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Family Rutaceae
Wampi
Clausena lansium (Lour.)
WAMPEE

Huang pi guo

Scientific names  Common names 
Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels Galumpi (Tag.) 
Quinaria lansium Lour. Huampit (Tag.) 
Cookia wampi Blanco Uampi (Tag.)
Cookia punctata Sonn. Uampit (Tag.)
Clausena wampi Oliv. Wampi (Tag.) 
Clausena punctata Rehder & Wils. Wampit (Tag.) 
  Chinese clausena (Engl.)
  Fool's curry leaf (Engl.)
  Wampee (Engl.) 
  Huang pi guo (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Huang pi, Huang pi zi.
DUTCH: Vampi.
FRENCH: Vampi, Wampi.
JAPANESE: Kurausena ranjuumu, Kurauzena ranshiumu, Wanpii.
KHMER: Kantrop, Sômz maf'ai.
LAOTIAN: Somz mafai.
MALAY: Wampi, Wang-pei, Wampoi
RUSSIAN: Klauzena tochechnaia, Vampi.
THAI: Ma fai chin, Som ma fai, Mafai chin, Ueng-tuai, Ueng-tua, Ueng-phuai.
VIETNAMESE: Hoàng bi, Hồng bì, Quất hồng bì.

Botany
Wampi is a small tree about 7 meters high. Leaves are dark green, pinnate, with 5 to 9 leaflets. Each leaflet has a stalk about 3 millimeters long, the blade ovate-elliptic, lanceolate or ovate, about 7 to 10 centimeters or more in length, pointed at the tip, much wider on one side of the base. Flowers are borne in terminal panicles, white, about 14 millimeters in diameter. Petals are five, white, and boat-shaped. Calyx is small and five-parted. Stamens are 10, with conspicuous yellow anthers. Ovary is five-celled, borne on a short stalk, covered with hairy nobs, and surrounded by a short style terminating in a rounded stigma. Fruit is ivory yellow, rounded, about 2 centimeters in diameter, very slightly flattened at the base, somewhat rounded at the tip, and borne in bunches. Skin of the fruit is thin and soft, dotted with minute, raised, somewhat darker-colored spots, covered with short hairs, and marked by five, usually very inconspicuous, longitudinal lines which are lighter in color than the remainder of the fruit. Flesh is yellowish white, soft, juicy, somewhat acid in taste; cross-section shows a division into five segments by thin, white lines. Usually one to four of the segments contain a single, rather large, flattened green seed, attached near the apex of the fruit.

Distribution
- Uncommon cultivation in the Philippines.
- Introduced from and commonly cultivated in China for its edible fruit.
- Known in the Philippines earlier than 1837; reintroduced from China in 1912.

Constituents
• Essential oil extracted yielded: (1) Leaves: ß-santalol, bisabolol, methyl santalol, ledol and sinensal (2) Flowers: ß-santalol, 9-octadecenamide, sinensal (3) Seeds: phellandrene, limonene, p-menth-1-en-4-ol.

• Study yielded seven compounds: corchoionoside C, 1'-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl (2R,3S)-3-hydroxynodakenetin, quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, rutin, quercetin-3-O-scillabioside, kaempferol-3-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->2)[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1-->6)]-beta-D-glucopyranoside and mauritianin.
• Study isolated a novel oxirane carboxamide from a hexane extract.
• Study of fresh and dried fruits of Clausena lansium showed an abundance of amino acids, the total free and hydrolyzed amino was 4.8 mg/g and 15.0 mg/g in fresh fruit; 4.6 mg/g and 15.0 mg/g in dried fruit. (10)
- Study of crude extracts of twigs and roots yielded 12 compounds viz., xanthotoxol (1), imperatorin (2), heraclenol (3), heraclenin (4), wampetin (5), indicolactonediol (6), murrayanine (7), O-demethylmurrayanine (8), indizoline (9), 3-formyl-6-methoxycarbazole (10), lansine (11) and glycozolidal (12). (see study below) (12)
- Study isolated six compounds from stems of Clausena lansium viz., imperatorin (1), isoimperatorin (2), 8-geranyloxypsolaren (3), 3-formylcarbazole (4), methyl carbazole-3-carboxylate, (5) and 2-methoxy-1-(3-methyl-buten-1-yl)-9H-carbazole-3-carbaldehyde (6). (see study below) (13)
- Study obtained volatile components from fruits, seeds, and leaves of C. lansium. The sesquiterpene fraction (28%) was the major leaf component, monoterpene (76-98%) in the flesh, skin, and seed. Sabinene was the main component in the leaf (14.9%), flesh (50.6%), skin (69.1%) and seed (83.6%). Other components were: (leaf)
ß-bisabolene (9.9%), ß-caryophyllene (7.7%) and α-zingiberene (6.5%); (flesh) 3-cyclohexen-1-ol (15%), cyclohexene (6.5%), 1,4 cyclohexadiene (6.2%) and α-phellandrere (5%); (skin) α-phellandrene (10.6%), α-pinene (9.4%) and isosativene (1.4%); and (seed) α-pinene (4.3%), α-phellandrene (3.0%), and myrcene (2.9%). (14)
- n-Hexane extract of leaves yielded five compounds: dihydroindicolactone (1), 8-geranyloxy psoralen (2), imperatorin (3), heraclenol (4) and indicolactone (5). (see study below) (15)
- Study isolated a novel oxirane carboxamide, SB-204900, from a hexane extract of C. lansium. (17)
- 100 g of wampee yields 55 Kcal, 84% moisture, 0.9 g protein, 0.1 g fat, 14.1 g carbohydrate, 0.8 g fiber, 0.9 g ash, 19 mg phosphorus, 281 mg potassium, 15 mg calcium.

