Wampi is a small tree about 7 meters high. Leaves are dark green, pinnate, with 5 to 9 leaflets. Each leaflet has a stalk about 3 millimeters long, the blade ovate-elliptic, lanceolate or ovate, about 7 to 10 centimeters or more in length, pointed at the tip, much wider on one side of the base. Flowers are borne in terminal panicles, white, about 14 millimeters in diameter. Petals are five, white, and boat-shaped. Calyx is small and five-parted. Stamens are 10, with conspicuous yellow anthers. Ovary is five-celled, borne on a short stalk, covered with hairy nobs, and surrounded by a short style terminating in a rounded stigma. Fruit is ivory yellow, rounded, about 2 centimeters in diameter, very slightly flattened at the base, somewhat rounded at the tip, and borne in bunches. Skin of the fruit is thin and soft, dotted with minute, raised, somewhat darker-colored spots, covered with short hairs, and marked by five, usually very inconspicuous, longitudinal lines which are lighter in color than the remainder of the fruit. Flesh is yellowish white, soft, juicy, somewhat acid in taste; cross-section shows a division into five segments by thin, white lines. Usually one to four of the segments contain a single, rather large, flattened green seed, attached near the apex of the fruit.
-Uncommon cultivation in the Philippines.
- Introduced from and commonly cultivated in China for its edible fruit.
- Known in the Philippines earlier than 1837; reintroduced from China in 1912.
• GC/MS study for essential oil extracted yielded ß-santalol (35.2%),
bisabolol (13.7%), methyl santalol (6.9%), ledol (6.5%), and sinensal (5.6%) from the leaves; Flowers: ß-santalol (50.8%),
9-octadecenamide (17.2%), sinensal (4.1%) from flowers; beta-santalol (52.0%), alpha-santanol (15.5%), farnesol (5.2%), and sinensal (4.0%) from the sarcocarps; and phellandrene (54.8%), limonene (23.6%), p-menth-1-en-4-ol (7.5%). (2)
• Study yielded seven compounds: corchoionoside C, 1'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (2R,3S)-3-hydroxynodakenetin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, rutin, quercetin-3-O-scillabioside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and mauritianin.
• Study isolated a novel oxirane carboxamide from a hexane extract.
• Study of fresh and dried fruits of Clausena lansium showed an abundance of amino acids, the total free and hydrolyzed amino was 4.8 mg/g and 15.0 mg/g in fresh fruit; 4.6 mg/g and 15.0 mg/g in dried fruit. (10)
- Study of crude extracts of twigs and roots yielded 12 compounds viz., xanthotoxol (1), imperatorin (2), heraclenol (3), heraclenin (4), wampetin (5), indicolactonediol (6), murrayanine (7), O-demethylmurrayanine (8), indizoline (9), 3-formyl-6-methoxycarbazole (10), lansine (11) and glycozolidal (12). (see study below) (12)
- Study isolated six compounds from stems of Clausena lansium viz., imperatorin (1), isoimperatorin (2), 8-geranyloxypsolaren (3), 3-formylcarbazole (4), methyl carbazole-3-carboxylate, (5) and 2-methoxy-1-(3-methyl-buten-1-yl)-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde (6). (see study below) (13)
- Study obtained volatile components from fruits, seeds, and leaves of C. lansium. The sesquiterpene fraction (28%) was the major leaf component, monoterpene (76-98%) in the flesh, skin, and seed. Sabinene was the main component in the leaf (14.9%), flesh (50.6%), skin (69.1%) and seed (83.6%). Other components were: (leaf) ß-bisabolene (9.9%), ß-caryophyllene (7.7%) and α-zingiberene (6.5%); (flesh) 3-cyclohexen-1-ol (15%), cyclohexene (6.5%), 1,4 cyclohexadiene (6.2%) and α-phellandrere (5%); (skin) α-phellandrene (10.6%), α-pinene (9.4%) and isosativene (1.4%); and (seed) α-pinene (4.3%), α-phellandrene (3.0%), and myrcene (2.9%). (14)
- n-Hexane extract of leaves yielded five compounds: dihydroindicolactone (1), 8-geranyloxy psoralen (2), imperatorin (3), heraclenol (4) and indicolactone (5). (see study below)
- Study isolated a novel oxirane carboxamide, SB-204900, from a hexane extract of C. lansium.
