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Family Leguminosae / Fabaceae
Taiuman
Indigofera hirsuta Linn.
NARROW-LEAVED INDIGO

Mao mu lan

Scientific names Common names
Anila hirsuta (L.) Kuntze Taiuman (Tag.)
Indigofera ferruginea Schum. & Thonn. Taium-taiuman (Tag.)
Indigofera fusca G.Don Tayuman (Tag.)
Indigofera hirsuta Linn. Tayum-tayuman (Tag.)
Indigofera hirta Bojer Hairy indigo (Engl.)
Indigofera indica Miller Narrow-leaved indigo (Engl.)
  Rough hairy indigo (Engl.)
  Tai ching (Chin.)
Quisumbing's compilation has Indigofera tinctoria as synonyms for (1) Indigofera hirsuta, Indigo tinctoria Naves, taiuman, and (2) Indigofera tinctoria Linn, tina-tinaan
Indigofera hirsuta L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Ying mao mu lan, Gang mao mu lan, Mao mu lan.
FRENCH: Indigotier herisse.
INDONESIA: Tom-toman, Jukut lulut, Tebawang amjak.
MALAYSIA: Cermai burong.
PAPUA NEW GUINEA: Tildjil, Wiereka.
THAI: Khram-khon.
VIETNAMESE: C[aa]y c[or] ch[af]m, C[aa]y s[uj]c s[ak]c ma, Ch[af]m l[oo]ng/

Gen info
Indigofera is a large genus of about 700 species of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae / Leguminosae, occurring throughout the tropical and subtropical regions of the world. Species are mostly shrubs, some are herbaceous, a few are small trees.

Botany
Taiuman is an erect, branched, annual, half-woody herb, growing from 0.4 to 1 meter high. Stems are reddish brown, and covered with spreading brown or purplish hairs. Leaves are 8 to 15 centimeters long. Stipules are linear, hairy, and 1 centimeter long. Leaflets are obovate, 5 to 11, 1.5 to 3 centimeters long, hairy, and pale beneath. Flowers are about 6 millimeters long, reddish purple, crowded in axillary racemes which are 6 to 20 centimeters long. Pods are straight, reflexed, 1.5 to 2.5 centimeters long, about 2.5 millimeters wide, covered with browns, spreading hairs, containing 4 to 6 seeds.

Distribution
In waste places in and about towns.
An introduced weed.
Pantropic.

Constituents
- Yields indigo.
- Phytochemical screening yielded nine phenolic and six flavonoid compounds.
- Study yields high water soluble ash and total ash content, with acid insoluble ash in all parts.
- Phytochemical analysis of leaf and fruit (mg/g) yielded total phenols of 50.7 (leaf/alcohol) and 123.9 (fruit/methanol), total flavonoids 30.21±0.04 (L) 32.07+0.03 (F), total alkaloids 15.20± (L) 18.25 ±0.03 (F), total saponins 0.13±0.01 (L) 0.25±0.04 (F). (see study below) (6)
- Study of aerial parts isolated two flavonol glycosides: Kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (T2) and Kaempferol-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (Q3). (see study below) (7)

Properties
- Considered expectorant, anthelmintic, hepatoprotective, stomachic and antidiarrheal.
- Studies have suggested anti-inflammatory, antibacterial, and radical scavenging properties.

Parts used
Leaves

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, decoction of fresh leaves given for diarrhea and as stomachic.
- In the Gold Coast, decoction of leaves used as lotion for yaws.
- In India, decoction of fresh leaves given for cerebral disorders.
Others
Agri: Tried as cover crop and green manure.
Dye: Used to produce the dye indigo.

 

Studies
Antibacterial / Phytochemicals: Study of ethanolic and methanolic leaf extracts showed inhibition of four bacterial strains viz. Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, Staph aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antibacterial activity was more effective than control drug Ampicillin. Phytochemical screening yielded nine phenolic and six flavonoid compounds. (1)
Phytochemical Evaluation: Study showed phenols are the largest constituents in leaf methanol extracts (124 mg/g); flavonoids (32 mg/g) and alkaloids (18.25 mg/g) are highest in fruit. (see constituents above) (6)
Anti-Inflammatory / Flavonol Glycosides / Aerial Parts: Study isolated two flavonol glycosides. The n-butanol soluble fraction exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity in a carrageenan-induced paw edema model. (see constituents above) (7)
Anti-Radical Activity / Aerial Parts: Study of aqueous and methanol extract of aerial parts yielded tryptophan, uracil, rutin, kaempferal-3-O-ß-D-glucopyranoside, gallic acid and methyl gallate. Rutin, methyl galate and gallic acid showed strong anti-radical activity. (8)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: File:Hairy Indigo (Indigofera hirsuta) (6372953579).jpg /Bob Peterson from North Palm Beach, Florida, Planet Earth! / 17 November 2011 / Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license / Click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
IMAGE SOURCE: Illustration / Public Domain / File: Indigofera hirsuta /
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: SEEDS / Indigofera hirsuta L. / roughhairy indigo / Steve Hurst @ USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / USDA

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Phytochemicals and antibacterial studies of Indigofera hirsuta Linn. / N. Yasodamma, A. Suvarna Latha et al / TropMedPlants
(2)

Indigofera hirsuta L. / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(3)
Indigofera hirsuta L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(4)
Indigofera hirsuta L. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(5)
PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDIES OF INDIGOFERA HIRSUTA L
. / A. SUVARNALATHA, N. YASODAMMA, C. ALEKHYA, D. CHAITHRA. / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 6, Issue 4, 2014
(6)
Quantitative Phytochemical Evaluation of Indigofera hirsuta L. Plant Parts
/ *A. Suvarna Latha, N. Yasodamma / International Journal of Pharma Research & Review, May 2015; 4(5):1-5
(7)

Flavonol Glycosides from the Aerial Parts of Indigofera hirsuta and Anti-inflammatory Activity of n-butanol Fraction / L. S. Abbas*, A. M. Musa, M. I. Abdullahi, M. G. Magaji, M. I. Sule and B. Bawa / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, ISSN: 2231-2919,Vol.: 3, Issue.: 4 (October-December)
(8)
Identification of some chemical constituents of Indigofera hirsuta Linn. (Fabaceae) by HPLC-ESI-MS (TOF) and evaluation of the antiradical activity / Adriana Candido da Silva Moura*; Wagner Vilega; Lourdes Campaner dos Santos / Quím. Nova vol.34 no.7 São Paulo 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0100-40422011000700006

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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