Properties
• Bitter, pungent-tasting, slightly warming, anti-cold, antifebrile, improves circulation and analgesic.
Considered stomachic, cooling and anthelmintic.

Parts utilized
Leaves, fruits.
Collect leaves from August to October (early gathering of the leaves affects fruiting.)
Dry under shade.

Uses
Culinary
• Condiment: as substitute for Curry leaf tree.
• Fruit used to make juice and beverage.

In China, a much esteemed fruit, made into delicious preserves.
Folkloric

• For influenza, cold, malaria: use 15 to 30 gms dried leaves in decoction.
•For gastric pains, abdominal colic pains: use drupe, 9-15 gms in decoction.
• In some countries, used for bronchitis, malaria, hepatitis, gastrointestinal inflammation.
• In China, used for bronchitis. Leaf decoction used as hair shampoo.
• In Tonkin, the dried fruit is used in bronchitis.
• Leaves have been used for cough, asthma and gastrointestinal diseases; fruit for digestive disorders and seeds for GI disorders and chronic gastrointestinal ulcers.

Studies
Stem Bark / Anti-trichomonal / Anti-diabetic / Anti-inflammatory / Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant: Study isolated compounds with various biologic activities: Imperatorin and 3-formylcarbazole showed anti-trichomonal activity; Imperatorin and chalepin were the active constituents responsible for insulin release and anti-diabetic activity. Results also exhibited antioxidant, antiinflammatory and hepatoprotective effects. (1)
Antinociceptive / Neuroleptic: ß-santalol, the main constituent of the essential oils of leaves, flowers and sarcocarps has antinociceptive CNS effects and can be considered a neuroleptic.
Insecticidal: Phellandrene, the main constituent of the seed oil has been shown to be insecticidal.
Hepatoprotective: Study showed the hepatoprotective actions of eight of nine compounds isolated from the leaves of C lansium, decreasing the hepatotoxicity of thioacetamide and acetaminophen in mice. (3)
Antifungal / Antiproliferative / HIV Reverse Transcriptase-Inhibition: Study isolated from the seeds of CL, a homodimeric trypsin inhibitor which exhibited antifungal, anti-HIV reverse transcriptase and antiproliferative activities. (4)
Antioxidant / Anticancer: A study of various extracts and fractions showed the ethyl acetate fraction exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, reducing power and superoxide scavenging activity. Also, the EAF exhibited strong anticancer activities against human cancer cell lines – gastric carcinoma, hepatocellular liver carcinoma and lung adenocarcinoma, higher than cisplatin. Results suggest wampee peel as a potential source of natural antioxidants and possible pharmaceutical supplement. (5)
Antioxidant / Anticancer / 8-Hydroxypsoralen: Study yielded a pure compound - 8-hydroxypsoralen from the wampee peel. It exhibited good scavenging activities against DPPH radical and superoxide anion and also showed potent proliferation inhibition against seceral human cancer cell lines (hepatocellular liver carcinoma, lung adenocarcinoma and cervical carcinoma). (9)
Pharmacologic Properties / Biologic Activities: A study showed the superiority of the dichlormethane extract over the methanolic extract. Various activities showed were significant anti-hyperglycemic, hepatoprotective, antioxidant and anti-trichomonal activities. Its antidiabetic action was through stimulation of insulin release, mediated by imperatorin and chalepin.
