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Family Rutaceae
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr.

Pu tao you

Scientific names Common names
Aurantium decumana (L.) Mill. Cabugao (P. Bis.) 
Aurantium decumanum (L.) Mill. Gunal (Ting.) 
Aurantium maximum Burm. Luban (If.)
Citrus costata Raf. Lubban (Ibn.) 
Citrus decumana Linn.   [Illegitimate] Lukban (Tag., Bik., Ilk.) 
Citrus grandis  (L.) Osbeck Panubang (Bon.) 
Citrus obovoidea  Yu. Tanaka Pu tao you (Chin.)
Citrus. maxima (Burm.) Merr. Sua (Ilk., Pamp.) 
Citrus pompelnos  Risso Suha (Tag.)
Citrus sabon  Siebold ex Hayata Taboyog (Bon.) 
Citrus yamabuki  Yu. Tanaka Forbidden fruit (Engl.)
  Grape-fruit (Engl.) 
  Pomelo (Engl.) 
  Pummelo (Engl.)
  Shaddock (Engl.)
Citrus decumana L. is a synonym of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. The Plant List
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Laymûn hindî.
BENGALI: Bātābī lēbu, Chakotra, Jāmburā lēbu, Mahanibu, Sadaphal, Pumēlō.
BURMESE: Shouk ton oh.
CHINESE: Dou you, Pu tao you.
DANISH: Pompelmus.
DUTCH: Pompelmoes, Pomelo.
FINNISH : Pummelo.
FRENCH: Pamplemousse doux des Antilles, Chadec, Shadek.
GERMAN: Riesenorange, Lederorangenbaum.
GUJARATI: Obakotru.
HINDI: Bataawii niimbuu, Cakōtarā, Mahanibu, Sanadāphala.
ITALIAN: Pampaleone.
JAPANESE: Buntan, Pomero, Bontan, Zabon.
KANNADA: Chakota, Chakota hannu, Chakotre, Sakkota, Tōran̄ji.
KHMER: Krôôch thlông.
LAOTIAN: Kièngz s'aangz, Ph'uk, Sômz 'ôô.
MALAY: Jeruk bali, Jeruk besar, Limau besar, Limau betawi, Limau serdadu.
MALAYALAM: Pamparamasam, Pamparamasan.
MARATHI: Papnasa.
RUSSIAN: Pomelo.
SANSKRIT: Madhukarkati,
SPANISH: Cimboa, Pampelmusa.
TAMIL : Elumicham, Pambalimasu.
TELUGU: Nimmapandu, Pampalamasam, Pampara.
THAI: Som o, Ma o.
VIETNAMESE : Bưởi, Bưởi chùm Thái Lan.

Suha is a small tree, 6 to 13 meters in height, with long, sharp, solitary spines. Leaflets are entire or nearly so, sparingly hairy beneath and on the margins, ovate-oblong to elliptic, and 8 to 12 centimeters long. Petioles are obovate and broadly winged. Flowers are white, fragrant, and crowded in short, axillary racemes. Fruit is large, obovoid to spherical, up to 20 centimeters in diameter. Rind is very thick and spongy, easily removed from the segments of the fruit. Pulp is pale yellow, pink or red, sweet or acrid, with large, distinct vesicles.


- Found throughout the Philippines, in settled areas, usually planted.
- Probably not a native of the Archipelago.
- Found throughout all warm countries.
- Native of the Old World.

