Suha is a small tree, 6
to 13 meters in height, with long, sharp, solitary spines. Leaflets are entire or nearly so, sparingly hairy beneath and on the margins, ovate-oblong to elliptic, and 8 to 12 centimeters long. Petioles are obovate and broadly winged. Flowers
are white, fragrant, and crowded in short, axillary racemes. Fruit
is large, obovoid to spherical, up to 20 centimeters in diameter. Rind is very thick and spongy, easily removed from the segments of the fruit. Pulp
is pale yellow, pink or red, sweet or acrid, with large, distinct vesicles.
- Found throughout the Philippines,
in settled areas, usually planted.
- Probably not a native of the Archipelago.
- Found throughout all warm countries.
- Native of the Old World.
• Leaves - volatile
oil, 1.7% - dipentene, 25%; linalool, 15%; citral, 3.5%; a-pinene, 0.5-1.5%;
Pericarp yields saccharose, reducing sugar; organic acid.
• Juice yields insulin like substance; lycopene; vitamin C; peroxidase;
sugar, 14.3%; acid, 1.1%; fat, 0.33%; cellulose, 1.3%; nitrogenous substances,
• Rind yields a crystalline glycosidal bitter principle, naringin (previously
reported as hesperidin), 0.2-1.6% ; , 10%; pectin, 10%; peroxidase. Also yields a volatile oil, "pompelmus" oil, containing d-pinene, 0.5-1.5%; d-limonene, 90-92%,; linanlool, 1-2%; citrate, 3-5%' geraniol, 1.2%; linalyl and geranylacetate; citral 25%; free alkaloid, 8.61%; and ester, 4.38%.
• Phytochemical studies of various Citrus spp. yielded naringin,
hesperidin, diosmin and naringenin.
• Phytochemical study of the peel of the grapefruit isolated five
compounds: friedelin, b-sitosterol, limonin, cordialin B, and a previously
unreported compound, 7(3',7',11',14'-tetramethy)pentadec-2',6',10'-trienyloxycoumarin.
• GCMS analysis of buds and flowers for fragrant components yielded a strong floral-, jasmine- and orange-like aroma from ß-myrcene, limonene, ocimene, linalool, and caryophyllene as major compounds. Ocimene and linalool were higher in the blossom than the bud, 7.37 and 15.93%, respectively, while limonene was highest in the bud at 4.57%. (11)
Leaves, flowers, fruit, rind.
Edibility / Nutritional
- Food: Fresh fruit and preserved
- Fresh fruit is a good source of vitamin B, iron and calcium.
- Nausea and fainting: Squeeze
rind near nostrils for patient to inhale.
- In the Philippines, leaves are used for aromatic baths.
- Infusion or decoction of flowers, leaves and pericarp used as sedative for nervous affections; also for
coughs and ulcers.
- Peel or rind, dried or in decoction, used for dyspepsia.
- Boiled seeds in a gallon of water can be used for sitz-baths.
- In Malaya, lotion of boiled leaves used for painful swellings.
In the Himalayas,
fruit juice recommended for ulcers; used in diabetes; and mixed with
black pepper and a little rock salt, used for malaria. Fruit juice with
its pulp, with honey, is given to improve urinary flow.
- Wood: Potential source of firewood. Heavy, hard and tough wood suitable for making tool handles. (25)
- Essential oil:
Fruits and leaves yield essential oil that serve as perfumery and toiletry ingredients. (25)
- Fodder: Pulp molasses and residues from juice extraction use as cattle feed. (25)
of with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes: Study
of the relationships of plant constituents and CYP450 enzymes, such
as grapefruit with CYP2A6. (1)
• Antimicrobial: Grapefruit seed
extract (C paradisii) was found effective against P aeruginosa. The active
ingredient was naringenin.
• Anthelmintic: Alcoholic
extract of the rind of Citrus decumana showed good in vitro anthelmintic
activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides.
• Antioxidant / Anti-inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of peel extract in four solvent systems showed significant dose-dependent antioxidant activity, a significant decrease in paw volume and pain. Results suggest the peel extract may be a useful as a natural antioxidant in the treatment of inflammation and pain.
• Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Fresh red pomelo juice is an excellent source of antioxidant compounds and showed great efficiency in scavenging different forms of free radicals including DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide radicals.
