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Family Vitaceae
Sugpon-sugpon
Cissus quadrangularis Linn.
VELDT-GRAPE

Scientific names Common names
Cissus quadrangularis Linn. Sugpon-sugpon (Bis.)
Cissus succulenta Galpin Sulpa-sulpa (C. Bis.)
Cissus tetragona Harv. Edible stemmed-vine (Engl.)
Vitis quadrangularis (L.) Wall. ex Wight Veld grape (Engl.)
Vitis succulenta Galpin Veldt-grape (Engl.)
  Winged treebine (Engl.)

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Hasjora, Harbhanga.
HINDI: Hadjod, Hadjora.
SANSKRIT: Asthisamhrta.
TAMIL: Pirandai.
TELUGU: Nalleru.
THAI: Phet sangkhat, Samroi to, San cha khuat.


Botany
Sugpon-sugpon, a perennial climber, is a smooth vine with fleshy, green stout, four-angled stems which are 1 to 1.5 centimeters thick and much contracted at the nodes. Internodes, one from each node, are broadly ovate or triangular-reniform, 4 to 6 centimeters long, somewhat fleshy, distantly toothed with small, appressed, sharp teeth, blunt at the tip, broad and heart-shaped at the base. Flowers are pinkish, about 2.5 millimeters long and borne on small axillary cymes. Fruit is rounded, fleshy, and succulent.

Distribution
- In dry thickets in and about towns at low altitudes, in Cagayan, Batangas, and Rizal Provinces in Luzon: in Negros, Cebu, and Siquijor.
- Certainly Introduced.

- Also reported from India to tropical Africa and Java.

Constituents
- Rich in carotenoids, triterpenoids and ascorbic acid.
- Rich source of carotenoids, triterpenoids and vitamin C.
- Phytochemical studies have yielded flavonoids, triterpenoids, vitamin C, stilbene derivatives, piceatannon, resveratrol, pallidol perthenocissin and phytosterols.

Properties
- Considered alterative, bone-healing, antibacterial, antifungal, antioxidant, anthelmintic, antihemorrhoidal, analgesic, anti-asthmatic, and stomachic.
- Studies suggest antioxidant, antimicrobial, bone healing, anti-ulcer, and cytoprotective properties.

Properties
Stems, roots, young shoots.

Uses

Folkloric
- In the Philippines, sap or juice of stems used as drops for otorrhea and epistaxis.
- Also used as alterative for menstrual irregularities.
- Powdered roots used for fractures of the bones, with the effect of ordinary plasters.
Leaves of young shoots, dried and powdered, used for bowel complaints associated with indigestion. Also, used as powerful alterative.
- Used for scurvy and irregular menstruation.
- Paste used in asthma.
- Stem preparation boiled in lime-water used as stomachic.
- In Ayurveda, used as tonic, alterative, anthelmintic, digestive, analgesic, anti-asthmatic.
- Used for osteoporosis, asthma, cough, hemorrhoids and gonorrhea.
- Used for the treatment of gastritis, bone fractures, skin infections, constipation, eye diseases, hemorrhoids, anemia, asthma, irregular menstruation, burns and wounds.
New uses

- Popular use as bone growth promoter supplement and as joint aid for athletes.
- Touted use to promote bone and tissue healing, treat infections, used as anabolic, and use in weight management.