• Leaves - volatile oil, 1.7% - dipentene, 25%; linalool, 15%; citral, 3.5%; a-pinene, 0.5-1.5%; d-limone, 90-92%.
Pericarp yields saccharose, reducing sugar; organic acid.
• Juice yields insulin like substance; lycopene; vitamin C; peroxidase; sugar, 14.3%; acid, 1.1%; fat, 0.33%; cellulose, 1.3%; nitrogenous substances, 1.6%
• Rind yields a crystalline glycosidal bitter principle, naringin (previously reported as hesperidin), 0.2-1.6% ; , 10%; pectin, 10%; peroxidase. Also yields a volatile oil, "pompelmus" oil, containing d-pinene, o.5-1.5%; d-limonene, 90-92%,; linanlool, 1-2%; citrate, 3-5%' geraniol, 1.2%; linalyl and geranylacetate; citral 25%; free alkaloid, 8.61%; and ester, 4.38%.
• Phytochemical studies of various Citrus spp. yielded naringin, hesperidin, diosmin and naringenin.
• Phytochemical study of the peel of the grapefruit isolated five compounds: friedelin, b-sitosterol, limonin, cordialin B, and a previously unreported compound, 7(3',7',11',14'-tetramethy)pentadec-2',6',10'-trienyloxycoumarin.

Parts used
Leaves, flowers, fruit, rind.

Edibility / Nutritional
- Food: Fresh fruit and preserved rind.
- Fresh fruit is a good source of vitamin B, iron and calcium.
- Nausea and fainting: Squeeze rind near nostrils for patient to inhale.
- In the Philippines, leaves are used for aromatic baths.
- Infusion or decoction of flowers, leaves and pericarp used as sedative for nervous affections; also for coughs and ulcers.
- Peel or rind, dried or in decoction, used for dyspepsia.
- Boiled seeds in a gallon of water can be used for sitz-baths.
- In
Malaya, lotion of boiled leaves used for painful swellings.
In the
Himalayas, fruit juice recommended for ulcers; used in diabetes; and mixed with black pepper and a little rock salt, used for malaria. Fruit juice with its pulp, with honey, is given to improve urinary flow. source

Interaction of with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes:
Study of the relationships of plant constituents and CYP450 enzymes, such as grapefruit with CYP2A6. (1)
Grapefruit seed extract (C paradisii) was found effective against P aeruginosa. The active ingredient was naringenin.
Anthelmintic: Alcoholic extract of the rind of Citrus decumana showed good in vitro anthelmintic activity against human Ascaris lumbricoides.
Antioxidant / Anti-inflammatory / Analgesic: Study of peel extract in four solvent systems showed significant dose-dependent antioxidant activity, a significant decrease in paw volume and pain. Results suggest the peel extract may be a useful as a natural antioxidant in the treatment of inflammation and pain. (5)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Fresh red pomelo juice is an excellent source of antioxidant compounds and showed great efficiency in scavenging different forms of free radicals including DPPH, superoxide anion, and hydrogen peroxide radicals. (8)
Cyclosporin / Pharmacodynamic Effects / : Co-administration of Citrus grandis peels significantly decreased the systemic exposure of cyclosporin and resulted in higher macrophage and Th1 type activities than in mice treated with cyclosporin alone. (9)
Anti-Inflammatory / Nobiletin: Study yielded a nobilietin, shown to contribute to pharmacological activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Results showed dangyuja leaves can inhibit LPS-induced production of inflammatory markers by blocking NF-kB and MAPKs signaling in RAW264.7 cells. (10)
Flower Fragrance / Components: Study of active components attributed to the fragrance of the C. grandis flowers showed the buds and blossoms of the flower possessing a strong floral-, jasmine- and orange-like aroma contain B-myrcene, limonene, ocimene, linalool and caryophyllene as the major compounds. (11)
Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of an aqueous extract of leaves of Citrus maxima Merr. in mice. Results showed significant reduction of immobility time in both TST and FST. It showed psychostimulant effect of locomotor activity testing. The antidepressant effect may be mediated by an increased in norepinephrine level in the synapses. (14)
Hypoglycemic / Glucose Tolerance and Lipid Profile Effects: Study evaluating C. maxima fruit juice showed beneficial effects on glucose tolerance and lipid profile in STZ-induced type-II diabetic rats. (15)
Antibacterial / Pseudomonas aeruginosa: A comparative study was done on antibacterial activity of ethanolic extracts of V. negundo, F. vesca, T. arjuna, and C. maxima. Citrus maxima showed maximum zone of inhibition for Pseudomonas aeruginosa. (16)
Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity / Radical Scavenging: Study evaluated the effects of some citrus fruit juices-- C. maxima, C. paradisii, C. limoni, C. reticulata. shaddock--on acetylcholinesterase activity in vitro. The juices exhibited dose-dependent radical scavenging and dose-dependent inhibition of acetylcholinesterase activity. Results suggest citrus juices make good dietary supplements for the management of Alzheimer's disease. (18)
Cardioprotective / Doxorubicin (DOX)-induced Cytotoxicity: Study investigated the protective effect of pummelo (C. maxima) fruit juice in rat cardiac H9c2 cells against doxorubicin (DOX)-induced cytotoxicity. Results showed CM fruit juice can be promoted as a functional fruit to protect cells from oxidative cell death, enhance phase II GSTP enzyme activity, and decrease senescenvce phenotype population induced by cardiotoxic agent suc as DOX. (19)
Endothelial Health Benefits / Potential for Cardiovascular Risk Reduction / Fruit: Study investigated the effects of pomelo fruit extract on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) migration and aging. HUVECs treated with fruit extract improved cell migrtion and hindered the onset of phenotypical aging. Further animal and human studies are warranted before it can be promoted as a functional fruit for cardiovascular risk reduction. (21)
Antitumor Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of C. maxima leaves for antitumor activity against Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma cell in Swiss albino mice. Results show dose-dependent significant decrease in tumor parameters, i.e., tumor volume and viable tumor cell count and increase in body weight, hematological parameters and life span. (22)

