effect. (9)
• Insecticidal: Study of essential oil yielded 29 compounds. Beta-citronellal, 66.85%, was the major compound, followed by beta-citronellol, linalool and citronellol. Topical application of the essential oil showed antifeedant properties with severe growth inhibition of S. litura. (13)
• Antioxidative / Myricetin:Study showed C. hystrix leaf may exert antioxidative stress properties by scavenging hydroxyl radicals and inhibiting lipid peroxidation that causes oxidative damage to the liver cancer cell line HepG2. A possible component inhibiting lipid peroxidation is myricetin, a predominant flavonol of C. hystrix leaves.
• Antibacterial:Study showed emulsions with at least 2% of the essential oil of Kaffir lime showed inhibition of growth of E. coli, B. subtilis, and S. aureus at at efficacy similar to Ampicillin. (15)
• Anxiolytic:Study provided some evidence that the smelling of essential oils of C. hystrix and C. microcarpa confer anxiolytic effect. (10)
• Cockroach Control: According to a 2007 study by the Thailand National Institute of Health evaluating natural remedies for cockroach control, C. hystrix was the most effective essential oil used in controlling the pest, repelling 100 % of certain types of cockroaches. (17)
• Cytotoxicity / Leukemic Cell Lines: Various crude extracts from leaves were evaluated for potential in vitro cytotoxic activity. An ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest cytotoxicity on 4 leukemic cell lines. (19)
• Antibacterial / Essential Oils/ Respiratory Tract Pathogens: Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of essential oils of leal and fruit peel against respiratory tract pathogens. Both oils were effective against all test pathogens. Results suggest makrut leaf oil, makrut oil, and components (citronellal, a-terpineol, terpinene-4-ol) may be alternative natural medicines for prevention and treatment of many bacterial diseases. (20)
• Cockroach Repellent / Essential Oils: Seven commercial essential oils were evaluated for repellent activity against three cockroach species. The essential oil derived from Citrus hystrix showed the best repellency (100%) against P. americana and B. germanica and highest repellency (87.5%) against N. rhombifolia. (21)
• Cardioprotective / Peels Extract: Study observed the combination effect of doxorubicin and kaffir lime peel ethanolic extract (ChEE) on ALT and AST activity and cardio-hepato-histopathology on female Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed ChEE repaired cardiohistopathology profile of doxorubicin induced cardiotoxicity, but did not repair hepatohistopathology nor reduce ALT and AST enzymes activity. (22)

Caution
• Photodermatitis:
Occasional reports of photodermatitis from rubbing the juice onto the skin for insect bites and as insect repellent. Another report of dermatitis associated with rubbing the juice of the medicinal lime onto the scalp to dye the hair. (eMediine)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Kaffir Lime Oil in the cyberMarket

Last Update August 2013

Photo / Flower and Leaves © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Citrus hystrix dsc07772.jpg / David Monniaux / July 29, 2005 / GNU Free Documentation License / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / File:Citrus hystrix Blanco2.408.jpg / Plate from book / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Citrus hystrix DC. / ICS.UNIDO / Medicinal and Aromatic Plants
(2)
Identification of Coumarins from the Fruit of Citrus hystrix DC as Inhibitors of Nitric Oxide Generation in Mouse Macrophage RAW 264.7 Cells / Akira Murakami, Guanxin Gao et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47 (1), pp 333–339 / DOI: 10.1021/jf980523e
(3)
Glyceroglycolipids from Citrus hystrix, a Traditional Herb in Thailand, Potently Inhibit the Tumor-Promoting Activity of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-Acetate in Mouse Skin / Akira Murakami, Yoshimasa Nakamura, Koichi Koshimizu, Hajime Ohigashi / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1995, 43 (10), pp 2779–2783 / DOI: 10.1021/jf00058a043
(4)
PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITIES ON MEDICINAL HERBS OF THAI FOOD INGREDIENTS / Chaisawadi, S., Thongbute, D., Methawiriyasilp, W., Pitakworarat, N., Chaisawadi, A., Jaturonrasamee, K., Khemkhaw, J. and Tanuthumchareon, W. 2005. Acta Hort. (ISHS) 675:111-114
(5)
Effect of processing on the flavonoid content and antioxidant capacity of Citrus hystrix leaf / Chaniphun Butryee; Pongtorn Sungpuag; Chureeporn Chitchumroonchokchai / DOI: 10.1080/09637480903018816 /
(6)
Antimicrobial activities of essential oils and crude extracts from tropical Citrus spp. against food-related microorganisms / Sumonrat Chanthaphon et al / Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology
(7)
Antioxidative and Free Radical Scavenging Activities of Some Plants Used in Thai Folk Medicine / N. Hutadilok-Towatana, P. Chaiyamutti, K. Panthong, W. Mahabusarakam and V. Rukachaisirikul / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology, 2006, Vol. 44, No. 3, Pages 221-228 / DOI 10.1080/138802006006855