Studies
Antioxidant:
Study of two weeds, Chenopodium album and Vitis trifolia, showed significant reducing power and free radical scavenging effect on DPPH, hydroxyl, superoxide, hydrogen peroxide radicals. (1)
Anti-Obesity / Weight Loss / Metabolic Syndrome:
(1) Study of C quadrangularis and a proprietary cissus-formulation showed both caused significant reductions in weight and blood glucose levels, lowered serum lipids with consequent improvement of cardiovascular risk factors. The increase in plasma 5-HT and creatinine hypothesizes a mechanism for controlling appetite and increasing lean body mass, providing support for the clinical data on weight loss. (2)
CQ Formulation for Management of Weight Loss and Metabolic Syndrome: Study showed statistically significant net reductions in weight and central obesity, as well as reductions in fasting blood sugars, total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and C-reactive protein in subjects who received the formulation, regardless of diet. (4)
Bone Healing: Study evaluating the effect of a methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis on the healing process of experimentally fractured radius-ulna of dog showed CQ treated animals revealed faster initiation of the healing process than the controlled animals on radiological and histopath exams. (3)
Fracture Healing: Study isolated a phytogenic anabolic steroid which may act on estrogenic receptors of the bone. CQ might act by stimulation of metabolism and increased uptake of minerals calcium, sulphur, and strontium by the osteoblasts in fracture healing.
Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the anti-ulcer activity of a methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis in an aspirin-induced gastric ulcer model. Results showed CQE promotes ulcer protection by decreasing the ulcer index, as shown by histopath and analysis of CRP. Compared to ranitidine, CQE was found to have a better protective effect. (5)
Ulcer Protective: Methanolic extract showed an ulcer-protective effect comparable to reference drug sucralfate. CQ significantly increase mucosal defensive factors like mucin secretion, mucosal cell proliferation, glycoproteins and life span of cells, and promoting healing by inducing cellular proliferation.
Toxicity Study: Study in rats showed CQ did not produce any significant dose-related changes in hematological parameters and showed no histopathological lesion on any internal organ.
Analgesic: Study exhibited significant dose-related analgesic activity compared to that of aspirin.
Antii-Osteoporotic Effect: Study of ethanol extract of the plant significantly inhibited anti-anabolic effects, with beneficial effects on recovery of bone mineral density in postmenopausal osteoporosis.
Anabolic and Androgenic Activity: In addition to enhancing the remodeling of bone, CQ leads to a faster increase in bone tensile strength. By exerting an anabolic, antiglucocorticoid effect, CQ preserves muscle tissue during physical and emotional stress.
Anti-Inflammatory: Study confirmed CQ has an inhibitory effect on edema induced by carrageenin and arachidonic acid, with evidence of inhibition of both cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenase pathways. The anti-inflammatory activity is comparable to aspirin or ibuprofen.
Antihemorrhoidal and Venotonic Activity: Phytochemical study yielded significant flavonoids. The bioflavonoids, especially diosmin, hesperidin, and oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes have demonstrated potential in the treatment of hemorrhoids and varicose veins.
Fracture Healing: An anabolic principle from C. quadrangularis showed marked influence on the rate of fracture healing by influencing early regeneration of connective tissues involved in healing and mineralization of callus. Hastening in fracture healing was attributed to the stimulation of all cells of mesenchymal origin, viz., fibroblasts, chondroblasts and osteoblasts, by Cissus quadrangularis. (8)
Toxicity Study: In a 3-month sub-chronic toxicity study in Wistar rats, C. quadrangularis produced no significant dose-related changes in hematological chemistry parameters and no histopathological lesion in any internal organ. (9)
Inhibition of Bone Loss / Ovariectomized Mice: Study evaluated the effect of C. quadrangularis on bone loss after ovariectomy in C57BL/6 mice. Results showed CQ effectively inhibited bone loss in cancellous and cortical bones of femur and proximal tibia in mice. (10)
Anthelmintic: An alcoholic root extract of C. quadrangularis exhibited anthelmintic activity against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Preliminary phytochemical screening yielded phenolic compounds, tannins, proteins, saponins, steroids, carbohydrates, glycosides, terpenoids, etc. (11)
Intrauterine Stimulation of Fetal Bone Growth: Maternal administration of C. quadrangularis petroleum ether extract during pregnancy can stimulate the development of fetal bone growth during the intrauterine developmental period. (12)
Antiosteoporotic / Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis: Study was done to validate the anti-osteoporotic role of a petroleum ether extract on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats. Study results demonstrated the usefulness and benefits of CQ in the treatment of osteoporosis induced by ovariectomy. the plant extract is deemed a safe treatment for osteoporosis in the elderly. (13)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic: Study of an ethanolic extract of CQ showed both peripheral and central analgesic activity, along with marked anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity in rats. (14)
Joint Pain Reduction in Exercise-Trained Men / Pilot Study: Strenuous, high-volume exercise is often associated with joint pain and inflammation. Study evaluating the therapeutic effects of CQ supplementation in healthy, exercise-trained men with joint-specific pain showed reduction of joint pain in a sample of 29 young men. (15)
Review of Efficacy and Safety: Review of studies suggest Cissus extracts to be exceedingly safe and free of adverse effects at dose commonly used. In a few cases, specific physiological effects have been attributed to identifiable constituents. Standardization of extracts and more controlled human studies are suggested. (16)
Immunomodulatory: Study showed C. quadrangularis possesses immunomodulatory activity which might be attributed to flavonoids and phenolic contents. (17)
Enhancement of Biomineralization: Study of an ethanol extract of CQ may regulate osteoblastic activity by enhancing ALP activity and mineralization process, and the increased ALP effect is likely mediated by MAPK-dependent pathway. (18)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Extracts, powders, capsules, and supplements in the cybermarket.

