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Family Magnoliaceae
Sampaka
Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre
JOY PERFRUME TREE

Huang yu lan

Scientific names  Common names 
Champaca michelia Noronha Champaka (Tag.) 
Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre Champaka-laag (Sul.) 
Magnolia membranacea P.Parm. Champaka-pula (Tag.) 
Michelia aurantiaca Wall. Sampaka (Tag.) 
Michelia blumei Steud. Tsampaka (Tag.) 
Michelia champaca L. Tsampakang pula (Tag.) 
Michelia euonymoides Burm.f. Champaca (Engl.)
Michelia rheedei Wight Champak (Engl.)
Michelia rufinervis DC. Golden champa (Engl.)
Michelia sericea Pers. Joy perfume tree (Engl)
Michelia suaveolens Pers. Yellow jade orchid tree (Engl)
Sampacca euonymoides (Burm.f.) Kuntze  
Sampacca suaveolens (Pers.) Kuntze  
   
Some compilations list two species of champaka, both of Genus Michelia: (1) Tsampakang puti (Michelia longiflora, M. alba, M. longifolia), and (2) Tsampakang pula (Michelia champaca). The latter is included in Dr. Quisumbing's Medicinal Plants of the Philippines.
Michelia champaca L. is a synonym of Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre The Plant List
Magnolia champaca (L.) Baill. ex Pierre is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Sorno champa.
CHINESE: Huang yu lan.
HINDI:Champa.
JAVA: Chempaka, Chepaka, Pechari, Lochari, Kantil, Semendara.
MALAYALAM: Chenbagam.
MALAYSIA: Chempaka, cempaka merah, Chempa, Cempaka kuning, Jampaka.
SUNDANESE: Champaka.
SUMATRA: Champaga.
TAMIL: Sembugam, Shenbagam.
TELUGU: Sampangi.
THAI: Champah, Champi.

Botany
Tsampakang-pula is a small tree, growing to a height of 6 meters or more. Bark is smooth and grey; the wood, soft with a white sapwood and a light olive-brown heartwood. Young shoots are silky; branchlets are appressed-pubescent. Leaves are ovate-lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate, 12 to 20 centimeters long, 2.5 to 6 centimeters wide, gradually narrowing upward to a long pointed apex. Flowers are very fragrant, pale yellow or orange, 4 to 5 centimeters long. Perianth segments are usually 15 to 20, deciduous, in whorls of 3, the outer ones oblong, the inner ones linear. Fruiting spike is 8 to 15 centimeters long. Seeds are 1 to 2, brown when old, polished and variously angled.

Distribution
- Cultivated for its flowers and ornamental use.
- Native to the Philippines, India and Java.
- Widespread in the Indo-Malaysian tropical region. Classified as Least Concern in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. (24)

Constituents
- Volatile oil, 0.2% - cineol, iso-eugenol, benzoic acid, benzyl alcohol, benzaldehyde, p-cresol methyl ether; alkaloids.
- The bark contains a volatile oil, fixed oil, resin, tannin, mucilage, starch and sugar.
- Studies have reported an alkaloid in M. parvifolia and M. champaca.
- Champacol, a camphor, has been obtained from champaca wood by distillation.
- Flower, seeds and bark contain a bitter and aromatic principle.
- A study reports a volatile oil from the leaves.

- Flower essential oil yields 62% linalool, beta-caryophyllene, beta-elemene, methyl eugenol.
- Constituent study of leaves and flowers yielded alkaloids, saponins, tannins, glycosides, carbohydrates, amino acid, flavonoids, and sterols. (26)
- Stem bark yielded triterpenoids, steroids, and fatty acids, with the absence of alkaloids, carbohydrates, flavanoids, glycosides, resins, saponins, and tannins. (29)

Properties
- The bark is bitter, tonic, astringent, antiperiodic and alterative.
- Root is purgative and the root-bark, emmenagogue, purgative and demulcent.
- The flowers are stimulant, tonic, carminative, demulcent and diuretic.
- Studies have suggested antitumor, anti-inflammatory, wound healing, antifungal, antihyperglycemic, diuretic, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antioxidant, cardioprotective properties.


Parts used

Leaves, root, root-bark, flowers, fruit and oil.

