Tubo is a large, coarse and
erect grass. Stems are solid, polished, green, yellow
or purplish, attaining a height of 1.5 to 4 meters, 2 to 5 centimeters thick, with
long and short internodes. Leaves are very large and broad, with blades 0.9 to 1.25 meters
long and 4 to 5 centimeters wide. Panicles are very large, white, drooping and terminal,
40 to 80 centimeters long; branches up to 35 centimeters long. Spikelets are very numerous,
1-flowered, about 3 millimeters long, with surrounding white villous hairs about
twice as long as the spikelets.
throughout the Philippines, very extensively in some islands and provinces.
- One of the major crops of the Archipelago.
- Sucrose is the product
of the sugar cane juice.
- Sugarcane wax is a whitish to dark-yellow powdery deposit n the surface of stalks and leaves
which appears as a cuticle layer. (11)
- Refined sugar is the primary product of sugarcane juice, but processing yields various other valuable products in unrefined form i.e., brown sugar, molasses, and jaggery. (11)
- Studies of sugarcane wax, juice, and leaves have yielded the presence of various fatty acid, alcohol, phytosterols, higher terpenoids, flavonoids, glycosides and phenolic acids. (11)
- Proximate analysis of sugarcane pulp yielded high amount of moisture (71.91 ± 0.05%), low dry matter (28.09%) consisting of carbohydrate (58.55 ± 0.04 g/100g), fiber (29.88 g/100g), ash (6.69 g/100g) and some mineral elements. (12)
- Phytochemica analysis of sugarcane pulp yielded alkaloids (8.07 ± 0.04 µg/100 g), saponins(5.57 ± 0.01 µg/100g) and flavonoids (1.52 ± 0.02 µg/100g), along with mineral elements magnesium, potassium, calcium and others in trace amounts. (12)
- Phytochemical screening of aqueous ethanol extract yielded saponins, tannins, flavonoids, and reducing sugars. (14)
- Phytochemical analysis of ethyl acetate extract of Brazilian hybrids yielded ß-carotene (1), steroids steroids sitosterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and campesterol (4), α-tocopherol (5), vanillic acid (6), ferulic acids (7), tricin (5,7,4-trihydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyflavone) (8), sitosterol glucoside (9), p-hydroxycinnamic (10),and p-hydroxybenzoic (11). (see study below) (21)
- Crystals are odorless and sweet.
Considered antidote, antiseptic, bactericidal, cardiotonic,
demulcent, diuretic, emollient, cooling, laxative, stimulant.
- Studies have suggested immunostimulatory, prokinetic, hypoglycemic, antioxidant, steroidogenic, antimicrobial, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective, anticancer, diuretic, antiurolithiatic, anticoccidial properties.
Roots, leaves, juice.
Edibility / Nutritional
- Largely used
meat and fruit.
- In India, sugarcane juice is known as a nutritional drink.
- In Nigeria, stem pulp is widely consumed as a snack for its sugar content.
- Suitable for use as rehydration and functional food plant. (12)
- Refined sugar has been used
for fevers, lack of secretion, dry coughs.
- Molasses is used as a laxative.
- Sugar is applied to wounds, ulcers, boils, and inflamed eyes.
- Leaf ash used to treat sore eyes. Stem juice used for sore throats, snake bites, and wounds from poison arrows. (13)
- Pulped sugar used to dress wounds; the cane used for splinting broken
- In Mexico used to relieve coughs.
- Malay women use it in childbirth.
- Decoction of root used for whooping cough.