Last Update January 2015

IMAGE SOURCE: File:Teguise Guatiza - Jardin - Cissus quadrangularis 02 ies.jpg / FRANK VINCENTZ / 17 Oct 2011 / GNU Free Documentation License / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Modified photo from: Cultivation Methods of Cissus quadrangularis/ © Contentzza.com / Non-Commercial Use / Click on image to go to source page / Contentzza

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
ANTIOXIDANT AND FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING ACTIVITIES OF EDIBLE WEEDS
/ Kumar S and D Kumar / AJFAND, Volume 9 No. 5 2009, August 2009
(2)
The effect of Cissus quadrangularis (CQR-300) and a Cissus formulation (CORE) on obesity and obesity-induced oxidative stress / Julius E Oben, Damaris Mandob Enyegue et al / Lipids Health Dis. 2007; 6: 4. / Published online 2007 February 4. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-6-4.
(3)
EFFECT OF ClSSUS QUADRANGULAR/S IN ACCELERATING HEALING PROCESS OF EXPERIMENTALLY FRACTURED RADIUS-ULNA OF DOG:A PRELIMINARY STUDY / DK Deka et al / Indian Journal of Pharmacology 1994; 26: 44 - 45
(4)
The use of a Cissus quadrangularis formulation in the management of weight loss and metabolic syndrome / Julius Oben, Dieudonne Kuate et al / Lipids Health Dis. 2006; 5: 24. / Published online 2006 September 2. doi: 10.1186/1476-511X-5-24.
(5)
Antiulcerogenic activities of the Methanolic extract of Cissus quadrangularis in wistar / G Shanthi, G Vijay Kanth, L Hitesh, M Ganesan / The Internet Journal of Toxicology. 2010 Volume 7 Number 2
(6)
Pharmacological and Therapeutic Activity of Cissus quadrangularis: An Overview
/ Garima Mishra, Saurabh Srivastava, B P Nagori / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.2, pp 1298-1310, April-June 2010
(7)
Sorting Cissus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(8)
Clinical evaluation of cissus quadrangularis and moringa oleifera and osteoseal as osteogenic agents in mandibular fracture / Vibha Singh, Narendra Singh, and Nimisha Singh / National Journal of Maxillofacial Surgery
(9)
Pharmacological and Therapeutic Activity of Cissus quadrangularis: An Overview / Garima Mishra*, Saurabh Srivastava, B.P.Nagori / International Journal of PharmTech Research, Vol.2, No.2, pp 1298-1310, April-June 2010
(10)
Inhibition of Bone Loss by Cissus quadrangularis in Mice: A Preliminary Report / Jameela Banu, Erika Varela, Ali N. Bahadur, Raheela Soomro, Nishu Kazi, and Gabriel Fernandes / Journal of Osteoporosis, Volume 2012 (2012) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/101206
(11)
Isolation of Alcoholic Extract of Cissus Quadrangularis and Evaluation of In- Vitro Anthelmintic Activity / E.Mohanambal*, K.Shobana, M. Sowmya Sree, G.M.Kusuma, K.Satish & B.Vijayakumar / Intl. J. Novel. Tr. Pharm. Sci, Vol 1, No 1, OCT 2011
(12)
Petroleum ether extract of Cissus quadrangularis (LINN) stimulates the growth of fetal bone during intra uterine developmental period: a morphometric analysis / Bhagath Kumar PotuI; Muddanna S RaoI; Gopalan Kutty NII; Kumar MR BhatI; Mallikarjuna Rao ChamallamudiII; Soubhagya Ranjan NayakIII / Clinics vol.63 no.6 São Paulo 2008 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S1807-59322008000600018
(13)
Anti-osteoporotic Activity of the Petroleum Ether Extract of Cissus quadrangularis Linn. in Ovariectomized Wistar Rats / Bhagath Kumar Potu, MSc; Muddanna S Rao, PhD; Gopalan Kutty Nampurath, PhD; Mallikarjuna Rao Chamallamudi, PhD; Soubhagya Ranjan Nayak, MSc; Huban Thomas, MSc / (Chang Gung Med J 2010;33:252-7)
(14)
Analgesic , anti-inflammatory and antipyretic activity of Cissus quadrangularis / Priyanka Vijay and Rekha Vijayvergia* / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.2(1), 2010, 64-71
(15)
Cissus quadrangularis reduces joint pain in exercise-trained men: a pilot study. / Bloomer RJ1, Farney TM, McCarthy CG, Lee SR. / Phys Sportsmed. 2013 Sep;41(3):29-35. / doi: 10.3810/psm.2013.09.2021.
(16)
A review and evaluation of the efficacy and safety of Cissus quadrangularis extracts. / Stohs SJ, Ray SD. / Phytother Res. 2013 Aug;27(8):1107-14. doi: 10.1002/ptr.4846. Epub 2012 Sep 13.
(17)
Experimental studies on immunomodulatory potential of Cissus quadrangularis Linn / Priyanka Yadav, Aditya Ganeshpurkar, Nisha Sonkar, Divya Bansal, Nazneen Dubey / Nigerian Journal of Experimental and Clinical Biosciences, 2014, Vo0l 2, Issue 1, Pp 49-53 / DOI: 10.4103/2348-0149.135730
(18)
Cissus quadrangularis extract enhances biomineralization through up-regulation of MAPK-dependent alkaline phosphatase activity in osteoblasts / Ducapim Parisuthiman et al / In Vitro Cell Dev. Biol.-Animal (2009) 45:194-200 / DOI 10.1007/s11626-008-9158-1

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