Dayang is an annual, branched herb, reaching a length of 1 meter or more, with the stems prostrate and creeping below. Leaves are rhomboid-oblong, 2 to 8 centimeters long, and gradually tapering to an acute base. Spikes are terminal and axillary, slender, peduncles, and 5 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are numerous, greenish, ovoid, and about 3 millimeters long. Sepals are hairy. Fruit is an ellipsoid utricle, 1.5 to 2 millimeters long, thin-walled, hairless, one-seeded, surrounded by a stiff perianth. Seed is ovoid, 1.5 to 1.5 millimeters long, shiny brown.
- In waste places, thickets, etc., at low and medium altitudes, throughout the Philippines.
- Originally native to tropical Africa and Asia.
- Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides and steroids.
Ethyl acetate fraction yielded two oils: ethyl hexadecanoate (1) (alkyl ester) and 7, 9-Di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro n(4, 5) deca-6, 9-diene-2, 8-dione (2) (diketone). (see study below) (6)
- Screening of crude ethanolic extract yielded saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, terpenes, flavonoids.
- GC-MS analysis of C. prostata yielded 13 secondary metabolites from essential
oils, terpenes palmitic acid ester, diterpene and terpenes. (see study below) (22)
- GC-MS analysis yielded 24 compounds, among which are Benzene (1-methyl decyl) (1), Tetracosanoic acid (8), Dibenzo[b,f][1,4] diazocine (11), Docosanoic acid methyl ester (14), Formic acid -3, 7, 11- tri methyl-1, 6, 10-dodecatriene-3-yl ester (15), Cis-vaccinic acid (17), 1-phenyl-3,4-dihydroisoquinoline (22), 9-octadecanoic acid (z) methyl ester (21) and Heptacocosanoic acid, methyl ester (19). (23)
- Study of aqueous extract of leaves yielded saponins, flavonoid, tannin, phenol, steroid and glycosides, with an absence of carbohydrate. (24)
- Studies show antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, analgesic, analgesic, antiulcer, hepatoprotective, antiinflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, antioxidant properties.
Whole plant, roots.
- In Gabon and Zaire, the leaves are eaten as vegetable. (4)
- Used for pruritus,dyspepsia, scabies, skin ulcers, diarrhea, cough, rheumatism, shingles.
- Used by the Malays externally and internally.
- Decoction used for coughs.
- Decoction of roots used for dysentery.
- Kroo people used the ashes of the burnt plants, mixed with water to smear on the body, for craw-craw, scabies, etc. (4)
- In Cameroon, plant used in prescriptions for articular rheumatism and dysentery. (4)
- In Nigeria plant used for by traditional healers to treat cancer, pain and inflammatory disorders.
- In Gabon, used for treating eye troubles, wounds, and urethral discharges.
- In the Ivory Coast, sap is applied to sores and chancres and used for ear drops for otitis. Leafy twigs, flowers, and seeds are pulped into a paste and applied to sores, burns, and fractures. (4) Leaves and whole herb used for rheumatic fever, dysentery, stomach pains. (25)
- In the Guyanas, decoction of whole plant used as wash for headaches; crushed and boiled plant tied over fractures; boiled plants used as antipyretic or herbal bath. Guyana Patamona use macerated leaves for soap; juice of macerated leaves used as antiseptic and applied to cuts and bruises or applied on wounds to stop bleeding. (20)
• Glycinebetaine: A study of aerial parts of 23 species from 10 genera of Amaranthaceae was done to examine the presence of betaines. Glycinebetaine was the dominant betaine and the highest yield of the compound was from Cyathula geniculata, 2.11% of dry weight. (1)
• Cytotoxicity / HeLa Cell Line: In a study on the cytotoxic effect of plant extracts on HeLa (cervix adenocarcinoma) cell line, Cyathula prostrata was one of five plants that showed over 50% activity at 500 ug/ml. (2)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: In in vivo anti-inflammatory assays using carrageenan, arachidonic acid and xylene-induced tests and analgesic evaluation using acetic acid and hot plate analgesic tests, a methanolic extract showed dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. (3)
• : Aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaf stem, bark and rook were investigated against human clinical bacterial and Candida albicans isolates. The greatest activity was seen with the ethanolic fractions. Of the bacteria, the most sensitive isolate was E. coli (95.9%), the least sensitive K pneumonia (40.0%). Candida albicans had a sensitivity of 57.5%. Results suggest a potential source of a novel broad spectrum drug. (5)
