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Family Iridaceae

Tubang-bakod
Jatropha curcas Linn.
PURGING NUT TREE, BIG-PURGE NUT
Ma feng shu

Scientific names  Common names 
Castiglionia lobata Ruiz & Pav. Galumbang (Pamp.)
Curcas adansonii Endl. Kasla (Bis.) 
Curcas curcas (L.) Britton & Millsp. [Invalid] Kirisol (Tag.) 
Curcas drastica Mart. Taba (Ig., Bik., Tag.)
Curcas indica A.Rich. Taba-taba (Tasg.) 
Curcas lobata Splitg. ex Lanj. Tagumbau (Ilk.) 
Curcas purgans Medik. Tagumbau-na-purau (Ilk.) 
Jatropha acerifolia Salisb. Takumbaw (Sbl.)
Jatropha curcas L. Tangan-tangan-tuba (Tag.)
Jatropha edulis Sessé Taua-taua (Ilk., Ig.)
Jatropha yucatenensis Briq Tauua (Ilk.)
Manihot curcas (L.) Crantz Tuba (Ig., Bik., Tag.) 
Ricinus americana Garsault [Invalid] Tubang-bakod (Tag.) 
Ricinus americanus Mill. Bed bug plant (Engl.)
Ricinus jarak Thunb. Big purge nut (Engl.)
  Bubble bush (Engl.)
  Physic nut tree (Engl.) 
  Pig nut (Engl.)
  Purging nut (Engl.)
  Wild castor (Engl.)
Jatropha curcas L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS: Purgeerboontjie.
ARABIC: Dand barrî, Dand e barri, Dand e nahri, Hhabb el mulûk, Habb el meluk.
BENGALI: Bagbherenda, Erandagachh.
CHINESE: M feng shu.
DUTCH: Purgeernoot.
FRENCH: Bagani, Fève d'enfer, Grand médicinier, Grand pignon d'Inde, Gros ricin, Mancenillier béni, Noix médicinale, Pignon de Barbarie, Plante bouteille, Purghère, Ricin d'Amérique, Tuteur de vanille.
GERMAN: Purgiernuß, Purgiernußbaum, Schwarzelrechnuß.
GUJARATI: Ratanjyot.
HINDI: Jangli arandi.
ITALIAN: Fagiolo d'India, Fagiolo di Barberia, Fava purgatrice, Noci di purging, Ricino maggiore.
JAPANESE: Yatorofa kurukasu.
MALAYSIAN: Pokok jarak.
MARATHI: Ratanjyot.
NEPALESE: Baghandi, +Bathi bal, Hattikane, Nirguni, Sajiba, Sajiva, Sajiyon, Saruva.

PORTUGUESE: Andythygnaco, Figo-do-inferno, Manduigaçu, Mandubi-guaçú, Pinhão bravo, Pinhão-depurga, Pinhão-de-purga, Pinhão-manso, Pinheiro-de-purga, Pulguiera, Purgante-de-cavalo, Purgueira.

NIGERIAN: Binidazugu, Cinidazugu, Lapa-lapa.
RUSSIAN: Iatrofa, Iatrofa iadovitaia.
SINHALESE: Kaddamanakku.
SPANISH : Arbol de los pinones de Indias, Arbol santo, Avellanes purgante, Frailecillo, Piñón blanco, Piñón de purga, Tártago, Tempate.
SWAHILI: Mbono, Mbono kaburi.
TAMIL: Kadalamanakku, Kattamanakku.
THAI: Ma yao, Sabu dam, Salot dam, Salot yai, Si lot.
TURKISH: Mashal hind fıstığı ağaçı, Kurkas.

Botany
Tubang-bakod is a smooth, glamorous, erect, branched shrub 2 to 5 meters high. Branches are stout, cylindric, and green. Leaves are entire, orbicular-ovate, angular or somewhat 3- to 5-lobed, 10 to 18 centimeters long, culminate with a chordate base. Petioles are long. Flowers are greenish or greenish-white, bisexual, 7 to 8 millimeters in diameter, borne on axillary chymes, the staminate ones villus inside, the petals reflexed. Stamens are10, the filaments of the inner 5, connote. Fruits are capsules, at first fleshy, becoming dry, rounded, with 2 to 3 one-seeded divisions, 3 to 4 centimeters long.

Distribution
- Very common in and about towns, in thickets and hedges along roadsides throughout the Philippines. The name derives from its cultivation and use as a hedge or fence (baked).
- Introduced at an early date in colonial history from Mexico.
- Now pan tropic.

