Tala is an erect herb reaching a height of about 50 centimeters. Leaves are opposite, oblong-ovate, 3 to 10 centimeters long, 1.5 to 4 centimeters wide, pointed at both ends, and toothed at the margins. Upper surface of the leaves is rough. Flowers are about 1 centimeter long, purplish, and clustered on stems which are found in the axils of the leaves or which terminate the leafy branches.
- In open, wet places at low altitudes in Lepanto, Nueva Viscaya, Pampanga, Bulacan, Camarines and Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; Palawan, Panay, Negros and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India to Malaya and Polynesia.
- Phytochemical screening yielded phenolics, flavonoids, terpenoids, amino acids.
Leaves yield an essential oil.
- Essential oil has yielded p-methoxybenzoic acid, anisaldehyde, anisylacetone, trans-anethole, cis-anethole, methylchavicol, formic acid, propionic acid, acetic acid, valeric acid, acetone and hentriacontanol.
- Aerial parts and roots yielded 5-hydroxy-7,2′,4′-trimethoxyflavone from a petrol extract.
- Study of essential oil yielded main constituents of trans-anethole (24.96–27.12 %) and methyl chavicol (70.79–71.00 %). (8)
- Study of plant essential oil yielded linalool (0.1%), estragole (22%), cis-anethole (0.03%), anisaldehyde (0.05%), trans- anethole (75%), anisyl acetone (0.03%), caryophyllene (0.08%), humulene (0.15%) and 'ALFA'-bulnesene (0.01%).
- Aromatic with a flavor similar to Chinese star anise.
- Considered carminative, digestive tonic, diuretic, refrigerant.
- Studies suggest antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, hypotensive properties.
Leaves, plant juice.
- Anise-scented leaves used as flavoring for food in Java.
- Essential oil used as food flavoring.
- Infusion of leaves used as diuretic and digestive tonic.
- Juice of the plant rubbed over the body for pestilent fever.
- Juice, with coconut oil,
applied on elephantiasis.
- Decoction of leaves mixed with Ocimum basilicum is taken internally for gonorrhea and impotence.
- In Thailand, decoction of leaves used as expectorant; externally as cosmetic for skin care.
- In India, used as diuretic and stomachic.
- Leaf decoction used externally for cosmetic skin care. (13)
- Decoction and steam-bath of aromatic leaves used to relieve itching eyes.
- In India, plant juice used in dysentery.
- Perfume: Essential oil used for perfuming of hair oils.
- Decorative: In India, Konda reddis tribe use the branches for decoration and worship. (13)
• Antimicrobial: Essential oil and constituents have exhibited antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Salmonella typhi. The essential oil has shown antifungal activity.
• Flavonoids: Aerial parts and roots have yielded flavonoids: 5-Hydroxy-6,7,4'-trimethoxyflavone (salvigenin), 5-Hydroxy-7,2',4'-trimethoxyflavone, and 5-Hydroxy-7,8,2',4'-tetramethoxyflavone.
• Essential Oil: Leaves yielded about 0.5 to 0.7% essential oil. Results showed the presence of estragole and anethole in the oil. Toxicity gave an ED50 of 0.185 m>/100gm BW. (3)
• Hypotensive / Nevadensin: Study of the whole plant yielded 3 /3-hydorxylup-20(29)-en-27-oic acid, nevadensin, and demethoxysudachitin from the whole herb of Limnophila rugosa (Roth) Merr. Nevadensin exhibited hypotensive effect on both normotensive and spontaneous hypertensive rats under pentobarbital anesthetization. (4)
• Nevadensin / Bioactivity: Nevadensin, (5,7-dihydroxy-6,8,4'-trimethoxyflavone), a natural bioflavonoid has exhibited a wide range of biological activities including hypotensive, anti-tubercular, anti-inflammatory, anti-tumor, and anti-cancer. Study details the natural sources, isolation, chemistry and biological activities of the flavonoid in detail. (5)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Nevadensin was reported to have in vitro weak inhibitory activity against COX-1 and COX-2. (6)
• Diuretic: Study of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of L. rugosa showed significant dose-dependent diuretic activity, with increase in urine volume and K+ excretion. (6)
• Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated various dilutions of methanol extract of leaves against important human pathogenic bacteria (S. aureus, S. pyogenes, E. coli, P. aeruginosa, A. niger, A. clavatus, and C. ablicans). Results showed antibacterial and antifungal activity with linear increase with increase in concentration of the extracts. (7)
• Immunostimulant Effect: Study screened 15Thai medicinal plant extracts for in vitro immuostimulant effect on rat splenic lymphocyte proliferation and J774A.1 macrophage phagocytosis. Among five crude ethanolic plant extracts found to stimulate lymphocyte proliferation, Limnophila rugosa demonstrated the highest stimulation on rat lymphocyte proliferation with an effect on macrophage phagocytosis. The extract also showed highest inducing effect on IL-12 secretion from J774A.1cells. (11)
- Plant, essential oil in the cybermarket.