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Family Rhizophoraceae
Tañgal
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob.
YELLOW MANGROVE

Hai jia zi

Scientific names Common names
Bruguiera arnottiana Wight ex Am. Ligasen (Tag.)
Bruguiera timoriensis Wight ex Am. Magtoñgod (P. Bis.)
Ceriops boviniana Tul. Pakat (Tagb.)
Ceriops candolleana Arn. Roñgon (Sbl.)
Ceriops forsteniana Blume Ruñgon (Sbl.)
Ceriops globulifera Boreau ex Tul. Tagasa (Tag.)
Ceriops lucida Miq. Tañgag (S. L. Bis.)
Ceriops mossambicensis Klotzsch Tañgal (Tag., Bag., Pang., Sul.)
Ceriops pauciflora Benth Tañgal-lalaki (Tag.)
Ceriops somalensis Chiov. Tanghal (Tag., P. Bis.)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. Tigasan (Tag.)
Ceriops timoriensis (DC.) C.A.Gardner Tonggi (Kuy.)
Rhizophora tagal Perr. Toñgog (Bag., S. L. Bis.)
Rhizophora timoriensis DC. Toñgong (Sub.)
  Tuñgod (P. Bis., C. Bis.)
  Tuñgog (P. Bis.)
  Tuñguds (Sul.)
  Yellow mangrove (Engl.)
  Spurred mangrove (Engl.)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BRUNEI: Tengar.
CAMBODIA: Smae.
CHINA: Jiao guo mu, Hai jia zi, Hai dian zi, Jian zi shu.
INDONESIA: Tengar, Tanggala tutu, Tingi.
MALAYSIA: Tengar.
SINGAPORE: Tengar.
THAILAND: Prong, Prong daeng, Samae.

Botany
Tañgal is a small tree growing up to 8 meters or less in height, with many buttresses at the base. Bark is dark red. Leaves are ovate, 5 to 7.5 centimeters long, 2 to 5 centimeters wide, blunt at the tip and pointed at the base. Flowers are about 6 millimeters in length, borne on short stalks. Calyx lobes are linear, with pointed tips. Petals are five, smooth; tips are flat or notched, with three of four club-shaped appendages. Stamens are ten. Fruit is small, club-shaped or subovoid, surrounded near the base by the reflexed segments of the calyx.

Distribution
- Abundant in mangrove swamps throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya.

Constituents
- Aerial parts yielded three new lupane-type triterpenes, 3a-O-trans-feruloylbetulinic acid, 3a-O-trans-coumaroylbetulinic acid and 3ß-O-cis-feruloylbetulin, with 10 known triterpenes.
- Phytochemical screening of stems and leaves yielded flavonoids, anthraglycosides, bitter principle, saponins, terpenoids, and essential oils. (See study below) (12)
- Total phenolic content of wood and bark extracts in gallic acid equivalent (GAE) were 141.86 mg GAE/100 g sample and 181.91 mg GAE/100 mg g sample, respectively. (see study below) (14)
- Water soluble amino acids constituents of Ceriops tagal fruit were lysine, threonine, valine, phenylalanine, tryptophan, and proline, while hypocotyl yielded arginine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, and alanine. (see study below) (15)

Properties
Whole plant is astringent.
Bark is astringent, hemostatic, and used as quinine substitute.

Parts used
Bark.

Uses

Folkloric
Decoction of the bark used to stop hemorrhages; applied to malignant ulcers.
Bark used for diabetes.
On the African Coast, decoction of shoots used as substitute for quinine.
Malay women use a decoction of bark in childbirth.
In India, bark used as hemostatic.
In Malaysia, bark lotion used for ulcers and abdominal ailments.
Others
Dye: In eastern Africa and Asia, stem bark used for dyeing and tanning. In SE Asia, source of "soga browns" of Javanese batiks.
Preservative: In fishing communities, bark extract used to preserve nets and sails from decay.
Wood: Poles, planks and wattlework for house building.