Constituents
Seed has a toxic principle, albuminous Curcio, belonging to the same group as croon and ricing. Comparatively, Curcio causes less gastrointestinal irritation. 8 drops of this oil has been reported to cause severe vomiting, followed by diarrhea.
Bark contains a considerable amount of chlorophyll, reducing sugars or reducing substances, poisoning, a small amount of tannin, resin, and a trace of volatile oil. Bark also yields a wax which is a mixture of Melisse alcohol and its Messianic acid ester.
• Latex contains alkaloids: atropine, atrophy and curtain with its anti-cancerous properties.
• Leaves yield alkaloids, flavoring, onionskins, tannins, phenolic compounds, steroids, steroids.
• Leaves contain Iphigenia, invite, nonexistent, etc used for malaria, rheumatic and muscular pains.
• Physic-nut oil consists of glyceride of palmist, polemic, and Olenolin acids.
• Seed contains a yellow fixed oil, 29-40 %, known as Hell oil, Pinhole oil, Oleum infernale, and Oleum ricini majoris; the activity is greater than castor oil and less that of croton oil. It consists of the glyceride of a characteristic acid, in the same group as ricinoleic and crotonoleic acid, but not identical with either, with an activity greater than castor oil and less than croton oil.
• Lipid composition of J. curcas seed oil yielded unsaponifiable lipids 3.8%, stereo esters 4.8%, triglycerols 88.2%, free fatty acids (FTA) 3.4%, diacylglycerols 2.5%, sterols 2.2%, monoacylglycerols 1.7%, polar lipids 2.0%. Fatty acid composition of seed oil yielded palmitic acid 11.3%, stearic acid 17.0%, oleic acid 12.8%, linoleic acid 47.3%, arachidic acid 4.7%, arachidoleic acid 1.8%, behenic acid 0.6%, (C24:O) 44%. (33)
• Study of roots yielded 13 compounds viz., 5α-stigmastane-3, 6-dione (1), nobiletin (2), β-sitosterol (3), taraxerol (4), 2S-tetracosanoic acid glyceride-1(5),5-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxycoumarin (6), jatropholone A (7), jatropholone B (8), 6-methoxy-7-hydroxycoumarin (9), caniojane (10), 3-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (11), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzoic acid (12) and daucosterol (13) (Ling-yi K et al, 2015. Chemical Constituents from Roots of J. curcas. The Institute of Botany, the Chinese Academy of Sciences Acta Botanica Sinica Volume 38 Issue 2.) (33)
• Study of various root extracts yielded polyphenols, flavonoids, alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, coumarins, saponins, terpenoids, steroids, triterpenoid saponins, polyacetylated compounds, carotenoids, phlobatannins, tannins, oxalates, phytates, cyanates, VOCs. (35)
• Proximate analysis of leaf (L), stem bark (SB) and root (R) of J. curcas (%) yielded moisture 11.90 L, 5.77 SB, 9.77 R, crude fat (12.30, 16.70, 6.80), crude protein 26.00, 4.70, 5.66, total carbohydrate 36.33, 12.23, 15.00, total reducing sugar 5.87, 0.52, 1.27, ash content 14.10, 11.83, 7.93, crude fiber 17.67, 50.53, 43.33, and energy value (kJ/100g) 1514.77, 907.00 and 602.93, respectively. (35)
• Mineral composition of leaf (L), stem bark (SB) and root (R) (mg/100g, dry mass basis %) yielded Fe 70.33, 61.33, 62.00, Ca 65.00 56.67, 50.00, Na 47.00, 24.67, 31.33, Mg 127.30, 43.00, 80.67, K 1.95, 0.67, 0.40, Al 11.40, 4.04, 3.00, Zn 50.67, 14.33, 26.67, P 4.47, 0.70, 1.33, Se 0.46, 0.30, 0.20, respectively. (35)
• P
hytochemical screening of defatted seeds detected alkaloids (7.3%), flavonoids (0.39%), and soluble phenolics (mg gallic acid equivalents/g extract).

Properties
- Bitter-tart tasting, cooling natured, antipyretic, antispasmodic, anti-vomiting, haemostatic, styptic, suppurative.
- Toxic; observe caution with internal use.
- Roots are emetic and purgative.

- Oil of the seed is a drastic purgative.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antimalarial, wound healing, antioxidant, pesticidal, antimicrobial, anticoagulant, anti-viral, hepatoprotective, smooth muscle relaxant properties.

Parts utilized
· Fresh leaves.
· Collected the year round.


