Physalis, a genus of the family Solanaceae consists of about 100 species. Among these, Physalis minima has been confused with P. angulata (putokan). Some compilations list them as synonyms, as other list thedm as separate species. In Bangladesh, the two have long been misidentified. A critical examination separates them as species. (See below: sources)
Am erect, branched, hairy
annual herb, growing up to 0.8 meters high. The branches are terete
and often tinged with puple; the ultimate ones slightly angular. Leaves
are ovate, 6 to 12 cm long, 4.5 go 7 cm wide, with pointed tips, rounded
or slightly heart-shaped base, nearly entire or faintly undulately lobed
margins. Flowers are solitary, axillary, aboout 8 mm long. Corolla is
pale yellow, with 5 large, purple spots at the base inside. The fruit
is round, fleshy and edible, about 1 cm in diameter. The inflated and
accrescent calyx is ovoid, aboout 3 cm long, 2 cm in diameter, green,
with 5 prominent and alternating slender and purplish ribs.
Common in open, waste
places at low altitudes up to 1,600 meters.
Properties and constituents
Bitter tasting, cooling
Fruit is alterative, diuretic,
Plant is considered appetizer, antipyretic, antitussive, diuretic, laxative, expectorant, purgative and tonic.
Roots, leaves, fruits.
Fruit is edible.
Root is used as vermifuge.
Root extract used for fever.
Decoction of roots also used for diabetes.
Poultice of leaves, oiled and heated, applied to ulcers.
Decoction of leaves used for gonorrhea; also, diuretic.
Used for colds and fever, swelling pain of the throat, bronchitis.
Fruit used for gout and also used to infuse vigor.
Plant paste made with rice water used to restore flaccid breasts.
Poultice of fruits used for headaches and intestinal pains.
Dosage: use 15 to 30 gms dried material in decoction. Pounded
fresh material may be used as poultice or decoction of the same may
be used as wash for eczema infection.
Juice of leaves, mixed with mustard oil and water, used for
In India, used for dysuria,
ascites, ulcers, cough, bronchitis, pruritus and erysipelas. Used as a tonic, diuretic and purgative; as a remedy for spleen disorders.
Study of extract of P minima on female albino rats exhibited variations
in ovarian and uterine weights and significant histopathologic changes
in the histoarchitecture of the female reproductive system.
Antimicrobial activity of Rauvolfia tetraphylla and Physalis minima
leaf and callus extracts: Leaf and callus extracts of R. tetraphylla
and P. minima inhibited bacterial and fungal growth.
• Phytochemicals / Withaphysalin D:
Study yielded Withaphysalin D, a new withphysalin.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic:
Study of the whole plant of Physalis minima on rats showed marked anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. The antipyretic activity was insignificant. Results showed PM as a potential candidate as an antiinflammatory and analgesic agent.
• Cytotoxic / Anti-Cancer:
(1) In the study, the chloroform extract of Physalis minima exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on human lund adenocarcinoma cell line in time- and dose-dependent manners. Its apoptotic effect suggests potential for development as an anticancer drug. (2) Study yielded a novel withanolide, withaphysalin P with six other new withaphysalins 1-7 and three known withaphysalins 8-10. Some compounds showed moderate cytotoxic activity against two human cancer cell lines – colorectal-carcinoma and nonsmall-cell lung cancer.
• Hypoglycemic / Alpha-Glucosidase Inhibition:
Physalis minima extract showed in-vitro inhibitory activity of intestinal alpha glucosidase enzyme maltase with decrease intestinal absorption of monosaccharides through inhibition of disaccharide hydxrolysis.
• Apoptotic Effects / Anti-Breast Cancer:
A chloroform extract of Physalis minima produced significant inhibition against human T-47D breast carcinoma cells. It induced apoptotic cell death via p53-, caspase-3-, and c-myc-dependent pathways.