- In India, plant juices used for abdominal
- In Cote-d'-Ivoire, leaf decoction used for hypertension. (5)
- In India, used in the treatment of jaundice, hemorrhage, dysuria, and various urinary diseases. (11)
- In Sri Lanka, leaf decoction taken for cough. Fresh stem juice with crushed ginger given for stomachaches in children. Treacle used as laxative. (18)
- In Sindh medicine, sugarcane dissolved in water or mixed with milk is applied to affected areas of hand burn. Paste of S. officinarum and Citrus limonum mixed with Cocos nucifera oil is applied to scalp for treatment of dandruff. Paste of S. officinarum and Triticum aestivum applied for wound healing. Paste of sugarcane and jaggery in oil used for wound healing. Paste of sugarcane and butter applied to areas of psoriasis. (22)
- In Ghana, sugarcane is boiled with fruit peels of Anonas comosus and leaves of Azadirachta indica and the decoction drunk three times daily for treatment of malaria. (25)
- in Ogbomoso, SW Nigeria, juice used for treatment of diabetes. (26)
- Wax: Used in the production of furniture, shoes, leather polishes, and waxed paper. (13)
- Alcohol / Fuel: Stem sap used for making alcohol and used as fuel. (13)
- Fiber: Stems are source of fiber for making paper. (13)
- Residue: Bagasse residue after extraction of sugar used for making fiberboard, paper pulp, furfural and cellulose. (13)
Immunostimulating Effect: The
phagocytic activity of peripheral blood leukocytes in chickens increased
significantly when orally administered sugar cane extracts, with higher
antibody responses and delayed type hypersensitivity responses. (1)
Prokinetic Effect: S officinarum was one of seven
known herbs in a polyherbal formulation. Study showed increased gastric
emptying and suggests a potential for use as a gastrointestinal prokinetic
to improve gastrointestinal motility. (3)
Hypoglycemic Effect: Study reports the hypoglycemic
effect of juice from sugar cane stalks. The isolated constituent, saccharin,
provided a transient reduction of blood glucose. The transient hypoglycemic
effect of complex polysaccharides is suggested to be possibly from increased
glucose utilization in the liver and peripheral tissues. (4)
• Phytochemicals / Antioxidant: Study of sugarcane leaves yielded luteolin-8-C (rhamnosylglucoside), with radical scavenging activity. The juice yielded flavones diosmetin-8-C-glucoside, vitrexin, schaftoside, isoschaftoside and 4',5'-dimethyl-luteolin-8-C glucoside. Its content of flavonoids suggest a potential for sugarcane as a dietary source of natural antioxidants. (6)
• Steroidogenesis / Testosterone Effect: Study investigated the effect of sugar cane (S. officinarum) molasses on steroidogenesis in testis cell culture. Results showed low concentrations of molasses increase testosterone secretion. Study suggests molasses may be a potential diet supplement to increase testosterone levels. (7)
• Optimization of Cytochrome C Production: Comparative study of Manihot Esculenta and Saccharum officinarum showed S. officinarum to be a better optimizer for cytochrome C production. Sugarcane had the higher rate of carbohydrate yield compared to Cassava in terms of inoculum volume with a difference of 5.57%. (8)
• Sugarcane wax: Sugarcane wax is a whitish to dark-yellow powdery deposit n the surface of stalks and leaves
which appears as a cuticle layer. It has widespread industrial applications, including cosmetic and pharmaceutical uses. It is a potential substitute for the expensive carnauba wax. The wax if a commercial source of long chain fatty alcohols, acids, esters, aldehydes and ketones. (11)
• Antimicrobial: Sugarcane extract showed highest growth inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus (8.67-24.00 mm) among the bacterial isolates and C. albicans (6.00-14.00 mm) for fungal isolates studied. (see constituents above) (12) Aqueous ethanol extract of bark showed inhibitory effect on gram negative bacteria E. coli and P. aeruginosa. (see constituents above) (14)
• Effect on Gonadal Integrity / Peel: Study evaluated the effects of an ethanolic extract of S. officinarum peel on hematological and histopathological parameters of testes and ovaries of albino Wistar rats. Results showed reduction in body weights, packed red blood cell volume, white blood cells, platelets, hemoglobin, and proliferation of ovarian tissues. Testes integrity was relatively intact. Adverse effects of the extract on ovary was evidenced by remarkable atretic ovarian follicle with loose ovarian stroma formation with a net effect of reduced folliculogenesis. (15)