• Oils / Antibacterial and Antifungal: An ethyl acetate fraction yielded two oils, established to be ethyl hexadecanoate 1 (alkyl ester) and 7, 9-Di-tert-butyl-1-oxaspiro n (4, 5) deca-6, 9-diene-2, 8-dione 2 (diketone). Both exhibited between marginal and moderate antibacterial and antifungal activities. (6)
• Cardioprotective in Isoproterenol Induced Myocardial Infarction: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of whole plant on isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction in rat. Results indicated antioxidant, antilipid peroxidative and anti-ischemic activity in albino rats. Benefits were attributed the CPE phenolic content. (7)
• Anti-Cancer / Apoptosis Induction: Study evaluated C. prostrata for cytotoxic benefits on HeLa (cervical cancer cell line) and U937 (myelo-monocytic cell line). Results showed the extract induces apoptosis via the extrinsic pathway, an induction independent of the mitochondria. (8)
• Anti-Ulcer / Apoptosis Induction: Study evaluated the mucoprotective action of C. prostrata on experimental and drug-induced ulcer model in rats. The hydroalcoholic extract exhibited significant dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity on the cysteamine-induced ulcer model, possibly through action of the phytoconstituents, reduction of gastric emptying time, and inhibition of hypersecretion of gastric acid. (10)
• Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Induced Toxicity: Study showed very significant hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract on paracetamol-induced acute liver damage in Wistar albino rats. (11)
• Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antidiabetic effect of an extract of C. prostrata in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed reversal of the condition by oral administration of the methanol extract. (12)
• Anticancer / Dalton's Lymphoma Ascites: Study evaluated the antitumor and antioxidant of Cyathula prostata in mice model with Dalton's lymphoma ascites cells induced tumor. Results showed increased survival of animals, decreased body weight, alteration of hematological markers, and restoration of antioxidant enzymes. (14)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated a crude extract, fractions, and two previously isolated compounds for anti-inflammatory activities using xylene and chorio-allantoic membrane models. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity comparing favorably with previous studies. Phytochemical screening yielded flavonoids and terpenes, compounds which have shown anti-inflammatory activities in previous studies. (15)
• Antioxidant: Study of crude extract, fractions, and isolated showed radical scavenging activity with ß-carotene and DPPH reagents. The mechanism of antioxidant activity could be the same as that of the antiscorbutic activity of vitamin C. (16)
• Anticancer / Ehrlich Ascites Carcinoma: Study evaluated the anticancer activity of methanolic extract in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC)-bearing mice with methotrexate as control in advanced stage of tumorigenesis. Results showed significant anticancer activity comparable to that of methotrexate, with reversal of tumor-induced alterations in DNA fragmentation. (17)
• In Vitro Inhibition of Cancer Cell Growth: Study evaluated the in vitro anticancer activity of an 80% ethanol extract of C. prostata. Results showed anticancer activity acting through multiple targets, via induction of cell cycle arrest in the G1 phase through an unknown mechanism; apoptosis through an extrinsic death receptor pathway and replicative senescence through inhibition of telomerase. (18)
• Mosquitocidal / Anopheles gambiae: Study evaluated the larvicidal potential of crude extracts of ten Nigerian plants against fourth instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae mosquito. At 10%w/v (12 and 24 h) showed larvicidal activity. (19)
• Cytotoxicity / Cervical Cancer Cell Line / Extrinsic Pathway of Apoptosis: Cyathula prostata has shown cytotoxicity against cervical cancer cell line, HeLa. Study of ethanol extract of C. prostata investigated the mode of cell death--the progression of cells through the cell cycle, apoptosis and mitochondrial membrane potential. Results suggest a cytotoxic mechanism involving the activation of the extrinsic pathway of apoptosis in HeLa and U937 cells with ethanol extract of C prostata. (21)
• Antihypertensive: Study evaluated the effect of C. prostata in a rat model with hypertension induced by adrenaline. Results showed a marked decrease in measured blood pressure parameters. GC-MS analysis yielded 13 secondary metabolites. (see constituents above) (22)