(8)
Chemical composition and stimulating effect of Citrus hystrix oil on humans / Tapanee Hongratanaworakit and Gerhard Buchbauer / Flavour and Fragrance Journal, Volume 22 Issue 5, Pages 443 - 449 / DOI 10.1002/ffj.1820
(9)
Antifertility effect of Citrus hystrix DC. / Pawinee Plyachaturawat et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Volume 13, Issue 1, March 1985, Pages 105-110
(10)
Antianxiety and Antidepressive Effects of Essential Oils of Citrus Spp in Mice / Che Awang Rugayah and Syed Sahil Jamalullail Mohsin
(11)
Phytophotodermatitis / William Baugh MD / eMedicine
(12)
Sorting Citrus names / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(13)
Insecticidal properties of Citrus hystrix DC leaves essential oil against Spodoptera litura fabricius / Fan Siew Loh, Rita Muhamad Awang, Dzolkhifli Omar and Mawardi Rahmani / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(16), pp. 3739-3744, 18 August, 2011
(14)
Efficacy of volatile oils from some medicinal plants on Culex quinquefasciatus repellency / Bandid Mangkit, Vichit Pipigool et al /
(15)
PRELIMINARY EVALUATION ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF CITRUS HYSTRIX OIL EMULSIONS STABILIZED BY TWEEN 80 AND SPAN 80 / DOREEN S.H. N1, LAILI C. ROSE, HAMDAN SUHAIMI, HABSAH MOHAMAD et al / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Suppl 2, 2011
(16)
Antianxiety and Antidepressive Effects of Essential Oils of Citrus Spp in Mice
/ Che Awang Rugayah and Syed Sahil Jamalullail Mohsin / Department of Pharmacology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Health Campus
(17)
Essential Oils to Kill Cockroaches / eHOW
(18)
Flavonoid, hesperidine, total phenolic contents and antioxidant activities from Citrus species
/ Mohammed Fadlinizal Abd Ghafar et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 9(3), pp. 326-330, 11 January 2010
(19)
Cytotoxic effects of crude kaffir lime (Citrus hystrix, DC.) leaf fractional extracts on leukemic cell lines /
Fah Chueahongthong, Chadarat Ampasavate, Siriporn Okonogi, Singkome Tima and Songyot Anuchapreeda / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(14), pp. 3097-3105, 18 July, 2011
(20)
Antibacterial activity of essential oils from Citrus hystrix (makrut lime) against respiratory tract pathogens /
Vimol Srisukh, Chanwit Tribuddharat, Veena Nukoolkarn, Nuntavan Bunyapraphatsara, Kulkanya Chokephaibulkit, Siwimol Phoomniyom, Sirirat Chuanphung, Somporn Srifuengfung / ScienceAsia 38 (2012): 212–217 / doi: 10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2012.38.212
(21)
REPELLENT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AGAINST COCKROACHES (DICTYOPTERA: BLATTIDAE, BLATTELLIDAE, AND BLABERIDAE) IN THAILAND / Usavadee Thavara, Apiwat Tawatsin, Payu Bhakdeenuan, Prapai Wongsinkongman, Thidarat Boonruad, Jaree Bansiddhi, Pranee Chavalittumrong, Narumon Komalamisra, Padet Siriyasatien and Mir S Mulla / SOUTHEAST ASIAN J TROP MED PUBLIC HEALTH, Vol 38 No. 4 July 2007.
(22)
Cardioprotective and hepatoprotective effects of Citrus hystrix peels extract on rats model / Herwandhani Putri, Standie Nagadi, Yonika Arum Larasati, Nindi Wulandari, and Adam Hermawan* / Asian Pac J Trop Biomed. 2013 May; 3(5): 371–375. / doi: 10.1016/S2221-1691(13)60079-9



HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL