Small, slender, erect
tree. Leaves are smooth, oblong, 10-15 cm long, 3-5 cm wide. Flowers
are cream-colored, in fascicles upon short, green axillary spikes. Fruit
is flat, globose, up to 10 cm diameter; many seeded. Flesh is white
and astringently sour. Rind is thick, lemon yellow.
Native; common in
primary and secondary forests, at low and medium altitudes.
Rind: volatile oil,
4%; citral, 40%.
Leaves: volatile oil, 0.08%.
From the essential oil: Limonene (most abundant), B-pinene, terpinen-4-ol
Three coumarins have been reported: bergamottin, oxypeucedanin and 5-[(6',7'-dihydroxy-3',7'-dimethyl-2-octenyl)oxy]
Parts used and preparation
Leaves and fruits.
Aromatic baths: Squeeze
fruit and juice to gogo (for shampoo) or water (bath).
Nausea and fainting: Inhale oil from rind.
Peel is a tonic ingredient; rind used in treatment headache and woms
In Malaysia, used for stomachaches and
Fruit juice is expectorant and antidandruff.
With ginger and other aromatics, used to treat postpartum septicemia.
Flavor - Squeeze rind to extract oil.
Volatile oil used in perfumery, toiletries, handwash and shampoo.
Leaves used to season food.
Leaves used in preparation of Thai and Malay dishes.
Juice of fruit used as insecticide. (Read)
• Insect Repellent: Essential oil effective in repelling mosquitoes,
but less than tumeric or citronbella grass.
isolated three known coumarins from CH as inhibitors of both lipopolysaccharide
and interferon-y-induced nitric oxide generation in in Mouse Macrophage
RAW 264.7 Cells.
• Anti-Tumor / Glyceroglycolipids: Glyceroglycolipids
from Citrus hystrix, a Traditional Herb in Thailand, Potently Inhibit
the Tumor-Promoting Activity of 12-O-Tetradecanoylphorbol 13-Acetate
in Mouse Skin: Study isolated two glyceroglycolipids from the leaves
of Citrus hystrix. Both showed to be potent inhibitors of tumor promoter-induced
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) activation. The anti-tumor promotion may involved
the inhibition of arachidonic acid cascade.
(1) Study of fresh and oil extracts fifteen medicinal herbs were tested
for potential use as natural antimicrobial additives in foods. Tested
against B cereus, S typhi and S aureus, six , including Citrus hystrix,
showed high activities on first screening. C. hystrix, together with
A. ascalonicum and C aurantifolium were selected as potential antimicrobial
food additives. (2) Study showed the ethyl acetate extract of kaffir
lime (C hystrix) peel showed broad spectrum inhibition against all Gram-positive
bacteria, yeast and molds including S aureus, B cereus, Listeria monocytogenes,
Saccharomyces cerevisae and A fumigatus.
Flavonoid / Antioxidant: Study compared
frresh use with effects of boiling and deep-fat frying on the leaf of
Citrux hystrix's phenolic . flavonoid contents and antioxidant capacities.
Results showed boiling decreased total antioxidant capacity and that
the method of procerssing can significantly affect the flavonoid content
and their total antioxidant capacities.
Antiproliferative / Anticancer: Study
on the anti-proliferative activity of essential oil
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging Activity:
Study on 10 methanolic extracts from various medicinal plants commonly
used in Thai traditional medicine, the extract from leaves and peels
of Kaffir lime exerted the strongest effect on production of the hydroxyl
Stimulating / Aromatherapy: Study of kaffir lime essential oil from fresh peels of Citrus hystrix showed a significant increase in blood pressure and decrease in skin temperature. Findings likely represent stimulating / activating effects of the kaffir lime oil, providing some evidence for use in aromatherapy.
Anti-Fertility: Study of extracts of C hystrix fruit peel showed effective inhibition of implantation, producing abortion and slight hastening of labor time. The extract stimulated uterine contractions in an in situ study.
Anxiolytic Effecgt: Study provided evidence that smelling oils of C hystrix and C microcarpa have anxiolytic property, with the C hystrix having a stronger effect.
• Photodermatitis: Occasional reports of photodermatitis from
rubbing the juice onto the skin for insect bites and as insect repellent. Another report of dermatitis associated with rubbing the juice of the medicinal lime onto the scalp to dye the hair. (eMediine)
Kaffir Lime Oil in the cyberMarket