- 100 g of wampee yields 55 Kcal, 84% moisture, 0.9 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 14.1 g carbohydrate, 0.8 g fiber, 0.9 g ash, 19 mg phosphorus, 281 mg potassium, 15 mg calcium.
- Study of water extract of stems yielded two new phenolic glycosides, Clausenolside A-B (1,2), one new pair of phenolic enantiomers (3a, 3b), two new monoterpenoids, clausenapene A-B (4,5), along with 12 known analogues (6-17). Compounds 1-17 were isolated from C. lansium for the first time. (see study below) (22)
- Study of leaves yielded eight new clausenamides, including three γ-lactams (1–3), four δ-lactams (4–7), an amide (8), along with seven known lactams. (see study below) (29)
- Chemical and spectroscopic study
of plant branches yielded three new furanocoumarins, lansiumarin A, B, and C. (30)
GC-MS study of wampee fruits for volatile compounds using four different drying methods yielded 53 components, including 17 monoterpene hyydrocarbons, 14 sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, 10 alcohols, 3 aldehydes, 4 ketons, 1 carboxylic acid, and 4 terpene oxides. Relative peak areas of major components were sabinene (33.68-66.73%), α-pinene (9.57-13.35%), l-phellandrene (5.77-10.76%), and myrcene (3.20-4.50%). (31)
Study of roots and rhizomes isolated two new cyclic nonapeptides, clausenlanins A and B. (33)
• Bitter, pungent-tasting, slightly
warming, anti-cold, antifebrile, improves circulation and analgesic.
• Considered stomachic, cooling and anthelmintic.
• Studies have shown
antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, antitrichomonal, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, insecticidal, antifungal, antioxidant, nephroprotective, neuroprotective, antimicrobial properties.
Collect leaves from August to October (early gathering of the
leaves affects fruiting.)
Dry under shade.
• Condiment: as substitute for Curry leaf tree.
• Fruit used to make juice and beverage.
• In China, a much esteemed fruit, made into delicious preserves.
• For influenza, cold, malaria: use 15 to 30 gms dried leaves
•For gastric pains, abdominal colic pains: use drupe, 9-15 gms
• In some countries, used for bronchitis, malaria, hepatitis,
• In China, used
to treat bronchitis and inflammation. Leaf decoction used as hair shampoo.
• In Tonkin, the dried fruit is used in bronchitis.
• Leaves have been used for cough, asthma and gastrointestinal diseases; fruit for digestive disorders and seeds for GI disorders and chronic gastrointestinal ulcers.
Stem Bark / Anti-trichomonal / Anti-diabetic / Anti-inflammatory / Hepatoprotective
/ Antioxidant: Study isolated compounds with various
biologic activities: Imperatorin and 3-formylcarbazole showed anti-trichomonal
activity; Imperatorin and chalepin were the active constituents responsible
for insulin release and anti-diabetic activity. Results also exhibited
antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. (1)
• Antinociceptive / Neuroleptic:
ß-santalol, the main constituent of the essential oils of leaves,
flowers and sarcocarps has antinociceptive CNS effects and can be considered
• Insecticidal / Seeds:
Phellandrene, the main constituent of the seed oil has been shown to
• Hepatoprotective / Leaves:
Study showed the hepatoprotective actions of eight of nine compounds
isolated from the leaves of C lansium, decreasing the hepatotoxicity
of thioacetamide and acetaminophen in mice. (3)
• Antifungal / Antiproliferative
/ HIV Reverse Transcriptase-Inhibition: Study isolated
from the seeds of CL, a homodimeric trypsin inhibitor which exhibited
antifungal, anti-HIV reverse transcriptase and antiproliferative activities. (4)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer: Study of various extracts and fractions showed the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, reducing power and superoxide scavenging activity. Also, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human cancer cell lines – gastric carcinoma, hepatocellular liver carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma, higher than cisplatin. Results suggest wampee peel as a potential source of natural antioxidants and possible pharmaceutical supplement. (5)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer / 8-Hydroxypsoralen: Study yielded a pure compound - 8-hydroxypsoralen from the wampee peel. It exhibited good scavenging activities against DPPH radical and superoxide anion and also showed potent proliferation inhibition against seceral human cancer cell lines (hepatocellular liver carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma). (9)
• Pharmacologic Properties / Biologic Activities: A study showed the superiority of the dichlormethane extract over the methanolic extract. Various activities showed were significant anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-trichomonal activities. Its antidiabetic action was through stimulation of insulin release, mediated by imperatorin and chalepin.