• Cyclosporin / Pharmacodynamic Effects / : Co-administration of Citrus grandis peels significantly decreased the systemic exposure of cyclosporin and resulted in higher macrophage and Th1 type activities than in mice treated with cyclosporin alone. (9)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Nobiletin: Study yielded a nobilietin, shown to contribute to pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results showed dangyuja leaves can inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory markers by blocking NF-kB and MAPKs signaling in RAW264.7 cells.
• Flower Fragrance / Components: Study of active components attributed to the fragrance of the C. grandis flowers showed the buds and blossoms of the flower possessing a strong floral-, jasmine- and orange-like aroma contain B-myrcene, limonene, ocimene, linalool and caryophyllene as the major compounds. (see constituents above) (11)
• Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of an aqueous extract of leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. in mice. Results showed significant reduction of immobility time in both TST and FST. It showed psychostimulant effect of locomotor activity testing. The antidepressant effect may be mediated by an increased in norepinephrine level in the synapses. (14)
• Antidiabetic / Lipid Profile Effects: Study evaluating C. maxima fruit juice showed beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in STZ-induced type-II diabetic rats. (15) Ethanolic extract of Citrus maxima fruit peel exhibited significant antidiabetic potential by decreasing blood glucose levels and maintaining body weight and serum lipid concentrations to normal. (32)
• Antibacterial / P. aeruginosa / E. coli: A comparative study was done on antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of V. negundo, F. vesca, T. arjuna, and C. maxima. Citrus maxima showed maximum zone of inhibition for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (16) The plant extract of C. maxima showed significant antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (24)
• Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity / Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated the effects of some citrus fruit juices-- C. maxima, C. paradisii, C. limoni, C. reticulata--on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The juices exhibited dose-dependent radical scavenging and dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results suggest citrus juices make good dietary supplements for the management of Alzheimer's disease. (18)
• Cardioprotective / Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced Cytotoxicity: Study investigated the protective effect of pummelo (C. maxima) fruit juice in rat cardiac H9c2 cells against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cytotoxicity. Results showed CM fruit juice can be promoted as a functional fruit to protect cells from oxidative cell death, enhance phase II GSTP enzyme activity, and decrease senescence phenotype population induced by cardiotoxic agent such as DOX. (19)
• Endothelial Health Benefits / Potential for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction / Fruit: Study
investigated the effects of pomelo fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. HUVECs treated with fruit extract improved cell migration and hindered the onset of phenotypical aging. Further animal and human studies are warranted before it can be promoted as a functional fruit for cardiovascular risk reduction. (21)
• Antitumor Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of C. maxima leaves for antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Results show dose-dependent significant decrease in tumor parameters, i.e., tumor volume and viable tumor cell count
and increase in body weight, hematological parameters and life span. (22)
• Hepatoprotective /
Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity / Peel Powder: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of Citrus maxima peel power in a carbon tetrachloride rat model of hepatotoxicity. Dietary supplementation of CM peel powder exhibited significant reduction of liver enzymes in CCl4-treated rats, together with significant reduction of oxidative stress markers (MDA, NO, and APOP level) and restoration of catalase activity. (23)
• Toxicity Study / Seeds: Acute toxicity study at dose of 2000 mg/kbw of C. maxima leaves given orally appeared to be non-toxic. Subacute toxicity study showed no marked changes in hematological, biochemical, and histpathological parameters. (26)
• CNS Activities / Leaf: Study evaluated ethanolic extract of Citrus maxima in experimental animal models for central nervous system activities, i.e., depressant, anxiolytic, convulsant, hypnotic and muscle relaxant. Results showed reduced rearing, central motor and ambulation activities in the locomotor test. There was decreased locomotion in elevated-plus-maze and actophotometer test. The extract protected mice against PTZ and strychnine induced convulsions in a dose dependent manner and decreased duration of tonic hind limb extension, increased hypnotics time and decreased motor coordination of experimental animals. (27)
• Prevention of AGE-Mediated Diabetic Complications / Antiglycation Effect: Study evaluated the antiglycation effect of pomelo extract against fructose-mediated protein oxidation and glycation.
