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Family Aizoaceae
/ Molluginaceae
Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.
Cheng geng xing su cao

Scientific names Common names
Glinus cambessedesii Fenzi Amargoso-babi (Pamp.)
Glinus denticulatus (Guill. & Perr.) Fenzi Malagoso (Tag.)
Glinus mollugo Fenzi Margoso-damulag (Pamp.)
Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. Papait (Ilk.)
Glinus spergula (L.) Steud. Sarsalida (Tag.)
Mollugo glinoides A.Rich. Bitter leaf (Engl.)
Mollugo oppositifolia Linn. Slender carpetweed (Engl.)
Mollugo serrulata Sond.  
Mollugo spergula Linn.  
Pharnaceus spergula (L.) Dillwyn  
Mollugo oppositifolia L. is a synonym of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC. The Plant List
Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug.DC. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Gima shak.
CHINESE: Jia fan lu, Cu huo li mu cao, Cheng geng xing su cao.
SANSKRIT: Trayamana.
TAMIL: Thara.
THAI: Phak-khee-khuang.

Sarsalida is a slender, spreading or ascending, smooth, branched, annual herb, with branches as long as 10 to 40 centimeters. Leaves are opposite or whorled, spatulate, oblanceolate to oblong-obovate, 1 to 3 centimeters long, and up to 1 centimeter wide. Flowers are white and fascicled, with slender stalks up to 1 centimeter long. Sepals are 3 to 3.5 millimeters long. Capsule is ellipsoid, a little shorted than the sepals. Seeds are numerous and covered with raised tubular points.

- A common weed in and about towns at low and medium altitudes.
- Also found in India to tropical Africa and Australia.

• Study of aerial parts of Mollugo spergula yielded two novel triterpenoid saponins - spergulin A and spergulin B. (7)
• Exceptionally rich in iron and a good source of calcium.
• Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, saponins, and terpenoids in excess; together with tannins, glycosides, steroids, and flavonoids.
• Phytochemical screening of methanolic extract yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, and saponins.
• Methanolic extract of whole plant isolated an amino acid derivative, L-(−)-(N-trans-cinnamoyl)-arginine, along with kaempferol 3-O- galactopyranoside, isorhamnetin 3-O-β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-galactopyranoside, vitexin, vicenin-2, adenosine and L-phenylalanine. (14)
• Study isolated dotriacontyl docosanoate from a petroleum ether extract and trilinolein from an ethyl acetate extract. Three determinations of vitamin C content of fresh leaves averaged 88.4 g per 100 g of fresh leaves. Study for bound fatty acids yielded a higher proportion of palmitic acid (46.75%) and lowest proportion of myristic acid (0.95%). Stearic acid and oleic acid were also significant, 18.45% and 19.93%, respectively. Of the free fatty acids, palmitic acid (49.75%) and lignoceric acid (29.70%) were the major fatty acids. Palmitic acid was the major constituent in both free and bound fatty acid. (22)
• Proximate analysis yielded moisture of 90.53 ± 0.05 g, ash 2.17 ± 0.05 g, crude fat 0.20 ± 0.0007 g, crude protein 1.58 ± 0.0001 g, total carbohydrate 5.50 ± 0.09 g, crude fiber 1.75 0.01 g, dry matter 9.46 ± 0.05 g, calorific value 30.19 ± 0.19 kcal, and vitamin C 27.41 ± 4.31 mg. (26)
- Study of aerial parts yielded six triterpene saponins, a new saponin, glinoside C (1), along with 3-O-(β-D-xylopyranosyl)-spergulagenin A (2), spergulacin (3), spergulin A (4), spergulacin A (5) and spergulin B (6).  (see study below) (29)

• Considered a stomachic, appetizer, aperient, antiseptic, uterine stimulant.
• Studies have shown antioxidant, immunomodulating, larvicidal, antifungal, molluscicidal, antimicrobial, complement fixating, hepatoprotective, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, anthelmintic properties.

Parts used
• Whole plant, leaves, juice.