• Coumarins / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated two new coumarins, clausenalansimin A and B, together with seven known coumarins from the twigs of C lansium. Some isolated showed cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, and NCI-Hi87).
• Anti-Allergic / Leaves: Study showed extracts contained phenolic, flavones, alkaloid, organic acid, coumarins etc. Results showed the antiallergic components contained mainly phenolics and flavones. The inhibitory effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts on hyaluronidase was about 89 and 75% respectively. (8)
• Bu-7 / Protection Against Rotenone Injury / Parkinson's Disease: Study investigated Bu-7. a flavonoid isolated from the leaves of C. lansium against rotenone-injury in PC12 cells. Results showed Bu-7 protects PC12 cells against rotenone injury, which may be attributed to MAP kinases cascade signaling pathway. Bu-7 may be a potential bioactive compound for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (11)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of crude extracts of twigs and roots yielded 12 compounds. Pure compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Three carbazole alkaloid components (compounds 10, 11, and 12) demonstrated antibacterial activity against periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Compound 10 and crude extract of twig exhibited impressive anti-inflammatory potency. (see constituents above) (12)
• Cytotoxic Constituents / Stems: Study of stems yielded 6 compounds. Compounds 4-6 showed potent cytotoxic activity against H1299 (non-small cell lung carcinoma) and SMMC-7721 (liver cancer) with IC50 values of 6.19 to 26.84 µg/mL. (see constituents above) (13)
• Antifungal / Constituents / Leaves: Study of n-hexane fraction of leaves isolated five compounds. In evaluation for antifungal activity against yeast Malassezia globosa, n-hexane fraction showed moderate activity. (see constituents above) (15)
• Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study isolated nine compounds from the leaves of C. lansium. All nine compounds, except for demethylsecoclausenamide, significantly depressed elevated transaminase in mice intoxicated with CCl4. More abundant components, seco-clausenamide and clausenamide, caused decrease hepatotoxicity of thioacetamide and acetaminophen in mice. Clausenamide significantly inhibited CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation of liver microsomes and C-CCl4 covalent binding to microsomal lipids. (16)
• Wine / Fruit / Brewing Technology: Study reports on the brewing technology of Clausena lansium fruit wine with wine yeast and da qu. Fruit wine produced was dark yellow in color, liquor tasting, sweet, with a fragrant fruit smell, with an alcohol content between 6-9%, sugars <3g/L, and a total acid (citric) 6.0-8.0 g/L. (18)
• Monoterpenoid Coumarins / Hypoglycemic / α-Glucosidase Inhibitory: Study isolated two new monoterpenoid coumarins, clauslactone V (1) and clauslactone W (2), together with known analogues (3-5) from the peels of C. lansium. All compounds (were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity, and compounds 1-5 showed in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. (19)
• Neuroprotective / Hepatoprotective /
Stems: Water extract of stems isolated 17 compounds. Compounds 3a, 3b, 4, 16, and 17 showed moderate or strong neuroprotective effects on inhibited PC12 cell injury induced by okadaic acid, and compound 9 showed strong potential hepatoprotective activities. (see constituents above) (22)
• Effect of Leaf Stage Development on Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity: Wampee leaves are an excellent source of bioactive compounds with high antioxidant activities. Study showed a spectacular increase in bound phenlics, flavonoids, and cellular antioxidant activities with the development of leaves at different stages. Predominantly, quercetiin and ferulic acid contents were high in free bound and bound fraction of old leaves. Phenolic components showed highly significant positive association (p<0.05) with antioxidant activity. Old leaves have the same utility value as leaf buds and could be a sustainable source of bioactive compounds for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical industrial applications. (23)