Uses
Folkloric
· In the Philippines, oil of seeds used as a drastic purgative.
· Decoction of roots used a cure for diarrhea.
· External applications for bleeding, ulceration of wound, pruritus.
· Dosage: Use fresh leaves, 2 to 3 blades, remove petiole, pound and extract juice, decoct in water.
· Seeds: 1-4 seeds is mildly purgative; an overdose causes drastic purgation.
· Decoction of leaves or roots used for diarrhea.
· Bark, slightly pounded, placed in the mouth as cure for snake bites; also applied to bites of various animals.
· The leaf decoction is also used as a cough remedy and as galactagogue.
· Poultice of bark used for sprains and dislocations. Sap is used for toothaches.
· Leaves are applied to wounds and pruritic lesions.
· A vigorous massaging of the oil onto the abdomen is believed to be abortifacient..
· Decoction of young leaves taken for fevers.
· Infusion of leaves, hot or cold, mixed with lime juice, used as lotion for fevers.
· Twigs used for cleaning teeth.
· Used for scabies, eczema, and ringworm.
· Juice used for toothaches and strengthening the gums.
· Preparation from root-bark applied to sores.
· Emulsion of sap with benzyl benzoate used for scabies, eczema and dermatitis.
· Roots used as antidote for snake bites.
· In other countries, the seed is used as anthelmintic or abortive; the leaves as insecticidal.
· Roots used as antidote against snake venom; root extract used for bleeding gums.
· White latex used as mouth disinfectant; used externally for piles.
· Fresh, viscid juice from the stem used to arrest bleeding or hemorrhage from wounds, ulcers, cuts, and abrasions; used to promote healing by coagulating blood and forming an air-tight film when dry, similar to that produced by collodion.
· In South Africa, traditionally used by the Tswana as laxative.
· In
Gambia, leaves used to make mouthwash.
· In the
Gold Coast, leaves used as ingredient in enema preparations.
· In Southern
Nigeria, used as remedy for jaundice, applied by rectal injection. Leaves used for wound healing. Stem bark used for treatment of threatened abortion.
· In
Malaya used as rubefacient. Malays use the latex as vulnerary.
· In the Cape Verde Islands, used to stimulate secretion of milk.
· In Cambodia, applied to sores and ulcers; the leaves considered insecticidal; the seeds considered abortifacient.
· In Brazil, used as anthelmintic.
· In Goa, root-bark applied externally for rheumatism. Fresh stems are used as toothbrushes, to strengthen the gums and cure bleeding, spongy gums, or gum boils.
· In Madagascar and Guiana as an anti-diarrhetic; latex is applied to decayed teeth and wounds, and used as styptic; the roots given as emetic and purgative.
· In India, applied as cataplasm to the breasts and as lactagogue. Also, used as styptic.
· In Peru, traditionally used for external wound healing and gastric ulcers.

Others
- Curcas Oil / Illuminant / Lubricant: Used as illuminant and lubricant. Belongs to a class of semidrying oils and used in the manufacture of soaps and candles.
Biodiesel
- One of the Philippine plants (Tubang bakod, Malunggay, Bani) that has been considered as an alternative biodiesel source. Jatropha is easy to grow with minimum care, maturing in two years. However, unlike malunggay which is gaining preferable status over tubang-bakod (kasla), Jatropha is left with poisonous waste after oil extraction, while all parts of the Malunggay plant are used.

Toxicity / Poisoning
• Reports of 31 cases acute poisoning in South Africa involving children from accidental ingestion of seeds. Presenting manifestations were nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal cramps, burning sensation in the throat. Miosis is also a presenting sign. (21) (34)
• The poisonous property of J. curcas is mainly due to the presence of toxalbumin called curcin, ricin, and cyanic acid, related to ricinoleic acid. Although all parts are poisonous, the seeds have the highest concentration of ricin. (34)
• There is no specific antidote. Treatment is symptomatic and supportive. Treatment options are induction of emesis, gastric lavage with activated charcoal and a cathartic to hasten elimination, together with monitoring and observation for CNS depression and need for assisted ventilation. (34)
• Five cases of poisoning: Study reports of 5 cases of seed poisoning in a family (father, mother, and three sons) presenting with vomiting and diarrhea within a few minutes. The illness was self-limiting with no in-hospital complications. Study suggested ingestion of only one or two seeds can cause toxic symptoms of short duration. The high concentration of phorphoesters in the seed was identified as the main toxic constituent. (43)


Studies

Abortifacient: Study has shown a fertility regulatory effect of fruit of J curcas for pregnant rats. The pregnancy interruption occurred soon after implantation, with marked toxicity with extracts given for 10 days. (2)
Anti-inflammator
y / Roots: Study confirmed the anti-inflammatory activity of topical JC root powder in paste form in TPA-induced ear inflammation in mice. The anti-inflammatory activity could be due to several mediators and involve the cyclo-oxygenase / prostaglandin pathway. (4) In a study of various extracts of J. curcas, a hexane partition from root extract showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity. It also showed high cytotoxicity towards RAW 264.7 cells at 1 mg/ml. Findings suggest hexadecanoic acid methyl ester, octadecanoic acid methyl ester and octadecanoic acid could be responsible for the anti-inflammatory activity of the root extract. (29)
Wound-healing: Study with J curcas, A diffusa and P galioides showed significant wound-healing effect
. (5)