• Whole plant, without the roots, consumed as vegetable.
• Very bitter when not properly cooked.
• Plant used as a stomachic, aperient and antiseptic.
Used for the suppression of lochia.
• Whole plant used as cataplasm for dyspepsia in children.
• For earaches, applied warm, moistened with a little castor oil.
• In Puddokota, juice is applied to itches and other skin diseases
• In India, used by tribal people for liver diseases.
• In Tamil Nadu, leaf used for animal bite poisons.
• In Mali, used for malaria, joint pains, inflammation, intestinal parasites, furuncles, and wounds. Aerial parts used for abdominal pains and jaundice. Fresh leaves used against dizziness and to stimulate the appetite.
• In Mali, dried stems are ground into a fine powder, added to food, and used for treating abdominal pains and jaundice. Decoction of fine powder of aerial parts used for treatment of malaria. Maceration of pounded material mixed with oil or water used as a wound healing remedy. (10)
• In Bangladesh, used for joint pains, inflammation, diarrhea, fever, boils, and skin disorders. (12)
• In Thailand, leaves used as expectorant and antipyretic.
• In Chinese traditional medicine used in the treatment of herpes zoster and herpangina.

Immunomodulating: An immunomodulating pectic polymer, GOA1, from the aerial parts of Glinus oppositifolius was shown to induce proliferation of B cells and secretion of IL-1ß by macrophages. (2)
Free Radical Scavenging / Antioxidant: Study showed Glinus oppositifolius scavenges free radicals and reduces lipid peroxidation, ameliorating the damage imposed by oxidative stress in different disease conditions. It serves as a potential source of natural antioxidants. (3)
Antifungal / Larvicidal / Molluscicidal / Antioxidant: In a study of 78 different extracts from 20 medicinal plants from 14 plant families, G oppositifolius was one of three plant extracts that gave positive responses to all four tests – antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal and antioxidant testing. (4)
Antifungal / Larvicidal: A DCM-extract reported to be fungicidal against C. albicans and larvicidal against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus.
Hepatoprotective: Study evaluating the methanol extracts of Glinus oppositifolius and T decarndra against paracetamol induced liver damage in rats concluded that both plants significantly restored altered biochemical parameters towards normal. (5)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated aqueous and ethanolic extracts of leaves, flowers and stems for secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity. Antimicrobial activity was significant in the stem, leaf, and flower samples, the activity attributed to saponins. (8)
Bioactive Pectic Polysaccharides / Complement Fixating: Study of water extract of aerial parts isolated two pectin type polysaccharides, GOA1 and GOA2. Results showed potent dose-dependent complement fixating activities, and induced chemotaxis of macrophages. (10)
Antioxidant / Antidiabetic: Study evaluated the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of a methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius leaves in alloxan-induced diabetic mice. There was dose-dependent reduction of blood glucose. DPPH radical scavenging assay activity was greater than 1000 µg/ml ascorbic acid. Results showed the methanolic extract to possess moderate antioxidant activity and significant antihyperglycemic activity. (11)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study investigated G. oppositifolius methanolic extract for analgesic activity using acetic acid induced writhing and tail immersion test and anti-inflammatory activity by carrageenan induced paw edema testing. Results showed central and peripheral analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Paracetamol Hepatotoxicity / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of an ethanolic extract of aerial parts against paracetamol-induced hepatitis in rats. Treatment with the extract showed dose-dependent reversal of the altered levels of biochemical markers. (13)
Immunomodulating / GOA2 Peptic Polymer: Study investigated the structure and immunomodulating properties of peptic polymer GOIA2, previously isolated from G. oppositifolius. Enzymatic treatments yielded GOA2-I, GOA2-II, and GOA2-III. On testing, GOA2-I showed significantly greater effects than native GOA2m and also exhibited more potent intestinal immune stimulating activity. It also induced secretion of proinflammatory cytokines. (15)
Antidiabetic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic activity of ethanolic extracts of aerial parts of Mollugo pentaphylla and Glinus oppositifolius in alloxan-induced hyperglycemic rat models. The extracts produced significant decrease in blood glucose levels comparable to standard drug glibenclamide. (16) Study of various extracts of Glinus oppositifolius in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed significant hypoglycemic effect. Antidiabetic activity was attributed to the presence of steroids, saponins, glycosides, alkaloids, and flavonoids. (28)
Antihelmintic / Antioxidant: Study showed in vitro anthelmintic activity against aquarium worm, Tubifex tubifex, more effective than reference drug piperazine citrate. The anthelmintic activity was significantly correlated with polyphenolic contents and free radical scavenging potential. (17)
Anti-Diabetic: Study evaluated the anti-diabetic potential of Mollugo oppositifolia extract on alloxan induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant alterations in biochemical parameters i.e., blood glucose, serum insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, glycogen metabolizing enzymes and lipid profiles, liver marker enzymes, antioxidant enzymes. In most parameters, the performance of the plant extract was better than the standard drug, Glibenclamide. (19)
Anti-Ulcer: Study evaluated the gastroprotective and antiulcer efficacy of Mollugo oppositifolia plant extract in alcohol induced ulcerated rats. Treatment with MO extract significantly inhibited the alcohol induced ulcer congestion, hemorrhage and necrosis. The gastroprotective activity was comparable with standard drug Omeprazole. (18)