Caution !
Drug interactions / Impaired Absorption
(A) P-Glycoprotein / Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide:
Concerns have been reported on drug-grapefruit interactions because of the ability of grapefruit juice to inhibit the metabolism of some drugs. Grapefruit weakly inhibits the intestinal wall P-glycoprotein (p-GP), an efflux pump in enterocytes which is responsible for the intestinal secretion of many drugs. Another transport system affected by grapefruit is the OATP, organic anion transporting polypeptide; drugs handled by this system may suffer decreased absorption.
(B) Furanocoumarins / Bergamottin:
Grapefruit contains furanocoumarins, the most common are bergamottin and 6'7'-dihydrobergamottin which irreversibly inhibits cytochrome P450 3A4 isoenzymes in the intestinal wall, which may affect the metabolism of certain drugs consumed up to 72 hours of grapefruit consumption.

Some Drugs that should be avoided with grapefruit (incomplete list)
amiodarone (Cordarone) colchicine quinidine (Quinaglute)
atorvastatin (Lipitor) lovastatin (Mevacor) sildenafil (Viagra)
budesonide (Entocort) mifepristone (Mifeprex) simvastatin (Zocor)
buspirone (BuSpar) pimozide (Orap) sirolimus (Rapamune)
Some Drugs that should be used with caution with grapefruit (incomplet list)
albendazole (Albenza) diazepam (Valium) losartan (Cozaar)
aripiprazole (Abilify) 5 erythromycin nifedipine (Procardia)
bupropion (Wellbutrin) felodipine (Renedil, Plendil) simvastatin (Zocor)
dextromethorphan fexofenadine (Allegra) triazolam (Halcion)

For a complete list of food to be avoided with grapefruit, go to:

Commercial cultivation. 