Disinfectant / Antiparastic / Antimalarial Study of the sap and leaves of J curcas showed the sap exerted germicidal actions on the S aureus, Bacillus and Micrococcus species. Also showed an inhibitory effect on larval growth of mosquito. Study suggest JC could provide a very cheap and readily available disinfectant and malaria vector control agent. (6)
Acute Toxicity Studies: Accidental ingestion in children caused a clinical syndrome of restlessness, vomiting and dehydration. A study in mice showed toxic effects manifested as macroscopic anal hemorrhage and death, with post-mortem findings of widespread hemorrhages of the colon and lungs, and and infarction of the liver
. Extract of dried seed administered intraperitoneally in mice caused death in doses as low as 1 mg/kg. Larger intraperitoneal doses (>30 mg/kg) were rapidly lethal but no associated with gross gastrointestinal hemorrhages. (7)
Coagulant / Anticoagulant Activities: Study showed the whole latex
significantly reduced the clotting time of human blood. Diluted, however, it prolonged the clotting time; at high dilutions, it did not clot at all. Results suggest JC possesses both procoagulant and anticoagulant activities. (9)
Mutagenicity Study: Study on five increasing amounts of latex of J curcas showed not mutagenicity activity. (10)
Phorbol
Esters / Toxins: Phorbol esters are the main toxins in J. curcas seed and oil. In a toxicity study in mice, LD50 indicates purified phorbol esters isolated from the oil are highly toxic to mice and produce severe pathological symptoms. Phorbol esters are present in leaves, stems, flowers and roots and therefore the consumption of J. curcas in any form, oil, seeds, seed cake, or extracts is toxic to animals. In ruminants, force-feeding studies using decorticated seeds caused acute toxicity with dose-dependent 100% mortality. (13)
Antimicrobial / Phytochemical Screening: Ethanol, methanol and water extracts of stem bark of JC were investigated for antimicrobial activity. All the extracts exhibited antimicrobial activities and appreciable activity against all fungal species tested. Phytochemical screening yielded saponin, steroids, tannin, glycosides, alkaloids and flavonoids. (14)
Antioxidant / Polyphenolic Content: Study showed a
correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and percentage inhibition of DPPH radicals scavenging activity of the extract. Results suggest a good potential as a source of pharmaceutical based products. (15)
Anti-Termite
/ Toxicity, Effect on Tunneling and Feeding Behavior / Oil: Oil of the physic nut, J. curcas, was evaluated for its barrier and repellent activity against Philippine milk termite Coptotermes vastator. Results showed JC oil had anti-feeding effect, induced reduction in tunneling activity and increased mortality of C. vastator. Toxicity and repellent thresholds were higher than those reported for other naturally occurring compounds tested against the Formosan subterranean termite. (16)
As Coagulant in Waste Water Treatment: Coagulants are widely used in conventional water and wastewater treatment. Residual coagulant in treated wastewater has been associated with chronic diseases. Alternative environmentally friendly biodegradable coagulants could alleviate these problem. Study evaluated J. curcas seed and presscake to reduce wastewater turbidity after coagulation. Jatropha seed showed to be an effective coagulant with more than 90% turbidity removal. Results suggest JC seed and presscake as a potential coagulant agent. (18)
Seed Meal As Protein Supplement to Livestock: Studies have shown that J. curcas seed meal had 58-64% crude protein, with levels of essential amino acids (except lysine) higher than FAO reference protein. Both toxic and non-toxic varieties can be good protein sources for livestock. The seed meal from Jatropha varieties must be detoxified. Heat treatment and a combination of heat and NaOH and NaOCl treatments or extraction with aqueous ethanol or methanol hold promise for detoxification of the toxic varieties for use as Jatropha meals. (19)
