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Family Ophioglossaceae

Tukod-langit
Helminthostachys zeylanica (Linn.) Hook.

FLOWERING FERN
Ru di wu gong

Scientific names  Common names 
Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook. Tukod-langit (Tag.) 
Helminthostachys dulcis Kaulfuss. Flowering fern (Engl.)
Osmunda zeylanica L. Kamraj (Engl.)
Qi zhi jue (Chin.) Ru di wu gong (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Ekbir.
INDONESIA: Rawu bekubang, jajalakan, pakis kaler.
MALAYSIA: Tunjok langit, akar paku, jelai.
THAILAND: Kut chong, tin nok yung, phak nok yung.
VIETNAM: S[aa]m d[aas]t, r[as]ng re[uf]ng gi[es], s[aa]m b[of]ng bong.

Botany
Tukod-langit is a herbaceous stipitate fern, growing a foot or more in moist ground. Rhizomes are short, thick, and creeping, Stipes are erect, 15 to 30 centimeters long. Fronds grow singly from the underground rhizomes, and the appearance is characteristic. Leaf blade spreads out almost horizontally, resembling an umbrella, hence the common name. It has three segments, each of which may be divided into two to five parts. Ultimate segments are 7 to 15 centimeters long, and 2 to 4 centimeters wide, and lanceolate. Mature leaves have a spike, 7 to 20 centimeters long, that extends upward from the leaf stalk, roughly following the latter in length. Upper portion of the spike contains the spores.

Distribution
- In open bushy places near sea level, in moist ground, especially along the banks of streams.
- Often found in thickets, around bamboo clumps.
- New fronds usually initiated at the beginning of the rainy season.

- Occurs at low altitudes from India, Sri Lanka, China and Taiwan, throughout Southeast Asia to tropical Australia.

Constituents
- Studies yielded stilbenes and flavonoids with antioxidant activities.
- Yields four flavonoids -- ugonin A, B, C, and D, stigmasterol, fucosterol and dulcitol.

Properties
- Expectorant, good antidote for snakebites, antiasthmatic.
- Considered aperient, aphrodisiac.

Parts utilized
· Rhizome.
· Wash and dry under the sun.

- Use rhizomes for propagation; preferably in shaded and moist area.

Uses
Nutritional
- Young leaves popular as salad vegetable.
- Excellent source of phosphorus and iron; a fair source of calcium.
Folkloric
· For coughing due to tuberculosis, asthma, poisonous snakebites: boil 6 to 10 grams dried drug in a cup of water and drink the decoction.
· For snakebites: crush the fresh plant and poultice the wound.
· For fractures and bone strengthening.
· Rhizome is chewed with betel for whooping cough.
· In India, used in Kerala for the treatment of hepatic disorders; rhizome also used for curing impotency; rhizome is chewed with areca for whooping cough.
· In Bangladesh, Khagrachari tribe use the plant to stop hemorrhages. Decoction of rhizome used in impotency. In Bandarban, root juice used with other plants for treatment of jaundice. Leaf Juice used for tongue blisters.
· In China, rhizome is used as antipyretic and antiphlogistic.
· In Malaysia, rhizome used as a tonic. Decoction of leaves used as tonic after childbirth. Rhizome mixed with Piper betel for cough and venereal diseases.
· In Java, used for dysentery, catarrh, phthisis.
· In the Moluccas, used to relieve constipation.