• Sedative / Anxiolytic / Leaves: Study of ethanol extract of leaves of G. oppositifolius in different behavioral models in mice showed sedative (hole cross, open field, rotarod, and thiopental sodium (TS)-induced sleeping time) and anxiolytic (elevated plus maze [EPM] and light-dark box exploration test) potential. Results support the use of the plant in the treatment of different psychiatric disorders including insomnia. (23)
Molluscicidal: Study evaluated the molluscicidal effect of crude extracts (butanol and ethyl acetate) and their products against schistosome snail intermediate hosts. Both crude extracts and pure products showed dose-dependent activity. The butanol extract showed lowest LC50 at 64.3 and 91.7 ppm for Bulinus truncatus and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, respectively. (24)
• Anticancer / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of dried leaves for antioxidant potential and cytotoxic effect on cancer cell lines. The ME showed moderate levels of antioxidant activity using DPPH radical scavenging, lipid peroxidation inhbition, superoxide scavenging assay, NO scavenging assay, total phenol and flavonoid content assays. The ME showed enhanced anti-proliferative efficacies on different human cancer cell lines compared to normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. (25)
• Antiprotozoal / Triterpenoid Saponins / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts isolated two new triterpenoid saponins, glinosides A and B. Fractions showed betters antiplasmodial activity than pure glinoside A with IC50 of 31.80 µg/ml and 42.30 µg/ml, comparatively. (27)
• Triterpenoid Saponin /
α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity / Antidiabetic / Aerial Parts: Study of aerial parts isolated six triterpene saponins including one new saponin, glinoside C, and five known constituents. Glinocide C showed the greatest inhibition of α-glucosidase activity with IC50 of 127 ± 127 ± 30 µM. (see constituents above) (29)


Updated May 2018 / December 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Direct Uses Of Medicinal Plants And Their Identification / R.Vardhana