As Premiere Biofuel: Book presents biotechnological methodologies for in vitro propagation and plant breeding for sustainable production of biodiesel. Book also goes beyond the pro-contra debate on biofuels to search for possible sustainable trajectories. (20)
Oil / Fatty Acid Composition: Fatty acid composition of Jatropha curcas oil from Nigeria and India showed the linoleic acid to be significantly higher than oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid. Results showed the oils have properties for good and quality shelf life, for domestic use if properly and adequately detoxified. (22)
Anti-Influenza / Inhibition of Viral Hemagglutination Activity: Study evaluated aqueous and methanolic leaf extracts for cytotoxicity and potential to inhibit hemagglutinin protein of influenza virus. Study yielded major phytochemicals including flavonoids, saponins, and tannins. Results suggest the leaf extracts inhibit hemagglutination activity of influenza virus and demonstrates an anti-influenza effect via a mechanism that interferes with virus-cell attachment. (24)
Potential Anti-HIV Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-viral activity of J. curcas leaf extracts against HIV isolates potentially resistant to AZT/3TC/d4T. The plant extracts showed effective antiviral activity in HIV p24 antigen inhibition assays. Results showed effective anti-viral and probably entry inhibition against potentially drug-resistant HIV. (25)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts of leaves for antibacterial properties. Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, steroids, alkaloids, phenolic groups and flavonoids. Various extracts showed varied degrees of zone inhibition against tested bacterial pathogens viz., E. coli, S. aureus, Proteus sp. and P. aeruginosa. Chloroform extracts showed the broadest spectrum of antibacterial activity and maximum zone of inhibition against E. coli and S. aureus. (26)
Safety Evaluation of Formulation of Leaf Extract Ointment for Wound Healing: Study of leaf extract ointment formulation for wound healing in albino rats showed no harmful or adverse effects. Safety findings can be extrapolated to humans. (27)
Smooth Muscle Relaxant / Triterpenes: Study of methanolic extracts of stem bark significantly abolished (p<0.0001) the spontaneous contraction of the uterus and reduced acetylcholine induced uterine contractions at a dose of 50 mg/ml. The tocolytic effects suggest the presence of active principle/s which can explain the ethnomedicinal use of stem bark to treat spontaneous abortion. Phytochemical screening yielded glycosides, tannins, saponins, and alkaloids. (28)
Medicinal Soap / Antimicrobial: Study reports on the preparation of a soap using Jatropha oil. According to BIS norms, the soap can be categorized as Grade III soap and used for general bathing purposes. Study of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus revealed that Jatropha Soap has more bactericidal effect than commercial antiseptic soap suggesting Jatropha oil can be utilized for production of high quality medicated soap. (30)
Bio-Pesticidal / Anti-Termite / Anti-Cockroach / Biodye / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the biopesticidal potential of J. curcas seed oil against termites (Odontotermes obesus) and cockroach (Blattela germanica). Results showed 10% Jatropha oil caused 100% mortality in 48 hrs and 72 hrs and LD50 of 0.64% and 1.24% for termite and cockroach, respectively. Biodye synthesized by sulfonation resulted in a red biodye formation. (31)
Hepatoprotective / Pesticidal / Biodye / Seed Oil: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of ethanol leaf extract on chloroform induced hepatotoxicity in albino rats. The LD50 of the ethanol extract in mice was found to be more than 1900 mg/kg and less than 2600 mg/kbw. Results showed a significant reduction (p<0.05) in levels of elevated enzyme markers (ALT, AST, and ALP). (32)
• Reactive Extraction for Biodiesel Production / Seed: Study reports om a single step in situ extraction, esterification, and transesterification-collectively called reactive extraction-of J. curcas seed to biodiesel. The process parameters included reaction temperature, methanol to seed ration, catalyst loading, and reaction time. (36)

• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Phytotoxic / Defatted Seeds: A crude methanolic extract of defatted seeds exhibited antimicrobial, antioxidant, and phytotoxic activities. These activities were attributed to the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, and phenols in defatted seeds. The active ingredients effective against pathogenic microbes suggest a potential for the formulation of drugs for treatment of various diseases. (37)
• Cytotoxic Compounds in Dedifferentiated Cells: Study determined the presence of cytotoxic compounds in both whole plants and dedifferentiated cells, and evaluated the effect of auxin, cytokinins, and light on callus induction in cotyledon explants. Profile of compounds extracted from dedifferentiated cells was similar to that of whole plant, including a relatively abundant stilbene-like compound. Study contributes to the establishment of protocols to produce anti-cancer compounds from J. curcas cultivated in vitro. (38)
• Formulation of Mouthwash from Latex: Study formulated a non-toxic mouthwash lotion from extraction of J. curcas latex. (39)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Latex Cream Formulation / Skin Wound Model: Study evaluated the potential of J. curcas latex cream formulation on CD68 immune expression (macrophages) during inflammatory phase wound healing process in mice skin. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity. The latex cream from 10% and 15% latex exhibited moderated immune reaction to CV68 on wound healing. (40)
• Toothpaste Formulation from Latex / Antimicrobial Potential: Study formulated herbal toothpastes from edible medicinal plants Syzygium aromaticum, Dennettia tripetala, and Jatropha curcas latex and tested its antimicrobial activity against some oral pathogenic microorganisms using agar well diffusion. The formulated toothpastes exhibited potent antimicrobial property against tested pathogens, Study suggested extraction of biomolecules for the production of safe and effective herbal-based toothpaste. (41)
• Medicinal Soap from Jatropha Oil / Antimicrobial: Soap was prepared using Jatropha Oil adding concentrate caustic soda solution. Study of antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus aureus showed the Jatropha soap has higher bactericidal effect compared to commercial antiseptic soap. Study suggests Jatropha oil can be used for the production of high quality medicated soap. (42)
• Anthelmintic / Curcin / Seed: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of curcin from J. curcas seed using adult Pheretima posthuma, Niclosamide was used as standard. Acute toxicity test showed toxic signs at 300 mg/kg. Pheretima posthuma displayed physical changes with LD50 of 800 mg/kbw. Results suggest a potential source of anthelmintic drugs. However, toxicity of curcin is high, and caution is advised on its use especially at high doses. (44)
• Insecticidal / Spodoptera litura / Leaves: Study evaluated crude methanol extracts of J. curcas (leaf, bark, seed, seed coat, and root) for insecticidal activity against third instar larvae of Spodoptera litura. The leaf extract was most effective and showed highest mortality (60%) at 5% concentration, followed by seed (20%), seed coat (20%) and root (20%). (45)
• Inhibition of Steel Corrosion / Oil: Study evaluated the effects of natural J. curcas oil on the corrosion of steel in 1M HCl by measures of weight loss, electrochemical and EIS polarisation. Results showed J. curcas oil reduced the rate of corrosion and obeys the Frumkin adsorption isotherm model. (46)
• Wound Healing / Seed Oil and Microcurrent Application: Study evaluated the effects of J. curcas seed oil and microcurrent stimulation on healing of wounds experimentally induced in Wistar rats. The application of JC seed oil alone was not effective on experimental wound healing, but microcurrent application alone or in combination with the oil exerted significant differences in the parameters studied. (47)
• Antiangiogenic / Latex: Study evaluated the antiangiogenic potential of J. curcas latex in chick chorioallantoic membrane model.  The latex showed low thermal stability, and consisted of phenols, tannins, and flavonoids, but little or no rubber. The latex demonstrated significant antiangiogenic activity on a chick chorioallantoic membrane model. The combination of antimutagenic, cytotoxic, antioxidant and antiangiogenic properties makes J. curcas latex a potential target for the development of new drugs. (48)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Updated August 2019 / October 2016


Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Jatropha curcas seed / File:J curcas seed ies.jpg / FranK Vincentz / 7 August 2005 / GNUF / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Therapeutic biology of Jatropha curcas: a mini review. / Current pharmaceutical biotechnology (Curr Pharm Biotechnol) / 2008-Aug; vol 9 (issue 4) : pp 315-24
(2)
Pregnancy terminating effect of Jatropha curcas in rats / Ritesh G. et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol 47, Issue 3, 28 July 1995, Pages 117-123 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(95)01263-D
(3)
Jatropha Curcas Poisoning / Indian Journal of Pediatrics, Volume 73—July, 2006
(4)
Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha curcas roots in mice and rats / Journal of ethnopharmacology. 2004 Jan;90(1): 11-5
(5)
Evaluation of the wound-healing activity of selected traditional medicinal plants from Perú / Journal of ethnopharmacology. 1997 Feb;55(3): 193-200

(6)
Disinfectant/antiparasitic activities of Jatropha curcas / Fagbenro-Beyioku A F et al / East African medical journal • 1998, vol. 75, no9, pp. 508-51
(7)
Acute Toxicity Studies with Jatropha curcas L / I Abdu-Aguye et al / Human & Experimental Toxicology, 1985; 5(4): pp 269-274 / DOI: 10.1177/096032718600500409
(8)
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF THE JATROPHA CURCAS LEAVES / B S Nayak and K N Patel / International Journal of PharmTech Research • Vol.2, No.1, pp 140-143, Jan-Mar 2010
(9)
Coagulant and anticoagulant activities in Jatropha curcas latex / Omolaja Osonlyl and Funmi Onajobi / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 89, Issue 1, November 2003, Pages 101-105
(10)
Mutagenicity activity of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) latex / Fazwishni Siregar and L Kristiani / Berkala Ilmu Kedokteran • Vol. 39, No. 1, Maret 2007: 23-26
(11)
A review of Jatropha curcas: an oil plant of unfulfilled promise / Keith Openshaw / Biomass and Bioenergy,
Volume 19, Issue 1, 1 July 2000, Pages 1-15 / doi:10.1016/S0961-9534(00)00019-2
(12)
Jatropha Curcas and Its Potential Applications; A Compilation Paper on Plantation and Application of Jatropha Curcas / Ranjan Parajuli / E-mail:parajuliranjan@yahoo.com
(13)
Toxicity of Jatropha curcas phorbol esters in mice / Cai-Yan Li, Rakshit K Devappa, Jian-Xin Liu et al / Food and Chemical Toxicology 48 (2010) 620–625
(14)
Antimicrobial activity and phytochemical screening of stem bark extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn) /
O. O. Igbinosa, E. O. Igbinosa and O. A. Aiyegoro / African Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology Vol. 3(2). pp. 058-062, February, 2009
(15)
Polyphenolic Contents and Antioxidant Potential of Stem Bark Extracts from Jatropha curcas (Linn) / Osamyyimen O Ibginosa, Isoken H Igbinosa, Vincent N Chigor et al / Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2011, 12, 2958-2971; doi:10.3390/ijms12052958
(16)
Toxicity, tunneling and feeding behavior of the termite, Coptotermes vastator, in sand treated with oil of the physic nut, Jatropha curcas / Menandro N. Acda / Journal of Insect Science, 2009; 9(1) /
https://doi.org/10.1673/031.009.6401
(17)
Sorting
Jatropha names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(18)
A preliminary study on Jatropha curcas as coagulant in wastewater treatment.
/ Abidin ZZ, Ismail N, Yunus R, Ahamad IS, Idris A. / Environ Technol., 2011 Jul; 32(9-10): pp 971-977 / https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2010.521955
(19)
Biofuels and Industrial Products from Jatropha curcas / Edited by G. M. Gübitz, M. Mittelbach and M. Trabi / Symposium 97, Managua Nicaragua, Feb 23-27, 1997.
(20)
Jatropha Curcas as a Premier Biofuel: Cost, Growing and Management / Editors: Claude Ponterio and Costanza Ferra / NovaPublishers
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Jatropha curcas: Use as a traditional Tswana medicine and its role as a cause of acute poisoning / K. J. Mampane, Prof P. H. Joubert*, I. T. Hay / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 1, Issue 1, pages 50–51, March 1987 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2650010112
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Fatty acid composition and physicochemical properties of Jatropha Curcas oils from Edo and Kaduna states of Nigeria and India / Inekwe U. V., Odey M. O., Gauje B., Dakare A. M., Ugwumma C. D and Adegbe E. S. / Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3 (10):4860-4864
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Jatropha curcas / Synonyms / The Plant List
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Evaluation of Jatropha curcas Linn. leaf extracts for its cytotoxicity and potential to inhibit hemagglutinin protein of influenza virus / Deepak Patil, Soumen Roy, Ritwik Dahake, Shreewardhan Rajopadhye, Sweta Kothari, Ranjana Deshmukh, and Abhay Chowdhary / Indian J Virol., 2013 Sep; 24(2): pp 220–226. / doi: 10.1007/s13337-013-0154-z / PMID: 24426279
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Potential Anti-HIV Activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. Leaf Extracts / Ritwik Dahake*, Soumen Roy, Deepak Patil, Shreewardhan Rajopadhye, Abhay Chowdhary and Ranjana A Deshmukh / J Antivir Antiretrovir 2013, 5:7 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/jaa.1000082