• Antimicrobial Aginst Periodontopathic Bacteria and Cytotoxic Activity: Study investigated the antimicrobial activity of Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum and Clausena lansium against periodontophathic bacteria. The plant extracts showed comparable antimicrobial efficacy against black-pigmented bacteria strains comparable to standard drug chlorhexidine. CD50 of CF and CL on HGF cells were 0.37 and 0.16 mg/ml, respectively. (24)
• Leaf Composition / Antifungal Activity: Stud of n-hexane extract led to the isolated of five compounds i.e., dihydroindicolactone (1), 8- geraanyloxy psoralen,(2), imperatorin (3), herclenol (4) and indicolactone (5). Antifungal assay was carried out using Malasseia globosa. The isolated compounds and some fractions showedn weak activity against the yeast, except for n-hexane extract which showed noderate activity. Parant compounds like xanthotoxol11 and xanthotoxin12 showed strong activity against the yeast. (25)
• Carbazole Alkaloids / Cytotoxicity to Cancer Cells / Branches and Leaves: Study of a methanol extract of branches nd leaves of C. lansium yielded nine carbazole alkaloids (1-9), including two new carbazole alkaloids, claulaniums A and B (1, 2). The compounds were tested for cytotoxic activity against A549 annd Hela cancer cerll lines. Compounds 2-6 showed varying degrees of cytotoxicity to the cancer cell lines, with IC50s rangee from 8.67 to 98.89 µmol/L. (26)
• Essential Oil / Tumor Inhibition / Antioxidant / Fruit: Water vapor distillation extracted volatile oil in Wampee fruits. TLC and GCMS revealed 25 peaks and 23 components with high levels of phellandrene (36.97%), terpinen-4-ol (17.58%), sabinene hydrate (13.76%). The concentration of volatile oil in certain concentration rage was postively correlated with the clearance of hydorxyl radical. The EO also showed antibacterial effect to S. aureus, B. subtilis, and E. coli. The EO also exhibited a tumor inhibition effect on mous pnacrectic cancer cells. (27)
• Alkaoids / Lansiumamide / Increase Insulin sensitivity / Anti-Obesity / Seeds: Studu of seeds isolated a novel alkaloid, clausoxamine (1), along with six known analogues. Lansiumamide B, was found to reduce fat mass gain and improve insulin sensitivity on high fat diet treated mice. Results suggested a potentiaal anti-obesity and insulin sensitizing agent. (28)
• Clausenamides / Protection of Cortical Neurons / Leaves: Study of leaves yielded eight new clausenamides, including three γ-lactams (1–3), four δ-lactams (4–7), an amide (8), along with seven known lactams. Compound 2 (50 µM) protected 22.24% of cortical neurons against Aß25-35-induced cell death. (29)
• Furanocoumarins / Neuroprotective: Study of stems for bioactive constituents yielded four furano-coumarins, claucoumarins A-D, ad 13 known analogs. On in vitro testing, several of the compounds showed selective neuroprotective effects at concentration of 10 µM. (30)
• Clausenamide / Antioxidative / Antiapoptotic / Acetaminophen Induced Nephrotoxicity / Leaves: Study of leaves isolated (+)-clausenamide ((+)--CLA), which was evaluated for protective potential against acetaminophen (APAP)-induced nephrotoxicity in mice. APAP-induced kidney injury significantly increased cell apoptosis in renal tubules. Increase in rena MDA level, depletion of GSH, reductions in CAT and SOD activities in renal tissue suggested APAP-induced kidney injury was mediated by oxidative stress. Results showed the (+)-CLA could be a promising antidote for APAP-induced acute renal damaged through its antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects. (34)