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Family Amaranthaceae
Dayang
Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) Blume
PASTUREWEED

Bei xian

Scientific names Common names
Achyranthes alternifolia L.f. Bakbaka (Ilk.)
Achyranthes debilis Poir. Dayang (Tag.)
Achyranthes prostrata Linn. Dokat-dokat (Bis.)
Cyathula alternifolia Druce Sait-sait (Sul.)
Cyathula globosa Moq. Tuhod-manok (Tag.)
Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) Blume Pastureweed (Engl.)
Cyathula repens Moq. Bei xian (Chin.)
Desmochaeta micrantha DC.  
Desmochaeta prostata DC.  
Desmochaeta repens Schult.  
Pupalia prostrata (L.) C. Martius.  
Tuhod-manok is a shared common name by (1) Dayang, Cyathula prostrata, and (2) Gandarusa, Justicia gendarussa.
Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Andot ko.
FRENCH: Cyathule couchée
INDONESIA: Rumput jarang-jarang, Ranggitan, Rai-rai fofoheka.
IVORY COAST: Abure ahue, Dan bie.
MALAYSIA: Nyarang, Menjarang, Keremak.
NIGERIA: Fula-fulfulde.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Kinjan.
THAILAND: Yaa phaanngu lek, Yaa phaanghu daeng.
VIETNAME: D[ow]n d[or]g[oj]ng, C[or] x[uw][ows]c, B[oo]ng d[or].

Botany
Dayang is an annual, branched herb, reaching a length of 1 meter or more, with the stems prostrate and creeping below. Leaves are rhomboid-oblong, 2 to 8 centimeters long, and gradually tapering to an acute base. Spikes are terminal and axillary, slender, peduncles, and 5 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, greenish, ovoid, and about 3 millimeters long. Sepals are hairy. Fruit is an ellipsoid utricle, 1.5 to 2 millimeters long, thin-walled, hairless, one-seeded, surrounded by a stiff perianth. Seed is ovoid, 1.5 to 1.5 millimeters long, shiny brown.

Distribution
- In waste places, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines.
- Originally native to tropical Africa and Asia.
- Now Pantropic.

Constituents
- Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids.
- Ethyl acetate fraction yielded two oils: ethyl hexadecanoate (1) (alkyl ester) and 7, 9-Di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro n(4, 5) deca-6, 9-diene-2, 8-dione (2) (diketone). (see study below) (
6)
- Screening of crude ethanolic extract yielded saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, flavonoids.

Properties
- Studies show antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, analgesic, antiinflammatory properties.

Parts used
Whole plant, roots.

Uses

Folkloric
- Used for pruritus,dyspepsia, scabies, skin ulcers, diarrhea, cough, rheumatism, shingles.
- Used by the Malays externally and internally.
- Decoction used for coughs.
- Decoction of roots used for dysentery.
- Kroo people used the ashes of the burnt plants, mixed with water to smear on the body, for craw-craw, scabies, etc.
- In Cameroon, plant used in prescriptions for articular rheumatism and dysentery.
- In Nigeria plant used for by traditional healers to treat cancer, pain and inflammatory disorders.
- In Gabon, used for treating eye troubles, wounds, and urethral discharges.
- In the Ivory Coast, sap is applied to sores and chancres and used for ear drops for otitis. Leafy twigs, flowers, and seeds are pulped into a paste and applied to sores, burns, and fractures.
- In the Guyanas, decoction of whole plant used as wash for headaches; crushed and boiled plant tied over fractures; boiled plants used as antipyretic or herbal bath. Guyana Patamona use macerated leaves for soap; juice of macerated leaves used as antiseptic and applied to cuts and bruises or applied on wounds to stop bleeding.