Uses
Folkloric
- Leaves applied to indolent swellings.
- Leaf juice used as vermifuge.
- Leaf juice with honey taken orally to relive colic.
- Decoction used in rheumatism, angina, and pharyngitis.
- Used for vertigo and dizziness.
- Decoction of bark used for fevers.
- Powdered bark also used for fevers.
- For rheumatism, crushed leaves are mixed with oil and applied on affected joints.
- Root bark used as demulcent, emmenagogue and purgative.
- An infusion or decoction of the flowers used for dyspepsia, nausea and fevers.
- The flowers, macerated in sweet oil, used for cephalalgia and ophthalmia and fetid nasal discharges; vertigo, rheumatism and gout.
- Seeds are used for rheumatism and for healing cracks in the soles of the feet.
- In Mexico, flowers, seeds and bark used for renal affections and as abortifacient.
- In India, flower buds used for diabetes and kidney diseases.
- Woen of Chhattisgarh in India use the plant for fertility regulation.
- In Ayurveda, used for dyspepsia, nausea, vitiated conditions of pitta, vatta, hemoptysis, pruritus, skin diseases, cough, bronchitis, malarial fever, and general debility. (23)
- Flower essential oil used for cephalalgia, ophthalmia, gout and rheumatism. Fruits and seeds used for healing cracks in feet.
(
31)
Others
Perfume: Flowers yield an essential oil used in perfume. Used for scenting rooms, perfumed floral necklaces, as floral decorations strewn on bridal beds, and perfuming clothes in storage. Also used to scent hair oils.
Timber: Yields a fine timber for construction, toy making, carving.

Studies
Cytotoxic / Antitumor: Study showed ethanol extract of bark of Michelia champaca showed activity against human epidermoid carcinoma of the nasopharynx test system. Active constituents isolated were sesquiterpene lactones - parthenolide and costunolide. (1)
Anti-Inflammatory :
Study of the methanolic extracts of flowers of M. champaca showed anti-inflammatory activity presumed to be due to the presence of flavonoids in the flowers. (2)
Antidiabetic:
Study of the ethanolic extract of M champaca exhibited significant dose-dependent antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Results support the traditional use of the plant for various diabetic-associated complications. (3)
Antifungal:
Study of crude extracts of M champaca yielded the maximum number of growth inhibiting compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum. (4)
Leishmanicidal Activity :
One of the timber extracts that showed potent leishmanicidal activity. (5)
Wound Healing Activity in the Immunocompromised:
Study showed the co-administration of dexamaethasone and M champaca significantly increased the breaking strength and increased hydroxyproline content. Results conclude M champaca is an effective agent for healing wounds in immunocompromised patients. (6)
Anti-infective Activity :
Study showed the dichlormethane extract of M champaca and A madagascarienjse showed the maximum number of growth inhibiting compounds against Cladosporium cucumerinum; the crude extracts showed activity against several phytophathogenic filamentous fungi. (7)
Antihyperglycemic Activity / Flower Buds:
Study evaluated various extracts of flower buds for antidiabetic activity. The ethanolic extract of M champaca exhibited significant dose-dependent antihyperglycemic activity but did not produce hypoglycemia in fasted normal rats. Results support the traditional use of the plant for various diabetic-associated complications. (10)
Flower Phytochemicals :
Study of flowers of M champaca yielded flavonoid quercetin and an unidentified flavonoid glycoside together with 3-sitosterol, unsaturated aliphatic ketones and hydrocarbons.
(8)
Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Flower:
Study showed M. champaca flower extract possesses strong antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.
(11)
Wound Healing / Flower:
Ethanolic extract of flowers was evaluated for burn wound healing activity in rats. Oral and topical administration showed significant improvement in rate of wound contraction, with reduction in period of epithelialisation. Dexaethasone-suppressed epithelialisation was significantly reversed by topical and oral treatment.
(12)
Antimicrobial and Anticancer Constituents:
Study was carried out to characterized the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of M. champaca seed and flower extracts. Findings indicate that the medicinal values of champaca seed and flower extracts in terms of antimicrobial and anticancer properties are promising.
(13)
Diuretic / Leaves and Stem Bark:
Aqueous extracts of stem bark exhibited better diuretic potential in comparison to leaves extract, with the higher dose evoking pronounced diuresis even greater than standard furosemide (Lasix) in terms of Na+ and K+ concentration, and approximating furosemide in terms of urine volume. (14)
Anti-Ulcerogenic:
Alcoholic and aqueous extracts of leaves and flowers were evaluated for anti-ulcerogenic property. against NSAID-aspirin induced ulcer. Results showed significant reduction of gastric juice, total acidity, ulcer index, and elevation of gastric pH. Flower aqueous extract showed maximum efficacy followed by leaf alcoholic, flower alcoholic, and leaf aqueous extracts.
(15)
Antibacterial / Radical Scavenging Activity: Ethyl acetate and hexane extracts showed strong antioxidant activity in the S|DPPH radical scavenging assay. The ethyl acetate extract was more effective against all bacterial strains tested. (16)
ß-Sitosterol / Leaves and Stem Bark: ß-sitosterol is an important plant sterol reported to possess chemopreventive and adaptogenic properties.
Study showed the leaves to be the richest source of ß-sitosterol in Michelia champaca. (17)
Antifertility: Study evaluated the anti-fertility activity of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract in female rats. Results showed significant antifertility effect which may be due to inhibition of implantation and estrogenic effect due to some phytoconstituents. (18)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated various extracts on carrageenan-induced inflammation rat model. Results showed highly significant maximum inhibition concluding anti-inflammatory activity in pro-inflammatory conditions. (19)
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of methanolic and aqueous extracts of leaves against test worms Pheretima posthuma. Both extracts exhibited greater P (paralysis time) and D (death time) than the standard. (20)
Cardioprotective / Flowers: Study evaluated the cardioprotective potential of methanolic extract of M. champaca flowers on isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia in male albino wistar rats. Pretreatment with various doses showed dose-dependent cardioprotective benefits with restoration of biochemical parameters and histopathological confirmation of biochemical findings. (21)
Anti-Inflammatory / Flowers: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory property of a flower extract of M. champaca by membrane stabilization method by prevention of hypotonicity induced human RBC membrane lysis. M. champaca showed significant stabilizing activity of 57.4% at 300 µg/ml. Membrane stabilization was concentration dependent. (25)
Antioxidant / Flowers: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of methanolic extract of M. champaca flowers using in-vitro assay models. The extract showed effective free radical scavenging at 300 µg concentration. Ethanolic extract showed IC50 values of 260 µg in total antioxidant activity, 150 µg in NO radical assay, 240 µg in reducing power assay, and 280 µg in H2O2 assay. (27)
Wound Healing in Diabetic Rats / Flowers: Study evaluated the wound healing property of ethanolic extract of flowers in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant increases in breaking strength, rate of wound contraction, and hydroxyproline content and reduced period of epitheliazation in groups IV and V. (28)
Antihyperlipidemic: Study evaluated M. champaca extract for hypolipidemic activity on triton WR 1339 induced models of hyperlipidemia in rats. A methanolic extract showed significant reduction in TC, triglycerides, LDL, VLDL, MDA and GSH with increase in HDL, similar to standard drug atorvastatin. (30)
Antimicrobial / Flower Essential Oil: Study evaluated essential oil of M. champaca flowers obtained by n-hexane extraction for antimicrobial activity. A slight inhibition was found against Staphylococcus aureus. (31)