An immunomodulating pectic polymer from Glinus oppositifolius / Karl T. Inngjerdingen et al / Phytochemistry, Vol 68, Issue 7, April 2007, Pages 1046-1058
/ doi:10.1016/j.phytochem.2007.01.011
Free radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of Glinus oppositifolius (carpet weed) using different in vitro assay systems / K AsokKumar et al / Summary Pharmaceutical Biology, June 2009, Vol. 47, No. 6, Pages 474-482
Screening of Malian medicinal plants for antifungal, larvicidal, molluscicidal, antioxidant and radical scavenging activities / D Diallo, A Marston et al / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 15 Issue 5, Pages 401 - 406 / DOI 10.1002/ptr.738
Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extracts of Glinus oppositifolius and Trianthema decandra against paracetamol induced liver damage / M Gupta et al / Oriental Pharmacy and Experimental Medicine / v.7, no.1, 2007년, pp.74-78 / DOI : 10.3742/OPEM.2007.7.1.074
Glinus oppositifolius (.) Aug. DC [AIZOACEAE] / Karl Inngjerdingen / The Malian medicinal plant project -Global Health Research Norway-Mali-
Triterpenoid saponins from Mollugo spergula / Niranjan P Sahu, Kazuo Koike et al / Phytochemistry
Volume 58, Issue 8, December 2001, Pages 1177-1182 / doi:10.1016/S0031-9422(01)00346-
Phytochemical screeing and detection of antimicrobial activity of Mollugo oppositifolia, a herb
/ Vishali, Rekha, Sumathi, Asha / Conference Proceeding / Research Gate
Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
Bioactive pectic polysaccharides from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC., a Malian medicinal plant, isolation and partial characterization / Kari Tvete Inngjerdingen∗ et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology 101 (2005) 204–214 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2005.04.021
Antioxidant and antihyperglycemic activities of methanolic extract of Glinus oppositifolius leaves / Nazia Hoque, Mohammad Zafar Imam, Saleha Akter, Md. Ehsanul Hoque Mazumder, S.M. Raquibul Hasan, Jamiuddin Ahmed and Md. Sohel Rana / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 01 (07); 2011: 50-53
Analgesic and Anti-inflammatory Potential of Methanolic Extract of Glinus oppositifolius L. / Nazia Hoque, Md. Razibul Habib, Mohammad Zafar Imam, Jamiuddin Ahmed and Md. Sohel Rana / Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 5(8): 729-733, 2011
Hepatoprotective activity of aerial part of Glinus oppositifolius L. against Paracetamol-induced Hepatic Injury in Rats. / S. K. Sahu*, D. Das and N. K. Tripathy / Asian J. Pharm. Tech. 2012; Vol. 2: Issue 4, Pg 154-156
L-(−)-(N-trans-Cinnamoyl)-arginine, an Acylamino Acid from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. / Poolsak Sahakitpichan, Wannaporn Disadee, Somsak Ruchirawat, and Tripetch Kanchanapoom* / Molecules 2010, 15, 6186-6192 / doi:10.3390/molecules15096186
Immunological and structural properties of a pectic polymer from Glinus oppositifolius / Inngjerdingen, K. T., Patel, T. R., Chen, X., Kenne, L., Allen, S., Morris, Gordon, Harding, S. E., Matsumoto, T., Diallo, D., Yamada, H., Michaelsen, T. E., Inngjerdingen, M. and Paulsen, B. S. / Glycobiology, 17 (12). pp. 1299-1310 / DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwm088
EVALUATION OF HYPOGLYCEMIC ACTIVITY OF MOLLUGO PENTAPHYLLA AND GLINUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS (L) / S. K. Sahu*, D. Das, N. K. Tripathy, S. C. Dinda and H. K. Sundeep Kumar / Rasayan J. Chem, Vol. 5, No.1, pp 57-62, January - March 2012.
Gastric Ulcer Curative Potential of Mollugo oppositifolia Linn. Extract - A Preclinical Study / Dr. S. Gopinathan and Ms. S. Nija / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, Vol 3, No 7, 929-948, 2014
/ Dr. S. Gopinathan* and Ms. S. Subha / Gopinathan Sinnadurai / World Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, 10/2014; 3(8):735-768.
Ethnobotanical survey on Folk Medicine in the management of animal bite poisons in the forest tract of Salem region of Tamil Nadu, India / T.Thirunarayanan / International Journal of Pharmacology and Clinical Sciences June 2013 Vol.2 Issue 2 41-46
Glinus oppositifolius / Synonyms / The Plant List
Phytochemical Studies on Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. / Sadia Afrin Chhanda, Tanvir Muslim* and Md. Aziziur Rahman / Dhaka Univ. J. Sci. 62(1): 45-48, 2014 (January)
Sedative and Anxiolytic-Like Actions of Ethanol Extract of Leaves of Glinus oppositifolius (Linn.) Aug. DC. / Md. Moniruzzaman, Partha Sharoti Bhattacharjee, Moushumi Rahman Pretty, and Md. Sarwar Hossain / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Volume 2016 (2016) / http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2016/8541017
Laboratory Assessment of Molluscicidal Activity of Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC. (Aizoaceae) / Adama Denou, Adiaratou Togola, Kari Tvete Inngjeerdingen, Drissa Diallo, Berit Smestad Paulsen / International Journal of New Technology and Research, Vol 2, Issue 4; April 2016: pp 123-126
Anti-cancer and anti-oxidant potential of Indian carpet weed Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC
/ Tania Chakraborty, Amrita Pal Basak, Ankita Mridha, Priya K Gopal and Santanu Paul / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, Vol. 6, Issue 5, Part G (2017)
Proximate and vitamin C analysis of wild edible plants consumed by Bodos of Assam, India
/ Hwiyang Narzary, Ananta Swargiary. Sanjay Basumatary / Journal of Molecular Pathophysiology (2015); Vol 4, Issue 4 / DOIL 10.5455/jmp.20151111030040
Structure and Antiprotozoal Activity of Triterpenoid Saponins from Glinus oppositifolius / Fanta Traore, Robert Faure, Evelyne Ollivier*, Monique Gasquet, Nadine Azas, Laurent Debrauwer, Arouna Keita, Pierre Timon-David, Guy Balansard / Planta Med 2000; 66(4): pp 368-371 / DOI: 10.1055/s-2000-8551
Anti Diabetic Activity of aerial parts of Glinus oppositifolius L, against glucose overloaded and streptozotocin induced Diabetes in Albino Rats. / Suman Pattanayak, K Padmalatha / International Journal of Natural Products and Marine Biology (2015); Vol 1, Issue 1: pp 29-34
A new triterpenoid saponin from Glinus oppositifolius with α-glucosidase inhibitory activity / Deepak Kumar, Vrunda Shah, Rina Ghosh, and Bikas C Pal / Natural Product Research, Vol 27, Issue 7 (2017) / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2012.686907

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