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Family Urticaceae
Pouzolzia zeylanica (Linn.) Benn.

Wu shui ge

Scientific names Common names
Pouzolzia zeylanica (Linn.) Benn. Apoyapoyan (Tag.)
Pouzolzia indica Linn. Kayutkoran (Bag.)
Pouzolzia viminea F.-Vill. Tuia (Tag.)
Parietaria zeylanica Linn. Graceful pouzolzsbush (Engl.)
Parietaria indica Linn. Pouzolzsbush (Engl.)
Urtica villosa Blanco Wu shui ge (Chin.)
Urtica japonica Blanco  
Apoyapoyan (Pouzolzia zeylanica) is phonetically confused with (1) apoi-apoian (Gynandropsis gynandra), and (2) apoy-apoyan, bias-pugo, Ammannia baccifera.

Other vernacular names
FRENCH: Pouzolzie de Ceylan.
KHMER: Toem tanhit jhnien, Kandab chhneang.
RUSSIAN: Pouzolzia tseylonskaya.
SUNDANESE: Jukut krinching.
TAMIL: Kallurki.

Tuia is a more or less prostrate or spreading perennial herb, sometimes reaching a length of 1.5 meters. Leaves are lanceolate to ovate-lanceolate, 2 to 7 centimeters in length, 3-nerved, rounded or obtuse at the base, pointed at the tip, 3-nerved, and with entire margins. Flowers are small, 4-parted, borne in axillary clusters; the staminate ones greenish or tinted with purple, and the pistillate one in the same fascicles with the staminate ones. Fruit is small and longitudinally ribbed.

- In open, usually damp grasslands at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Polymorphous species of wide Indo-Malaya distribution

- Extensively grown in Bangladesh.
- Also occurs in Western Australia.

- Study yielded 14 compounds: (1) beta-sitosterol (2) daucosterol (3) oleanolic acid (4) epicatechin (5) alpha-amyrin (6) eugenyl-beta-rutinoside (7) 2alpha, 3alpha, 19alpha-trihydroxyurs-12-en-28-oic (8) scopolin (9) scutellarein-7-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (10) scopoletin (11) quercetin (12) quercetin-3-O-beta-D-glucoside (13) apigenin, and (14) 2alpha-hydroxyursolic acid. (6)
- Leaf powders yielded alkaloids, glycosides, tannins, and flavonoids. (8)

- Greenish grey, characteristic odor, mucilaginous and slightly bitter tasting.
- Vulnerary, antioxidant, hypoglycemic.

Parts used
Leaves, stems, shoots.


- Leaves used as a vulnerary; more specially, as cicatrizant for gangrenous ulcers.
- In the Nalbari district, Assam leaf and stem paste is applied locally once or twice daily for itching. Plant leaf and stem rolled with banana leaf, heated and squeezed, juice mixed with goat's milk, and taken once for dysentery and loose stools of infant.
- In Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh, paste of crushed shoots applied as poultice to bone fractures.
- In Malaysia, decoction of leaves drunk or leaves eaten to kill worms.

Phenolic Content / Free Radical Scavenging:
Study showed Pouzolizia zeylanica extracts, especially the ethyl acetate, exhibited outstanding scavenging effects on DPPH, ABTS and hydroxyl radicals, and pronounced reducing powers. (1)
Hypoglycemic Effect: Study of the decoction of Pouzolzia zeylanica in STZ-induced diabetic mice showed an apparent hypoglycemic effect, and can control blood sugar within a certain desirable range in a period of post-treatment. (4)
Cytotoxicity / Antimicrobial: Study of ethanol extract showed cytotoxic activity with an LC50 of 6.1 µg/ml. An ethanol extract showed antifungal and antibacterial activity. (7)
Antibacterial: Study of ethanol extracts revealed antibacterial activity against both Gram+and- organisms: B. subtilis B. megaterium, S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, E coli, S. dysenteriae, and S. typhi. (9)
Antifungal: Study of ethanol extract showed very good antifungal activity. Aspergillus niger was the most susceptible fungal strain. Activity was compared with standard drug Griseofulvin. (10)
Cytotoxicity / Anticancer Potential: Cytotoxic activity was evaluated using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results showed good cytotoxic activity with an LC50 of 6.1µg/ml and an LC90 of 12.2µg/ml. Results suggest a promising source for anticancer compounds. (11)


Last Update May 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photograph / Leaves / Pouzolzia zeylanica / © Plant Image Collection / click on image to go to source page / © /plantjdx.com
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Illustration / Leaves / Pouzolzia zeylanica / Flowering and Fruiting Twig © Flora of Pakistan / Credit M. Rafique / click on image to go to source page / eFloras.org

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Free radical-scavenging capacity, antioxidant activity and phenolic content of Pouzolzia zeylanica / Peiyuan Li, Lini Huo, Wei Su et al / J. Serb. Chem. Soc. 76 (5) 709–717 (2011)
Medicinal weeds of crop fields and role of women in rural health and hygiene in Nalbari district, Assam / DK Bhattacharjya and PC Borah / Indian Journ of Traditional Knowledge, Vol 7(3), July 2008, pp 501-504
Traditional Medicine Used by the Adivasis of Eastern Ghats, Andhra Pradesh - For Bone Fractures / K Venkata Ratnam and RR Venkata Raju / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 19-22. 2008.
Effects of Pouzolzia Zeylanica on Blood Sugar in Diabetes Mellitus Mice / Cen Huan ( Huan Cen ); Ping Huizhen ; Peng Xiaohong ; YAN Fu-Man / Juanqi, Volume 3 of 31 (2010/06/01)
Malay ethno-medico botany in Machang, Kelantan, Malaysia / H C Ong, M Nordiana / Fitoterapia 70, 1999.502]513
Study on the chemical constituents in Pouzolzia zeylanica / Fu M, Niu YY, Yu J, Kong QT. / Zhong Yao Cai. 2012 Nov;35(11):1778-81.
Studies On Pouzolzia Zeylanica (L.) BENN. (Family: Urticaceae): Pharmacognostical, Phytochemical, Biological Studies / Dibyajyoti Saha (Author), Swati Paul
Pharmacognostic Studies of Aerial Part of Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) / Swati Paul*, Dibyajyoti Saha / Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2012; Vol. 2: Issue 4, Pg 141-142
Dibyajyoti Saha*, Swati Paul and Srikanta Chowdhury / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovations, Volume 2, Issue 1, January− February 2012
Antifungal Activity of Ethanol Extract of Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn
/ Dibyajyoti Saha* and Swati Paul /
International Journal of Pharmacy Teaching & Practices 2012, Vol.2, Issue 2, 272-274.
In Vitro Screening of Cytotoxic Activities of Ethanolic Extract of Pouzolzia Zeylanica (L.) Benn / Swati Paul & Dibyajyoti Saha / International Journal of Pharmacy Teaching & Practices, Vol.2, Issue 1, Jan-Feb 2012.
Pouzolzia zeylanica (Graceful Pouzolzsbush) / Common names / Zipcodezoo
Pouzolzia zeylanica / Common names / Wiki.Answer.Com

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