Studies
Hepatoprotective: Study of ethanolic extracts of rhizomes of HZ showed significant hepatoprotective effect against CCl4-induced damage liver damage in rats and presents scientific rational for its folkloric use in liver diseases.
Antioxidants: (1) Study yielded eight flavonoids, ugonins E-L (1-8) from the rhizomes of HZ. Compounds 6, 7 and 8 showed significant antioxidant activity. (2) Study yielded three new cyclized stilbenes, ugonstilbene A,. B and C which exhibited moderate antioxidant activity.
Neuroprotective: Study has isolated Ugonin K, a flavonoid from the rhizomes of H zeylanica. Results suggest ugonin K has neuroprotective activity through activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K?Akt signal pathways which protects against H2O2-induced apoptosis.
Anti-Inflammatory / Flavonoids: Study isolated 8 new prenylated flavonoids, ugonins M-T together with five known compounds, ugonins J−L (9−11), 5,4′-dihydroxy-4′′,4′′-dimethyl-5′′-methyl-5′′H-dihydrofurano[2′′,3′′:6,7]flavanone, and quercetin. Some compounds showed inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release by human neutrophils in response to FMLP/CB.
Aphrodisiac: Administration of a methanol extract of H. zeylanica rhizome to male mice significantly stimulated the sexual behavior as shown by increase in number of mounts, mating and reproductive performance.
Antioxidant Flavonoids: Eight flavonoids, ugonins E-L were isolated from the rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica. Compounds 3-8 were evaluated for their antioxidative activity in a DPPH assay. Compounds 6,7 and 8 were more active than Trolox.
Ugonin J Flavonoid / Antioxidant: Study isolated Ugonin J from the dried rhizomes of H. zeylanica. A previous study has shown antioxidant activity with Ugonin J, K, and L.
Cytotoxicity / Toxicity of Combinations: Three plants -- Tacca integrifolia, Helminthostachys zeylanica, and Eurycoma longifolia. All three were cytotoxic to human cell lines, Hep2 and HFL1. A combined extract of E. longifolia and H. zeylanica was more cytotoxic than a single extract on Hep2 cell line. Study suggests there is higher toxicity risk of consuming combination of H. zeylanica with either T. integrifolia or E. longifolia, and products using these combinations should be avoided.
Ugonin K Flavonoid / Promotion of Osteoblastic Differentiation and Mineralization: Study showed a potential anabolic effect of ugonin K on bone probably through activation of p38- and ERK-mediated Runx2 and osterix expressions to induce synthesis of osteoids and formation of bone nodule.

Availability
Wild-crafted. 


Last Update November 2012

MAGE SOURCE: / im zeylanica side-view / © Dave Kimble / Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial / Click on photo to go to source image / Rainforest Photo Catalogue
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Evaluation of hepatoprotective effects of Helminthostachys zeylanica (L.) Hook against carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in Wistar rats / S R Suja, P G Latha et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 92, Issue 1, May 2004, Pages 61-66 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.01.019
(2)
Antioxidant flavonoids from the rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica / Yu-Ling Huang, Pei-Yu Yeh, Chien-Chang Shen, Chien-Chih Chen / Phytochemistry (Phytochemistry / 2003-Dec; vol 64 (issue 7) : pp 1277-8
(3)
Cyclized geranyl stilbenes from the rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica / Planta medica . 2003, vol. 69, no10, pp. 964-967
(4)
Neuroprotective Effects of Ugonin K on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Cell Death in Human Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells / Yi-Chen Lin et al / Neurochemical Research • Volume 34, Number 5 / May, 2009 • DOI 10.1007/s11064-008-9860-0
(5)
Importance of Ferns in Human Medicine / Kamini Srivastava / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11: 231-234. 2007.

(6)
Anti-inflammatory Flavonoids from the Rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica / Yaun-Chao Huang, Tsong-Long Hwang et al / J. Nat. Prod., 2009, 72 (7), pp 1273–1278 / DOI: 10.1021/np900148a
(7)
Aphrodisiac property of Helminthostachys zeylanica in Male Mice / S R Suja, P G Latha et al / Journ of Tropical Medicinal Plants, Vol 3, No 2.
(8)
The Use of Medicinal Plant Species by the Temuan Tribe of Ayer Hitam Forest, Selangor, Peninsular Malaysia / Pertanika J. Trop. Agric. Sci, 22(2):85-94, 1999
(9)
Antioxidant flavonoids from the rhizomes of Helminthostachys zeylanica / Yu-Ling Huang, Pei-Yu Yeh et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 64, Issue 7, Dec 2003, Pages 1277-128 / doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2003.09.009
(10)
Helminthostachys zeylanica / Meidical Plants of Bangladesh /
(11)
Helminthostachys zeylanica / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(12)
Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(13)
UGONIN J FLAVONOID FROM TUNJUK LANGIT (Helminthostachys zeylanica Linn.) ROOT EXTRACT
/ Fitrya*, Lenny Anwar, Eliza, and Muharni / Indo. J. Chem., 2010, 10 (2), 233 - 238 233
(14)
Mutagenic and cytotoxic properties of three herbal plants from Southeast Asia / Mohd-Fuat Abd Razak, Kofi Edirisah Aidoo, and Allan G.G. Candlish / Tropical Biomedicine 24(2): 49–59 (2007)
(15)
Ugonin K promotes osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization by activation of p38 MAPK- and ERK-mediated expression of Runx2 and osterix / Lee, C.H., Huang, Y.L., Liao, J.F., Chiou, W.F. / European Journal of Pharmacology, Vol. 668, No. 3, pages 383-389 (2011) / DOI: 10.1016/j.ejphar.2011.06.05

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