Studies
Glycinebetaine:
A study of aerial parts of 23 species from 10 genera of Amaranthaceae was done to examine the presence of betaines. Glycinebetaine was the dominant betaine and the highest yield of the compound was from Cyathula geniculata, 2.11% of dry weight. (1)
Cytotoxicity / HeLa Cell Line: In a study on the cytotoxic effect of plant extracts on HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) cell line, Cyathula prostrata was one of five plants that showed over 50% activity at 500 ug/ml. (2)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: In in vivo anti-inflammatory assays using carrageenan, arachidonic acid and xylene-induced tests and analgesic evaluation using acetic acid and hot plate analgesic tests, a methanolic extract showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. (3)
: Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaf stem, bark and rook were investigated against human clinical bacterial and Candida albicans isolates. The greatest activity was seen with the ethanolic fractions. Of the bacteria, the most sensitive isolate was E. coli (95.9%), the least sensitive K pneumonia (40.0%). Candida albicans had a sensitivity of 57.5%. Results suggest a potential source of a novel broad spectrum drug. (5)
Oils / Antibacterial and Antifungal: An ethyl acetate fraction yielded two oils, established to be ethyl hexadecanoate 1 (alkyl ester) and 7, 9-Di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro n (4, 5) deca-6, 9-diene-2, 8-dione 2 (diketone). Both exhibited between marginal and moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities. (6)
Cardioprotective in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of whole plant on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat. Results indicated antioxidant, antilipid peroxidative and anti-ischemic activity in albino rats. Benefits were attributed the CPE phenolic content. (7)
Anti-Cancer / Apoptosis Induction: Study evaluated C. prostrata for cytotoxic benefits on HeLa (cervical cancer cell line) and U937 (myelo-monocytic cell line). Results showed the extract induces apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway, an induction independent of the mitochondria. (8)
Anti-Ulcer / Apoptosis Induction: Study evaluated the mucoprotective action of C. prostrata on experimental and drug-induced ulcer model in rats. The hydroalcoholic extract exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity on the cysteamine-induced ulcer model, possibly through action of the phytoconstituents, reduction of gastric emptying time, and inhibition of hypersecretion of gastric acid. (10)
Hepatoprotective: Study showed very significant hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract on paracetamol-induced acute liver damage in Wistar albino rats. (11)
Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an extract of C. prostrata in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed reversal of the condition by oral administration of the methanol extract. (12)
Anticancer / Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites: Study evaluated the antitumor and antioxidant of Cyathula prostata in mice model with Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells induced tumor. Results showed increased survival of animals, decreased body weight, alteration of hematological markers, and restoration of antioxidant enzymes. (14)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated a crude extract, fractions, and two previously isolated compounds for anti-inflammatory activities. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity comparing favorably with previous studies. (15)
Antioxidant:Study of crude extract, fractions, and isolated showed radical scavenging activity with ß-carotene and DPPH reagents. The mechanism of antioxidant activity could be the same as that of the antiscorbutic activity of vitamin C. (16)
Anticancer / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of methanolic extract in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice with methotrexate as control in advanced stage of tumorigenesis. Results showed significant anticancer activity comparable to that of methotrexate, with reversal of tumor-induced alterations in DNA fragmentation. (17)
In Vitro Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer activity of an 80% ethanol extract of C. prostata. Results showed anticancer activity acting through multiple targets, via induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase through an unknown mechanism; apoptosis through an extrinsic death receptor pathway and replicative senescence through inhibition of telomerase. (18)
Mosquitocidal / Anopheles gambiae: Study evaluated the larvicidal potential of crude extracts of ten Nigerian plants against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae mosquito. At 10%w/v (12 and 24 h) showed larvicidal activity. (19)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update Septenber 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: Cathula prostrata / Reinaldo Aguilar / Click on image to go to source page/ Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial / flickr
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Roger Graveson's The Plants of Saint Lucia: Amaranthaceae / Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) Blume / Click on image to go to source page / Saint Lucian Plants

