HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL    •     ABOUT


Family Solanaceae
Utong
Solanum mammosum Linn.

MICKEY MOUSE PLANT
Wu jiao qie

Scientific names Common names
Solanum mammosum Linn. Tagotong (S. L. Bis.)
Solanum mammosissium Ramrez Talong susu (Tag.)
Solanum platanifolium Hook Utong (Tag.)
  Apple of Sodom (Engl.)
  Berenjenita peluda (Span.)
  Cow's udder (Engl.)
  Love apple (Engl.)
  Mickey mouse plant (Engl.)
  Nipple fruit (Engl.)
  Titty fruit (Engl.)
Mickey mouse plant/ bush is a common name shared by (1) Ochna serrulata, bird's eye bush, and (2) Solanum mammosum, utong

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Wu jiao qie.
FRENCH: Tétons de jeune fille, Morelle à fruit ornemental, Morelle molle.
GERMAN: Zitzen Nachtschatten.
MALAY: Terong susu.
COUNTRY: Name
SPANISH: Tetilla, Berenjena de gallina, Berenjena de teta.

Botany
Utong is a coarse and branched half-woody plant, prickly or unarmed, growing to a height of 0.4 to 1 meter. Stems are prickly and covered with soft short hairs. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, broad as they are long, 10 to 25 centimeters long, armed on both surfaces with long, stout spines, stellate-hairy beneath, and irregularly and shallowly lobed at the margin. Inflorescences are umbelliform and lateral, with 1 to 6 flowers. Flowers are axillary, about 2.5 centimeters long, purplish or bluish. Fruit is fleshy, smooth, purple when ripe, up to 25 centimeters long, extremely variable in shape - rounded, oblong, or cylindric-oblong.

Distribution
- In thickets and waste places along the roads at low altitudes in Leyte; Zamboanga, Mindanao, and Jolo.
- Cultivated in some gardens in Manila and neighboring towns as a curiosity because of the shape of the fruit.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Propagated by seeds.

Constituents
- Fruit contains trigonelline, choline, vitamins A, B, and C; fat 0.1 percent, and protein 2.2 percent.
- Fruit considered toxic, containing solanine saponin, mallic and gallic acids.
- Fruit yields a glycoalkaloid, solamargine.


Properties
- Fruit considered purgative, phlegmatic, generative.
- Leaves are anodyne, narcotic.


Parts used and preparation
Roots, leaves, fruits.

Uses
Nutrition
- Fruit makes an excellent vegetable, the elongated kind is most cultivated, eaten before it ripens, before the seed hardens.
- Good source of calcium, phosphorus, iron, and vitamin B.
The green leaves are a good source of vitamin C.
Folkloric
- Root decoction taken for asthma and as general stimulant.
- Leaves used for hemorrhoids.
- In Costa Rica, decoction of leaves used as remedy for diseases of the kidney and bladder.
- In El Salvador, seeds used as a remedy for colds.
- In Yucatan, decoction of leaves used for cleansing wounds.
- Root, boiled with sour milk and grain porridge used to treat syphilis.
- Juice of fruit with pounded leaves and roots used for a variety of skin diseases.
- Roots, dried stalk, and leaves used in decoction for washing sores.
- Astringent for bladder hemorrhage.
- Decoction or infusion of leaves used for stomach problems.
- Burnt fruit used for liver problems.
- Fruit is cooling, and when bruised with vinegar, is used as a poultice for abscesses and cracked nipples.
- Fruit used for phthisis, cough and loss of appetite.
- The peduncle (stalk of flower or fruit) when burned is used for piles, toothache and intestinal hemorrhages.
- Seeds are used as stimulant but may cause dyspepsia and constipation.
- In Belize, leaf juices rubbed to afflicted areas with athlete's foot.
- In Bolivia, fruit used for scabies.

Others
- Decorative: Fruit collected ripe with the branches used for interior decoration.
- Rep ell ant: Kofan people of Columbia and Ecudaor use the plant as insect repellant especially against cockroaches. (7)

Studies
Antiproliferative / Indioside D: Study isolated indioside D, a furostanol glycoside from Solanum mammosum and was found to possess antiproliferative activity toward a panel of human cancer cell lines. Results showed indioside D induced apoptosis in HeLa cells via both intrinsic and extrinsic cell death pathways. (1)
Anticancer / Saponins / Solamargine: Of saponins isolated from the fruit, solamargine showed highest toxicity towards HeLa cell line followed by inidioside D, protodioscin, solasonine and pseudoprotodioscin. (7)
Antimalarial: In a study of 46 different species screened for antimalarial activity, Solanum mammosum fruit extract was one of those found moderately active. (2)
Antioxidant Activity: Study by Weitwitayaklung and Phaechamud (2011) reported low antioxidant activity of S. mammosum fruit, with a total phenolic content of 3.08 g/100 g crude extract gallic acid. (7)
Molluscicidal: Steroidal glycoalkaloid mixed from fruits, solasonine and solamargine and the stereoisomeric glycosidic alkaloid tomatine were toxic to Lymnaea cubensis and Biomphalaria glabratus.
(7)


Availability
Wild-crafted. 


Last Update March 2014


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Indioside D-Triggered Cell Death in HeLa Cells / Chin Chun Wong et al / J. Proteome Res., 2008, 7 (5), pp 2050–2058 / DOI: 10.1021/pr800019k

(2)
The search for natural bioactive compounds through a multidisciplinary approach in Bolivia. Part II. Antimalarial activity of some plants used by Mosetene indians / Muñoz V, Sauvain M et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2000 Feb;69(2):139-55.
(3)
Indigenous Plants and Schistosomiasis Control in South Africa Molluscicidal Activity of Some Zulu Medicinal Plants / John Ojewole /
(4)
Solanum mammosum as a source of solasodine in the lowland tropics / L. Telek, H. Delpin and E. Cabanillas / ECONOMIC BOTANY, Volume 31, Number 2 (1977), 120-128, DOI: 10.1007/BF02866581
(5)
Isolation of saponins from Solanum mammosum and characterization of their anticancer activity by proteomics / Chi-Chun Wong, Ãpë /
(6)
Sorting EGGPLANT names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
(7)
Edible Medicinal And Non-Medicinal Plants: Volume 6, Fruits, Volume 6
/ Tong Kwee Lim / Google Books


HOME      •      SEARCH      •      EMAIL