Coumarins / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated two new coumarins, clausenalansimin A and B, together with seven known coumarins from the twigs of C lansium. Some isolated showed cytotoxicity against human cancer cell lines (KB, MCF7, and NCI-Hi87).
Anti-Allergic: Study showed extracts contained phenolic, flavones, alkaloid, organic acid, coumarins etc. Results showed the antiallergic components contained mainly phenolics and flavones. The inhibitory effects of aqueous and ethanol extracts on hyaluronidase was about 89 and 75% respectively. (8)
Bu-7 / Protection Against Rotenone Injury / Parkinson's Disease: Study investigated Bu-7. a flavonoid isolated from the leaves of C. lansium against rotenone-injury in PC12 cells. Results showed Bu-7 protects PC12 cells against rotenone injury, which may be attributed to MAP kinases cascade signaling pathway. Bu-7 may be a potential bioactive compound for the treatment of Parkinson's disease. (11)
Antibacterial / Anti-Inflammatory: Study of crude extracts of twigs and roots yielded 12 compounds. Pure compounds were evaluated for antibacterial and anti-inflammatory activities. Three carbazole alkaloid components (compounds 10, 11, and 12) demonstrated antibacterial activity against periodontopathic bacteria, Porphyromonas gingivalis. Compound 10 and crude extract of twig exhibited impressive anti-inflammatory potency. (see constituents above) (12)
Cytotoxic Constituents / Stems: Study of stems yielded 6 compounds. Compounds 4-6 showed potent cytotoxic activity against H1299 (non-small cell lung carcinoma) and SMMC-7721 (liver cancer) with IC50 values of 6.19 to 26.84 µg/mL. (see constituents above) (13)
Antifungal / Constituents / Leaves: Study of n-hexane fraction of leaves isolated five compounds. In evaluation for antifungal activity against yeast Malassezia globosa, n-hexane fraction showed moderate activity. (see constituents above) (15)
Hepatoprotective / Leaves: Study isolated nine compounds from the leaves of C. lansium. All nine compounds, except for demethylsecoclausenamide, significantly depressed elevated transaminase in mice intoxicated with CCl4. More abundant components, seco-clausenamide and clausenamide, caused decrease hepatotoxicity of thioacetamide and acetaminophen in mice. Clausenamide significantly inhibited CCl4-induced lipid peroxidation of liver microsomes and C-CCl4 covalent binding to microsomal lipids. (16)
Wine / Fruit / Brewing Technology: Study reports on the brewing technology of Clausena lansium fruit wine with wine yeast and da qu. Fruit wine produced was dark yellow in color, liquor tasting, sweet, with a fragrant fruit smell, with an alcohol content between 6-9%, sugars <3g/L, and a total acid (citric) 6.0-8.0 g/L. (18)
Monoterpenoid Coumarins / Hypoglycemic / α-Glucosidase Inhibitory: Study isolated two new monoterpenoid coumarins, clauslactone V (1) and clauslactone W (2), together with known analogues (3-5) from the peels of C. lansium. All compounds (were evaluated for hypoglycemic activity, and compounds 1-5 showed
in vitro α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. (19)

Availability
Wild-crafted. 

Last Updated July 2016


IMAGE SOURCES: File:Clausena lansium.jpg / Wingk LEE / 1 July 2007 / Pulic Domain / Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: File:Wampi01 Asit fs.jpg / Asit K. Ghosh Thaumaturgist / 11 June 2005 / Creative Commons/ Wikipedia
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: Clausena lansium Skeels | Jacq. Sch. pl.101/1797-04 | BHL / Hortus Camdenensis