• Hepatoprotective / Isoniazid Toxicity / Juice: Study evaluated the effect of S. officinarum juice on oxidative liver injury due to ING in mice. Results suggest the co-administration of S. officinarum juice may reduce INH related damage. S. officinarum treated mice showed significant decrease in elevated serum parameters of ALT, AST, ALP, and total bilirubin levels. Hepatoprotection was attributed to phytoconstituents, especially flavonoids and anthocyanins with strong antioxidant properties which can provide hepatoprotection against oxidative liver injury cased by INH. (16)
• Antidiabetic / Hypolipidemic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of aqueous extracts of Morinda lucida and Saccharum officinarum leaves in alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction (p<0.001) in fasting blood glucose of diabetic rats with the plant extracts, both separately or with the extract mixture. There was also a significant decrease in total cholesterol and LDL. Activities of SOD (superoxide dismutase) was significantly increased along with a significant reduction of malondialdehyde. (17)
• Hypocholesterolemic: Study evaluated crude extracts of sugarcane and gumamela for effect in decreasing the LDL--C level and increasing HDL-C in cholesterol induced rabbits. The crude extracts and a synthetic drug showed significant reduction in LDL-C levels, with the synthetic drug showing the best result. The effect on HDL-C was not statistically significant compared to the control group. (19)
• Anticancer / MCF-7 Cancer Cell Line / Leaves: Study of Saccharum officinarum leaves showed good percentage of anticancer activity on MCF-7 breast cancer cell line. The anticancer activity was attributed to the flavonoid and tannin contents. (20)
• Anticancer / Phenolic Compounds / Tricin / Brazilian Hybrids: Study reported on the cytotoxic activity of mid-polarity sugarcane extracts from Brazilian hybrids against human cancer cell lines. Phytochemical analysis isolated steroids, sitosterol, stigmasterol and campesterol, phenolic acids p-hydroxybenzoic, p-hydroxycinnamic, vanillic and ferulic acid, terpenoids a-tocopherol and ß-carotene and a novel substance, the flavonoid aglycone tricin. The large amount of phenolic acids and flavonoid tricin may explain the cytostatic activity. There is also evidence that tricin has chemopreventive activity, as observed in intestinal carcinogenesis models in mice (Cai et al. 2005). (see constituents above) (21)
• Diuretic / Antiurolithiatic
/ Leaves: Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of dried leaves of Saccharum officinarum for diuretic and antiurolithiatic activities. Treatment with S. officinarum leaf extract at 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. showed diuretic effect as evidenced by significantly increased urine volume and antiurolithiatic effect by decrease in elevated calcium, phosphate, oxalate and creatinine concentrations in the urine. (23)
• Anticoccidial / Eimeria Oocysts: Study evaluated an aqueous methanolic extract of S. officinarum on sporulation and morphology of oocysts of four Eimeria species of poultry. Results showed anticoccidial activity of the extract against all Eimeria species as evidenced by dose dependent inhibition of oocyst sporulation. (24)
• Silver Nanoparticles
/ Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study reports on the rapid, cost effective and eco-friendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles using fresh leaves of S. officinarum. The AgNPs showed antibacterial activity against multiple drug resistant hospital isolates of E. coli, S. aureus, P. mirabilis and hospital isolates of S. typhi, K. pneumonia, and E. faecalis. The silver nanoparticles also exhibited synergistic effect with antibiotics against MDR hospital isolates. (27)
hydrocyanic. Sugar cane is a known teratogen. Molasses in excess amounts,
alone or mixed with feeds, may cause diarrhea, colic, urticaria, kidney
irritation, sweating and paralysis in domestic stock; horses seem more
susceptible, and toxicity could prove fatal. Total phenolic content at 200 µg/ml