Tan-ag is a tree growing 8 to
15 meters high. Leaves are alternate, broadly ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, with
pointed tip and heart-shaped base, with petioles 5 to 20 centimeters long. Flowers are pink, about
8 millimeters long, borne on panicles 20 to 40 centimeters long, terminating the branches.
Fruit is a thin-walled, inflated capsule about 2 centimeters long.
- Common in thickets, secondary
forests, and deserted clearings at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to tropical Africa and to Malaya.
- Yields triterpenes (beta-amyrin, bauerenol, baurenol acetate, betulin, lupeol acetate), fatty acids, flavonol (kaempferol, nicotiflorin, quercetin, rutin, vitexin), coumarin (scopoletin), steroid (beta-sitosterol).
Leaves and bark contain cyanogenic
compounds that provide lice-killing properties.
- Extracts of leaves have shown anti-tumor activity against mice-sarcoma.
- Scopoletin, kaempferol and quercetin have been isolated from the leaves.
- Study isolated four cycloartane triterpenoid alkaloids, kleinhospitines A-D. (see study below)
- Study of chloroform extract of stem bark isolated scopoletin, 7-hydroxy-6-methoxy coumarin (1) together with β-sitosterol (2).
(see study below) (11)
- Considered anti-tumor, antibacterial (weak), chronotropic, histaminergic, spasmolytic.
- Studies have shown hepatoprotective, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties.
Bark and leaves.
Edibility / Nutritional
- Young leaves, sprouts, and flowers
eaten as vegetable.
- Decoction of leaves
used for scabies and itching and all forms of dermatitis.
- Used for psoriasis.
- Crush leaves rubbed on forehead to relieve headache.
- Bark and leaves used in Malaya as hair wash to destroy lice.
- In eastern Malaysia juice of leaves used as eyewash.
- In Malaya, Indonesia and
Papua, New Guinea, used to treat scabies.
- In Papua, New Guinea and the Solomon Islands, a preparation from the cambium used to treat pneumonia. Leaves used as hair-wash to get rid of lice.
- In Indonesia, used for liver diseases.
- In Sulawesi, boiled leaves drunk for stomachaches, liver diseases, and various internal diseases. The leaves used as repellent against ticks. (12)
- Bark is scraped, mixed with water, filtered and drunk to relieve coughs and tuberculosis.
- Crushed leaf rubbed on skin diseases and rubbed on the forehead to relieve headaches.
- Juice from young leaves, mixed in water, drunk to treat bee stings.
- Fiber: Bast fibers used for
tying or rope making used for tethering livestock. The rope is durable
during rainy weather.
- Wood: Straight branches used for making ornamental pieces, house rafters, and poles for stakes. (10)
- Fuelwood: Considered a good fuel wood. Energy value of the wood is about 19,000 kJ/kg. (10)
- Poison: In Marinduque, bark is reportedly used to poison eels.
- Repellent: Leaves are used as rice field insects repellent.
- Ornamental: Ornamental use for its pink-colored panicles.
• Cycloartane Triterpenoids / Hepatoprotective: Study isolated four new cycloartane triterpenoids with known gardenolic acid from K hospita. The compounds showed promising hepatoprotective effects on nitrofuratoin-induced cytotoxicity in human liver-derived Hep G2 cells. (2)
• Antioxidant / Cytotoxicity: Study of leaf extracts of K hospita showed potent antioxidant activity (96% compared to vitamin C, 98 %) using DPPH assay and moderate dose-dependent cytotoxicity on HepG2 liver cancer cells. (3)
• Kleinhospitines / Triterpenoid Alkaloids / Hepatoprotective: Study isolated Kleinhospitines A-D, four unprecedented cycloartane triterpenoid alkaloids isolated as two mixtures of C-23 epimers. The two mixtures showed hepatoprotective activity against H2O2-induced oxidative dames on primary cultured rat hepatocytes. (6)
• Cytotoxicity / Brine Shrimp Lethality Test: Study evaluated the mortality effects and Median Lethal concentrations of KH extracts on Artemia salina through the brine shrimp lethality test. Results showed weak to moderate toxicity with LC50 of 698.54 µg/mL for the decoction and 452.03 µg/mL for the ethanol extract. (9)
• Scopoletin: Study of chloroform extract of stem bark yielded scopoletin and ß-sitosterol. Scopoletin showed moderate activity against Artemia salina with LD50 of 569.64 µg/ml. Scopoletin can also be used as antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiallergenic, and inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase. (11) Scopoletin, a coumarin derivative, found K. hospita, was evaluated for hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activity in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar albino rats. Results showed scopoletin at 1 mg/kg dose showed significant antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic activity. (13)