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Pharmacological properties of the extract and some isolated compounds of Clausena lansium stem bark: Anti-trichomonal, antidiabetic, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective and antioxidant effects / A C Adebajo et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 122, Issue 1, 25 February 2009, Pages 10-19 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2008.11.015
(2)
Chemical Composition of the Essential Oils of Clausena lansium from Hainan Island, China / Jiayuan Zhao et al / Z. Naturforsch. 59c, 153Ð156 (2004);
(3)
Hepatoprotective action of nine constituents isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium in mice / Geng Tao Liu et al / Drug Development Research • Volume 39 Issue 2, Pages 174 - 178 / DOI 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2299(199610)39:2<174::AID-DDR10>3.0.CO;2-C
(4)
A Homodimeric Sporamin-Type Trypsin Inhibitor with Antiproliferative, HIV Reverse Transcriptase-Inhibitory and Antifungal Activities from Wampee (Clausena lansium) Seeds / Biological Chemistry. Volume 384, Issue 2, Pages 289–293, ISSN (Print) 1431-6730, DOI: 10.1515/BC.2003.032, February 2003
(5)
Antioxidant and Anticancer Activities of Wampee (Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels) Peel / K Nagendra Prasad et al / Journal of Biomedicine and Biotechnology • Volume 2009 (2009), Article ID 612805, 6 pages
/ doi:10.1155/2009/612805
(6)
New coumarins from Clausena lansium twigs / Maneerat, Uma Prawat et al /
J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.21 no.4 São Paulo 2010 / doi: 10.1590/S0103-50532010000400012
(7)
Chemical constituents of Clausena lansium / Zhao Q, Li C et al / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2010 Apr;35(8):997-1000.
(8)
Study on antiallergic activity of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels leaves extracts with different solvent / Zhao Feng-Li, Li Jie-rong et al / ?DOI? CNKI:SUN:SPKJ.0.2009-01-034
(9)
Antioxidant and anticancer activities of 8-hydroxypsoralen isolated from wampee [Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels] peel / K Nagendra, Haihui Xie et al / Food Chemistry, Volume 118, Issue 1, 1 January 2010, Pages 62-66 / doi:10.1016/j.foodchem.2009.04.073
(10)
Study on amino acids from the fruit of Clausena lansium
/ Zhang YM, Huang YF, Huang JW, Li RZ, Liu J. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2006 Sep;29(9):921-4.
(11)
Protective effect of Bu-7, a flavonoid extracted from Clausena lansium, against rotenone injury in PC12 cells
. / Li BY, Yuan YH, Hu JF, Zhao Q, Zhang DM, Chen NH. / Acta Pharmacol Sin. 2011 Nov;32(11):1321-6. doi: 10.1038/aps.2011.119.
(12)
In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial and anti-inflammation activities of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels /
Pirasut Rodanant*, Rudee Surarit, Surat Laphookhieo, and Jintakorn Kuvatanasuchati / Songklanakarin J. / Sci. Technol. 37 (1), 43-48, Jan. - Feb. 2015
(13)
Cytotoxic Constituents from the Stems of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels
/ Hai Yan Jiang, Cheng Fang Wang, Li Fan, Kai Yang, Jiang Bin Feng, Zhu Feng Geng, Jing Xu, Zhi Wei Deng, Shu Shan Du,* and Hai Bo Yin* / Molecules 2013, 18, 10768-10775 / doi:10.3390/molecules180910768
(14)
Volatile components of the leaves, fruits and seeds of wampee [Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels] /
Pratheung Chokeprasert, Albert Linton Charles, Kai-Hsin Sue, Tzou-Chi Huang / Journal of Food Composition and Analysis 20 (2007) 52–56
(15)
Chemical Composition of Clausena lansium (Lour.) Skeels Leaves and Antifungal Activity / Vu Duc Nam, Fujimatsu Teruhisa, Takigawa Hirofumi, Kusuoku Hiroshi, Nguyen Minh Khoi, Le Viet Dung, Do Thi Ha, and Hashimoto Hiroshi / Nat Prod Sci. 2016 Mar;22(1):35-40 / http://dx.doi.org/10.20307/nps.2016.22.1.35
(16)
Hepatoprotective action of nine constituents isolated from the leaves of Clausena lansium in mice / Geng Tao Liu*, Wei-Xun Li, Yan-Yong Chen andHuai-Ling Wei / Drug Development Research, Vol 39, Issue 2, pages 174–178, October 1996 / DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2299(199610)39:2<174::AID-DDR10>3.0.CO;2-C
(17)
SB-204900, a Novel Oxirane Carboxamide from Clausena lansium / Peter H. Milner,* Nigel J. Coates, Martin L. Gilpin, and Simon R. Spear / J. Nat. Prod., 1996, 59 (4), pp 400–402 / DOI: 10.1021/np9600614
(18)
Study on brewing technology of Clausena lansium fruit wine with wine yeast and da qu
/ LIU Mou-quan, KONG Mei-lan, ZHANG Fu-ping, HUANG Mian-chun, WANG Yu-xing, FANG Yan-hui / Science and Technology of Food Industry, 2013-08
(19)
Monoterpenoid Coumarins from the Peels of Clausena lansium / Hui-Dong Deng*, Wen-Li Mei*, Zhi-Kai Guo, Shuai Liu, Wen-Jian Zuo, Wen-Hua Dong, Shao-Peng Li, Hao-Fu Dai / Planta Med 2014; 80(11): 955-958 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0034-1382839
(20)
Highly efficient and concise synthesis of both antipodes of SB204900, clausenamide, neoclausenamide, homoclausenamide and f-clausenamide. Implication of biosynthetic pathways of clausena alkaloids / Luo Yang, De-Xian Wang, Qi-Yu Zheng, Jie Pan, Zhi-Tang Huang and Mei-Xiang Wang* / 2628 | Org. Biomol. Chem., 2009, 7, 2628–2634
(21)
Wampi fruit / FriutsInfo

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