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Phytochemical and Antibacterial Studies on Jatropha curcas L. / Narayani M, Johnson M*, Sivaraman A, Janakiraman N / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2012, 4(5):2639-2642
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Use of Extracts of Jatropha Curcas Leaf Formulated in A Simple Ointment Base in Wound Healing Activities: How Safe Is It? / Nwala, Chukwudi Omeni, Akaninwor, J. O, Monanu, M. O. / International Journal of Engineering Science Invention, Volume 2 Issue 6 ǁ June. 2013, pp 53-57
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Smooth muscle relaxant evaluation of Jatropha Curcas Linn (Euphorbiaceae) and isolation of triterpenes / Abiodun Falodun, Z. A. M Nworgu and Erharuyi Osayemwenre / Niger. J. Physiol. Sci., Dec 2011; 26: pp 113-137
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Elucidation of in-vitro anti-inflammatory bioactive compounds isolated from Jatropha curcas L. plant root /
Ahmad Razi Othman, Norhani Abdullah, Syahida Ahmad, Intan Safinar Ismail and Mohamad Pauzi Zakaria / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine, (ISCMR) 201515:11 / DOI: 10.1186/s12906-015-0528-4
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Synthesis of Medicinal Soap from Non Edible (Jatropha Oil) and Study of its Quality Parameters including Antimicrobial Activity / Rangwala Juzer Ali and Sarasan Geetha / Research Journal of Chemical Sciences, April 2014; 4(4): pp 58-62
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Bio-activity guided studies of Biocides and Biodyes from Jatropha (Jatropha curcas L.) seed oil / Abebe G. Demissie*, Asnake G. Ede / Journal of Scientific and Innovative Research 2013; 2 (5): 938-942
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The Effect of Ethanol Leaf Extract of Jatropha curcas on Chloroform Induced Hepatotoxicity in Albino Rats / P.C. Ugwu Okechukwu, Edwin Nzubechukwu, M.E. Ogbanshi, Ezeani Nkiruka, M.O. Nworie, A.L. Ezugwu and P.M. Aja / Global Journal of Biotechnology & Biochemistry. 2015; 10(1): pp 11-15 / DOI: 10.5829/idosi.gjbb.2015.10.01.1116
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Chemical Composition, Bio-Diesel Potential and Uses of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) / Temesgen Bedassa Gudeta / American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry, March 2016; Volume 4, Issue 2: pp 35-48
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Jatropha curcus poisoning in pediatric patients, Mauritius
/ D Rai, P Lakhanpal / The Internet Journal of Pediatrics and Neonatology, Volume 8, Number 2
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The biomedical significance of the phytochemical, proximate and mineral compositions of the leaf, stem bark and root of Jatropha curcas / Atamgba Agbor Asuk, Margaret Akpana Agiang, Kayode Dasofunjo, Amonor James Willie / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 5, Issue 8, August 2015, Pages 650–657
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Reactive Extraction of Jatropha curcas L. Seed for Production of Biodiesel: Process Optimization Study / Siew Hoong Shuit, Keat Teong Lee, Azlina Harun Kamaruddin and Suzana Yusup / Environ. Sci. Technol., 2010; 44(11): pp 4361-4367 / https://doi.org/10.1021/es902608v
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Phytochemical and Biological Evaluation of Defatted Seeds of Jatropha curcas / MUHAMMAD NISAR UL HAQ, SULTAN MEHMOOD WAZIR, FAIZAN ULLAH, RAHMAT ALI KHAN / Sains Malaysian, 2016; 45(10): pp 1435–1442
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Production of cytotoxic compounds in dedifferentiated cells of Jatropha curcas L. (Euphorbiaceae) / Isidro Ovando-Medina, Leny P Perez-Diaz et al / PeerJ 4:e2616 /
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FORMULATION OF NATURAL NON-TOXIC MOUTHWASH LOTION FROM EXTRACTION OF JATROPHA CURCAS LATEX / SITI ZUHAILA BINTI ZULKEPELI / Thesis: Jan 2012 / University Malaysia Pahang
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Anti-inflammatory activity of Jatropha curcas Linn. latex in cream formulation on CD68 expression in mice skin wound / Muhammad Nur Salim, Dian Masyitha, Abdul Harris, Ummu Balqis, Cut Dahlia Iskandar, Muhammad Hambal and Darmawi / Veterinary World, 11(2): pp 99-103
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Antimicrobial potential of toothpaste formulated from extracts of Syzygium aromaticum, Dennettia tripetala and Jatropha curcas latex against some oral pathogenic microorganisms / Olubenga Oludayo Oluwasina, Ifunanya Viviian Ezenwosu et al / AMB Express, 2019; 9(20)
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Synthesis of Medicinal Soap from Non Edible (Jatropha Oil) and Study of its Quality Parameters including Antimicrobial Activity / Rangwala Luzer Ali, Sarasan Geetha / Research Joiurnal of Chemical Sciences, 2014; 4(4): pp 58-62
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Five Cases of Jatropha curcas Poisoning / Viral Shah, Jayesh Sanmukhani / JAPI, April 2010; Vol 58
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Curcin from Jatropha curcas seed as a potential anthelmintic / Jummai A. T. and Okoli B. J. / Advancement in Medicinal Plant Research, 2014; 2(3): pp 47-49
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Bioefficacy of crude extracts from Jatropha curcas against Spodoptera litura / Krishnananda P Ingle, Amit G Deshmukh, Dipika A Padole, Mahendra S Dudhare, Mangesh P Moharil and Khelurkar VC / Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies 2017; 5(1): pp 36-38
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Inhibition of Steel Corrosion in 1M HCl by Jatropha Curcas oil / Mokhtari O., Hamdani, Chetouani A., Lahrach A., El Halouani H., Aouniti A., Berrabah M. / J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 5 (1) (2014) 310-319
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Application of Jatropha curcas L. seed oil (Euphorbiaceae) and microcurrent on the healing of experimental wounds in Wistar rats / José Roberto Passarini JuniorI, Fernanda Oliveira de Gaspari de GaspiII et al / Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, 2012; 27(7): pp 441-447
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Antiangiogenic potential of Jatropha curcas latex in chick chorioallantoic membrane model / Luciana Madureira Almeida, Elisa Flavia Luiz Cardoso Bailao et al / Scientia Medica, 2019; 29(1)

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