Studies
Dolabrane Diterpene / Tagalsin / Cytotoxicity: Study isolated a new dolabrane-type diterpene, tagalsin, together with six known analogues. Cytotoxicity of the isolated compounds was evaluated against HeLa human cervical carcinoma cancer cell line. (2)
Anti-Tumor / Triterpenes: Study yielded four triterpenes. Compounds 1 and 3 were effective in inhibiting cell proliferation and growth of H-7402 and HeLa. (4)
Antihyperglycemic: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic effect of the crude extract of Ceriops tagal showed significant improvement of glucose tolerance in sucrose-loaded normal rats and a 10.9% reduction of hyperglycemia in STZ-induced diabetic rats. (5)
Antihyperglycemic / Hexose Uptake Stimulation: Study on the effect of an ethanolic extract and its fractions on H-2-deoxyglucose uptake by cultured L6 rat muscle cells showed enhancement of glucose uptake comparable with insulin and metformin. Results suggest the n-hexane soluble fraction might be a potential source of new antihyperglycemic compounds. (7)
Antibacterial / Leaves and Bark: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of the leaves and bark extracts of Ceriops tagal and Pemphis acidula against human pathogens such as P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, V parahemolyticus, S aureus and V cholera. P acidula showed higher antibacterial potency than C tagal. In all the tests, the crude methanolic extracts showed better inhibition. (6)
Antitumor: Dolabrane diterpenes of Ceriops tagal exhibited significant antitumor effect in the LLC mice probably through induced apoptosis of tumor cell and the lower expression of the tumor-associated transcription factor NF-KPp65. (8)
Dolaborane Diterpenes / Tagalsins / Roots / Anticancer: Study investigated the anticancer activity of tagalsins A-G isolated from the roots of C. tagal. Tagalsins A- G induced apoptosis through activation of caspase-3 enzyme. Tagalsin A was the most active. Results suggest a potential for the development of anticancer agents with novel mechanisms of actions. (9)
Antioxidant / Stems and Leaves: Study evaluated the antioxidant activity and phytochemicals in stems and leaves of C. tagal. Study confirmed the free radical scavenging potential of C. tagal. The leaves showed higher dose-dependent reducing power. Phytoscreening yielded flavonoids, anthraglycosides, bitter principle, saponins, terpenoids, and essential oils. (12)
Total Phenolic Content / Fungitoxic Property / Bark: Study evaluated bark and wood water soluble extracts of mangrove "tangal" as a potential antifungal agent against wood pathogenic fungi Lasiodyplodia theobromae. The bark extract was more effective in controlling fungal growth when compared with the wood extract. Results suggest some of the phenolics in tangal could inhibit fungal growth and development. (see constituents above) (14)
Potential for Supplementing Animal Feed: Study analyzed organic and inorganic constituents of fruit and hypocotyl of Ceriops tagal. Both showed high concentration of carbohydrates and crude fibers, with very low amounts of fat and protein. It was rich in Na, K, and Ca, and was fairly high in calorific values. Results showed a potential source for supplementing animal feed. (see constituents above) (15)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Last Update June 2016

IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Rhizophoreae sp Blanco2.415-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Francisco Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: / Tengar putih (Ceriops tagal) -- Ria Tan / Jan 25, 2009 / Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial / Click on image to go to source page / flickr /

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C.B.Rob. / Protologue - Philipp. Journ. Sci., Bot. 3: 306 (1908). / Protabase Record Display
(2)
A new dolabrane-type diterpene from Ceriops tagal
/ Ouyang XW, Wang XC, Yue QX, Hu LH / Nat Prod Commun. 2010 Jan;5(1):9-12.
(3)
Three new lupane-type triterpenes from Ceriops tagal / Li-Hong Hu / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Volume 12, Issue 7 July 2010 , pages 576 - 581 / DOI: 10.1080/10286020.2010.485566
(4)
In vitro antitumor activity of triterpenes from Ceriops tagal / He, Lei, Wang, You-Shao and Wang, Qing-Ji / Natural Product Research, Volume 21, Number 14, December 2007 , pp. 1228-1233(6)
(5)
Antihyperglycaemic activity of Ceriops tagal in normoglycaemic and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Priti Tiwari, Akhilesh Kumar Tamrakar et al / MEDICINAL CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, Volume 17, Numbers 2-7, 74-84 / DOI: 10.1007/s00044-007-9038-3
(6)
Antibacterial Activity of Mangrove Leaf and Bark Extracts Against Human Pathogens
/ Natarajan Arivuselvan et al / Advances in Biological Research 5 (5): 251-254, 2011
(7)
Stimulatory Efrect of Ceriops tagal on hexose uptake in L6 muscle cells in culture / Akhilesh Kumar Tamrakar, Rajesh Kumar, Ramesh Sharma et al / Natural Product Research, Vol 22, No 7, May 2008, 592-599
(8)
Anti-Tumor Effect of the Dolabrane Diterpenes of Ceriops Tagal in Lewis / 2011 Tumor Research Center
(9)
Comparative anticancer activity of dolaborane diterpenes from the roots of Ceriops tagal (Rhizophoraceae) / M Chacha / International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences, Vol 6, No 2 (2012)
(10)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Rob. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(11)
Ceriops tagal (Perr.) C. B. Robinson / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(12)
Evaluation of Antioxidant Properties and Phytochemical analysis in the stem and leaves of Ceriops tagal mangroves / Jadhav B.L.,* Quraishi Firdaus Mukhtar and Pagare B.G. / Research Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 8 (9) September (2013)
(13)
Ceriops tagal / Synonyms / The Plant List
(14)
A preliminary study on the Total Phenolic Content of Tangal (Ceriops tagal) bark and wood extracts and their fungitoxic properties / Jovale Vincent Tongco, Ramon Razal, Mutya Maria Manalo / Conference Paper · December 2013 / Natural Products Society of the Philippines PosterPaper Presentation PP-20
(15)
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF THE FRUIT AND HYPOCOTYL OF MANGROVE, CERIOPS TAGAL / Noor-un-Nisa Qadri and Khalid Jamil / Pakistan Journal of Marine· Sciences, Vol.2(2), 119-122, 1993

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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