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update January 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Interaction of Herbal Constituents with Cytochrome P450 Enzymes / Eric Yarnell, Kathy Abascal. Alternative and Complementary Therapies. October 2007, 13(5): 239-247. doi:10.1089/act.2007.13508
Natural Preservatives / Anthony C. Dweck
Forbidden fruit / Grapefruit-Drug Interaction / News and Views . Nature Medicine 7, 29 - 30 (2001) doi:10.1038/83312
Screening of indigenous plants for anthelmintic action against human Ascaris lumbricoides: Part--II. / Indian J Physiol Pharmacol. 1975 Jan-Mar;19
Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of the Citrus decumana L. peel extract / Sjailja Sood et al / Inflammopharmacology • Volume 17, Number 5 / October, 2009 / DOI 10.1007/s10787-009-0015-y
Grapefruit Extract / HeathLine
Drug Interactions with Grapefruit and Related Citrus Fruits / Table compiled by Dean Elbe BSc (Pharm), BCPP Clinical Pharmacist, Richmond, BC, Canada / Excerpted from Food-Medication Interactions 14th Edition
Antioxidant Content and Free Radical Scavenging Ability of Fresh RedPummelo [Citrus grandis (L.) Osbeck] Juice and Freeze-Dried Products / Hsiu-Ling Tsai et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2007, 55 (8), 2867-2872 • DOI: 10.1021/jf0633847
Effects of Citrus grandis Peels on Cyclosporin Concentration and Immune Responses in Mice /SHIH-HUA FANG, YU-CHI HOU et al / Journal of Food and Drug Analysis, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2006, Pages 166-173
Anti-inflammatory Effect of Dangyuja (Citrus grandis Osbeck) Leaves in LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 Cells / Eun-Jin Yang, Hye-Ja Lee, Gyeoung-Jin Kang, Sun-Soon Park et al / Food Sci. Biotechnol. Vol. 18, No. 5, pp. 1063 ~ 1070 (2009)
Analysis of Major Fragrant Compounds from Citrus grandis Flowers Extracts
/ Zarina Zakaria, Suhana Zakaria and Mohd Ishak / Sains Malaysiana 39(4)(2010): 565–569
A new coumarin from Citrus paradisi Macf. / Meera, SB Khalidhar / Indian Journ of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2008, No: 70, Issue: 4,Page : 517-519
Sorting Citrus names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

Evaluation of Antidepressant-like Effect of Citrus Maxima Leaves in Animal Models of Depression
/ Vikram H Potdar* and Swati J Kibile / Iran J Basic Med Sci. 2011 Sep-Oct; 14(5): 478–483.
Effects of Shaddock (Citrus maxima) Fruit Juice on Glucose Tolerance and Lipid Profile in Type-II Diabetic Rats / A. OYEDEPOT* and S.O. BABARINDE / Chemical Science Transactions,, 2013, 2(1), 19-24 / DOI:10.7598/cst2013.244
A comparative study of the antibacterial activity of the ethanolic extracts of Vitex negundo L, Fragaria vesca, Terminalia arjuna and citrus maxima / Mukundam Borah, Shagufa Ahmed, Swarnamoni Das. / Asian J Phar Biol Res. 2012; 2(3): 183-187
Drug Interactions with Grapefruit and Related Citrus Fruits / Excerpted from Food-Medication Interactions 14th Edition / Table compiled by Dean Elbe BSc (Pharm), BCPP Clinical Pharmacist, Richmond, BC, Canada For more information and references, visit www.powernetdesign.com/grapefruit.
Inhibition of Acetylcholinesterase Activity and Fe2+-Induced Lipid Peroxidation in Rat Brain In Vitro by Some Citrus Fruit Juices / Ayokunle O. Ademosun and Ganiyu Oboh / Journal of Medicinal Food. May 2012, 15(5): 428-434. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2011.0226.
Pummelo Protects Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiac Cell Death by Reducing Oxidative Stress, Modifying Glutathione Transferase Expression, and Preventing Cellular Senescence / L. Chularojmontri, O. Gerdprasert, and S. K. Wattanapitayakul / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Vol 2013 (2013) /
Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr / Synonyms / The Plant List
Selected Activities of Citrus Maxima Merr. Fruits on Human Endothelial Cells: Enhancing Cell Migration and Delaying Cellular Aging / Paiwan Buachan, Linda Chularojmontri, and Suvara K. Wattanapitayakul* / Nutrients. 2014 Apr; 6(4): 1618–1634. / doi: 10.3390/nu6041618
Antitumor Activity of Citrus maxima (Burm.) Merr. Leaves in Ehrlich's Ascites Carcinoma Cell-Treated Mice / Sriparna KunduSen, Malaya Gupta, Upal K. Mazumder, Pallab K. Haldar, Prerona Saha, and Asis Bala / ISRN Pharmacology, Volume 2011 (2011) / http://dx.doi.org/10.5402/2011/138737

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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