Availability
- Cultivated
- Wild-crafted.

- Infusions, extracts, essential oils in the cybermarket.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update June 2016

IMAGE SOURCE / Photograph / FLOWER / File:Magnolia1.jpg / Português: en la urbo Lavras, MG., Brazilo / El Denis Conrado /Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 3.0 Unported license / click on image to go to source page. / Wikipedia
Photos / Leaves © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Michelia champaca Blanco1.191-original.png / Plate of flowers and seeds of Magnolia (Michelia) champaca from Flora de Filipinas, Atlas / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Cytotoxic agents from Michelia champaca and Talauma ovata: Parthenolide and costunolide / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences • Vol 66 Issue 6, Pages 883 - 884 / 10.1002/jps.2600660642 DOI
(2)
Antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity of Michelia champaca Linn., (white variety), Ixora brachiata Roxb. and Rhynchosia cana (Willd.) D.C. flower extract. / Indian J Exp Biol. 1997 Dec;35(12):1310-4.
(3)
Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn. / Jarald EE, Joshi SB, Jain DC. Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn. Indian J Pharmacol 2008;40:256-60
(4)
Screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the Mauritians flora / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.08.002 / Journal of Ethnopharmacology Vol109, Issue 2, 19 January 2007, Pages 331-337
(5)
In Vitro Screening of Leishmanicidal Activity in Myanmar Timber Extracts / Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin • Vol. 27 (2004) , No. 6 921
(6)
Michelia Champaca: Wound Healing Activity In Immunosuppressed Rats / S Dwajani et al / The Internet Journal of Alternative Medicine. 2009 Volume 7 Number 2
(7)
Screening for anti-infective properties of several medicinal plants of the Mauritians flora / Oumadevi Rangasam y et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 109, Issue 2, 19 January 2007, Pages 331-337 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.08.002
(8)
Chemical studies of on flowers of Michelia champaca / S Kapoor and R K Jaggi / Indian Journ of Pharmaceutical Sciences • Year : 2004 | Volume : 66 | Issue : 4 | Page : 403-406
(9)
Michelia champaka / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED

(10)
Antidiabetic activity of flower buds of Michelia champaca Linn
/ E. Edwin Jarald, S.B. Joshi, and D.C. Jain / Indian J Pharmacol. 2008 Nov-Dec; 40(6): 256–260. / doi: 10.4103/0253-7613.45151
(11)
Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Various Extracts of Michelia champaca Linn flowers / R. Vivek Kumar, Satish Kumar, S. Shashidhara, S. Anitha and M. Manjula / World Applied Sciences Journal 12 (4), 413-418, 2011
(12)
EFFECT OF MICHELIA CHAMPACA LINN FLOWERS ON BURN WOUND HEALING IN WISTAR RATS /
Tara Shanbhag, Sunitha Kodidela*, Smita Shenoy, Arul Amuthan, Sarath Kurra / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, Volume 7, Issue 2, March – April 2011
(13)
Characterization of antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticancer property and chemical composition of michelia champaca seed and flower extracts / Lee Seong Wei, and Wendy Wee, and Julius Young Fu Siong, and Desy Fitrya Syamsumir / Stamford Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 4 (1). pp. 19-24, 2011
(14)
DIURETIC ACTIVITY OF AQUEOUS EXTRACTS OF MICHELIA CHAMPACA L. LEAVES AND STEM BARK IN RATS / Hafsa Ahmad, Vasundhara Saxena, Anurag Mishra, Rajiv Gupta / Pharmacologyonline 2: 568-574 (2011).
(15)
Effect of Michelia champaca Linn on pylorous ligated rats / A. R. Mullaicharam, M. Surendra kumar / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (02); 2011: 60-64
(16)
Antibacterial and free radical scavenging activity of Michelia champaca Linn. flower extracts / Umadevi Parimi, Deephi Kolli / Free Radicals and Antioxidants, Volume 2, Issue 2 , Pages 58-61, April 2012
(17)
TLC Detection of beta-sitosterol in Michelia champaca L. Leaves and Stem Bark and it's Determination by HPTLC / Hafsa Ahmad, Sakshi Sehgal, Anurag Mishra, Rajiv Gupta*, Shubhini A. Saraf / Pharmacognosy Journal / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2012.27.8
(18)
Antifertility effect of hydroalcoholic leaves extract of Michelia champaca L.: An ethnomedicine used by Bhatra women in Chhattisgarh state of India / Taprial S et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Mar 13. pii: S0378-8741(13)00146-3. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.03.003.
(19)
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Leaves of Michelia champaca Investigated on Acute Inflammation Induced Rats /
Sumeet GUPTA *, Kritika MEHLA, Devesh CHAUHAN & Anroop NAIR / Lat. Am. J. Pharm. 30 (4, 2011, pp 819-22
(20)
Helmintholytic Activity of the Methanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Leaves of Michelia champaca / Dama G.*, Bidkar J., Deore S., Jori M., Joshi P. / Research Journal of Pharmacology and Pharmacodynamics, 2011, Volume : 3, Issue : 1
(21)
Cardioprotective potentials of methanolic Extract of michelia champaca flowers on Isoproterenol induced myocardial ischemia in Male albino wistar rats / Kulkarni, Shridhar Shripad / Dissertatio / KLE University
(22)
Magnolia champaca / Synonyms / The Plant List
(23)
Magnolia champaca / Ayurvedic Medicinal Plants / Toxicology Centre
(24)
Magnolia champaca / The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species
(25)
SCREENING OF INVITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY ACTIVITY OF MICHELIA CHAMPACA LINN. FLOWERS / T.ANANTHI* AND M.CHITRA / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol 6, Suppl 5, 2013
(26)
A preliminary pharmacognostical study on leaves and flowers of Michelia champaca L. Magnoliaceae / K. N. Geetha*, K. Jeyaprakash and Y. P. Nagaraja / Journal of Applied and Natural Science 3 (2): 228-231 (2011)
(27)
In vitro Evaluation of Antioxidant Activity of Michelia champaca (L.) Flowers / T. Ananthi* and M. Chitra / American Journal of Advanced Drug Delivery, 1(5), 2013, pp 734-742.
(28)
The wound healing property of ethanolic extract of Michelia champaca flowers in diabetic rats / Amoolya Gowda, Venkatesh Shanbhag, Eesha Rao Bangalore, Smita Shenoy, Krishnananda Prabhu, Mukunda Narayanareddy, Tara Shanbhag / Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol. 2014; 3(6): 1036-1042doi: 10.5455/2319-2003.ijbcp20141215
(29)
Phytochemical Studies of Stem Bark of Michelia champaca Linn / Kodongala Subraya Chandrashekar, Hegde Vignesh, and Kodongala Subraya Prasanna / International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 1(1) Dec 2010
(30)
Antihyperlipidemic Activity of Michelia champaca L. In Triton WR 1339 Induced Albino Rats / T.Ananthi*, I.Jasmin Barvin and M.Chitra / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.6, No.4, pp 1368-1373, Aug-Sept 2014
(31)
Anti-Microbial Activities of Michelia champaca L. Essential Oil / Dalvi Sanjay Marotrao / Int. J. of Life Sciences, 2015, Vol. 3(3): 232-237

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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