The pomelo extract significantly inhibited the overall formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in a dose dependent manner and markedly decreased the levels of fructosamine and CML. HPLC yielded naringin (11.90 ± 021 mg/g dried extract) and naringenin (9.20 ± 0.19 mg/g DE). (28)
Prevention of High-Fat Diet-Induced Metabolic Disorders / Peels: Study evaluated the anti-metabolic effects of peels of different pomelo varieties on obese C57BL/6 mice induced by high-fat diet. Results showed pomelo peel extracts could prevent high-fat diet induced metabolic disorders through activation of the PPARa and GLUT4 signaling. Study suggests a potential source of drug for metabolic disorders. (29)
• Ovicidal, Larvicidal, and Adulticidal / Anti-Dengue Vector / Peels: Study evaluated the ovicidal, larvicidal, and adulticidal toxicity of hexane extract of C. grandis peels against dengue vector, A. aegypti. Results showed highest lethal concentration against 3rd and 4th instar larvae with LC50 and LCC80 of 1.11 mg/L and 3.32 mg/L, respectively. The test mosquito mortality was 100% after 24h. Results suggest great potential for a sustainable and environmentally safe plant for control of dengue vector, A. aegypti. (33)
interactions / Impaired Absorption
P-Glycoprotein / Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide: Concerns
have been reported on drug-grapefruit interactions because of the ability
of grapefruit juice to inhibit the metabolism of some drugs. Grapefruit weakly inhibits the intestinal wall
P-glycoprotein (p-GP), an efflux pump in enterocytes which is responsible for the intestinal secretion
of many drugs. Another transport system affected by grapefruit is the OATP, organic anion transporting polypeptide; drugs handled by this system may suffer decreased absorption.
(B) Furanocoumarins / Bergamottin: Grapefruit contains furanocoumarins, the most common are bergamottin and 6'7'-dihydrobergamottin which irreversibly inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzymes in the intestinal wall, which may affect the metabolism of certain drugs consumed up to 72 hours of grapefruit consumption.
• Interactions: Major: Artemether, Buspirone, Carbamazepine (Tegretol), Carvedilol, Cisapride (Propulsid), Clomipramine (Anafranil), Cyclosporine, Dextrometorphan, Estrogen, Etoposide (VePesid), Itraconazole (Sporanox), Lovastatin (Mevacor), ketoconazole (Nizoral), fexofenadine (Allegra), triazolam (Halcion), calcium channel blockers (Procardia, Calan, Cardizen, Norvasc, etc.), statins (lovastatin, zimvastatin, atorvastatin, cerivastatin, etc.), methylprednisolone, praziquate, quinidine, scopolamine, sildenafil, terfenadine; Moderate: caffeine, erythromycin, fexofenadine, losartan, voltaren, ibuprofen, amitriptyline, warfarin, glipizide, saquinavir, etc.
• Inhibition of CYP3A4 Enzyme of the Cytochrome P450 System: Grapefruit inhibits the CYP3A4 enzyme of the cytochrome P450 system in the intestinal mucosa, which leads to decreased first pass metabolism and consequent increased bioavailability. (31)
• Interacting Ingredients: While there is no clear consensus, the active ingredients responsible for interactions of grapefruit juice may involve flavonoids such as naringin and naringinen or furanocoumarins such as bergamottin and its derivative. (31)
• Drug Interactions: Study lists drug interactions (very high +++, high ++. moderate +) according class of drugs: Anesthetic: Ketamine +++, Alfentail ++, Fentanyl ++; Antiarrhythmic: Dronedorone +++, Amiodorone ++, Quinidine +; Anticancer: Dasatanib ++, Everolimus ++, Nilotinib ++, Sunitinib ++. Vanetanib +++; Antidepressants: Buspirone ++, Sertraline +, Clomipramine +; Antiemetic: Domperidone +++; Antiepileptics: Carbamazepine ++; Anti-HIV: Maraviroc +++.Ripivirine ++; Anti-Infective: Erythromycin ++, Quinine ++, Primaquine ++; Antiplatelet: Clopidogrel ++; Antipsychotics: Pimozide ++, Quetapine ++. Ziprasione ++; Benzodiazepines: Midazolam +, Diazepam +, Triazolam +; Ca-Channel blockers: Felodipine +, Nifedipine +; Immunosuppressants: Cyclosporin ++, Tacrolimus ++, Sirolimus ++; Opioids: oxycodone ++. Methadone ++; Statins: Simvastatin +++, Atorvastatin ++; Urinary Tract: Solifenacin +, Fesoterodine +, Darifenacin +. Tamsulosin +. (31)
Some Drugs that should be avoided with grapefruit (incomplete list)
Some Drugs that should be used with caution with grapefruit (incomplete list)
|aripiprazole (Abilify) 5
||felodipine (Renedil, Plendil)
- Commercial cultivation.