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Betaine distribution in the Amaranthaceae / Gerald Blunden, Ming-he Yang et al /
Biochemical Systematics and Ecology, Volume 27, Issue 1, January 1999, Pages 87-92 / doi:10.1016/S0305-1978(98)00072-6
(2)
CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF SELECTED NIGERIAN PLANTS / A Sowemimo, M van de Venter et al / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2009, pp. 526-528
(3)
Antiinflammatory, analgesic and antioxidant activities of Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) Blume (Amaranthaceae) /
Bolanle Ibrahim, Abimbola Sowemimo,∗, Anzel van Rooyen, Maryna Van de Venter / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 141 (2012) 282–289
(4)
Cyathula prostrata (Linn.) / Common names / JSTOR Plant Science
(5)
Antimicrobial and phytochemical evaluation of the leaf, stem bark and root extracts of Cyathula prostrata (L) Blume against some human pathogens / Gideon Ikechukwu Ogu, Williams Omotola Tanimowo, Perpetua Ugonna Nwachukwu, Bright Esegbuyota Igere / J Intercult Ethnopharmacol. 2012; 1(1): 35-43 / doi: 10.5455/jice.20120407085952
(6)
Two Oils from the Ethyl-acetate Fraction of Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume / Olawale H. Oladimeji, and Cyril O. Usifoh * / Bull. Env. Pharmacol. Life Scien. Volume 1 [12] November 2012: 54- 59
(7)
Cardioprotective Effect of Cyathula prostrata Linn on Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction in Rat / Ramadoss. S*, Kannan. K, Balamurugan. K, Jeganathan NS and Manavalan R / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 3, No 2, April-June 2012
(8)
The anticancer activity of Cyathula prostrata on two malignant cell lines / Gerald Schnablegger / Dissertation / 2010 / Nelson Mandela Metropolitan University
(9)
Cyathula prostrata / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(10)
Evaluation of Hydroalcoholic extract of Cyathula prostrata for Different Antiulcer Models / S. Janardhanan*, K. Elango, B. Suresh and M N Satishkumar / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol 3 (3), Jul-Sep 2012.
(11)
HEPATOPROTECTIVE EFFECTS OF CYATHULA PROSTRATA LINN. IN PARACETAMOL INDUCED LIVER INJURY IN RATS / Ramadoss.S*, Kannan.K, Balamurugan.K, Jeganathan.N.S, Manavalan.R / Journal of Pharmaceutical Research and Opinion 1: 7 (2011) 178 – 180.
(12)
Protective Effect of Cyathula prostrata Extract on Alloxan Induced Diabetes Mellitus in Rats
/Kavitha M, Gurusamy K, Priya K and Kowshik J / The IUP Journal of Biotechnology
(13)
Cyathula prostata / Synonyms / The Plant List
(14)
Anticancer activity of Cyathula prostrata (Linn) Blume against Dalton's lymphomae in mice model. /
Mayakrishnan V, Kannappan P, Shanmugasundaram K, Abdullah N / Pak J Pharm Sci. 2014 Nov;27(6):1911-7.
(15)
Anti-inflammatory Activity of Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume / Olawale H. Oladimeji*, and Cyril O. Usifoh / Afr. J. Pharmacol. Ther. 2015. 4(1): 28-32
(16)
NOVEL ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF CYATHULA PROSTRATA (L.) BLUME) / Olawale H. Oladimeji,* Cyril O. Usifoh and Emmanuel E. Attih / Eur. Chem. Bull., 2014, 3(4), 352-357
(17)
Cyathula prostrata: A potent source of anticancer agent against daltons ascites in Swiss albino mice / K Priyaa, S Krishnakumari, M Vijayakumar / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, Volume 6, Issue 10, October 2013, Pages 776–779
(18)
Cyathula prostrata inhibits in vitro cancer cell growth via multiple targets / M Van De Venter, GE Schnablegger, L Baatjies, TC Koekemoer, A Sowemimo / Planta Med 2011; 77 - PM133
DOI: 10.1055/s-0031-1282891
(19)
POTENTIAL LARVICIDES IN NIGERIAN HERBAL RECIPES / Olawale H. Oladimeji*, Leonard Ani and Emmanuel Nyong / IJPSR (2012), Vol. 3, Issue 10
(20)
Cyathula prostata / Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) /

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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