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Family Fabaceae
Sampalok
Tamarindus indica Linn.
TAMARIND

Da ma lin

Scientific names Common names 
Tamarindus officinalis Gaertn.  Asam (Sul.) 
Tamarindus officinalis Hook.  Kalamagi (Bis., Ibn.) 
Tamarindus indica Linn. Salamagi (Ilk.) 
Tamarindus occidentalis Gaertn. Salomagi (Ilk.) 
Tamarindus umbrosa Salisb. Salunagi (Ting.) 
  Sambag (P. Bis.) 
  Sambagi (Bis.) 
  Sambi (Bis.) 
  Sambak (Bik.) 
  Sambalagi (Bik.)
  Samabalagi (Bik.)
  Tamarind, (Engl.)
  Tamarindi (Arabic)
  Tamarindo (Span.)
  Sweet tamarind (Engl.)
  Da ma lin (Chin.)

Other vernacular names
AFRIKAANS : Tamarinde.
ARABIC : Aradeib, Ardeib, Tamar el hindi, Hhawmar, Humar, Sbar, Tamar hindi.
ASSAMESE : Teteli.
BEMBA : Mushishi.
BENGALI : Ambli, Amli, Tentul, Tentuli.
BURMESE : Ma gyi, Ma jee pen, Ma gyi thi (Myanmar).
CHINESE: Suan dou, Suan mei, Suan jiao, Luo wang zi, Luo huang zi.
CROATIAN : Indijska datula, Indijska urma, Tamarind.
CZECH : Tamarind.
DANISH : Tamarind.
DUTCH : Assem, Indische dadel, Tamarijn, Tamarinde, Tamarindeboom.
ESTONIAN : Tamarindipuu, Tamarind.
FINNISH : Tamarindi.
FRENCH : Tamar indien (Assam-India), Tamarin, Tamarinier, Tamarinier des Indes.
GERMAN: Indische Dattel, Sauerdattel, Tamarinde, Tamarindenbaum.
GREEK: Tamarin.
GUJARATI : Ambla, Amli.
HEBREW: Tamar hindi.
HINDI : Ambli, Anbli, Chinch, Imalii, Imlii, Tamrulhindi.
HUNGARIAN : Indiai datolya, Tamarindusz gyümölcs.
ITALIAN : Tamarandizio, Tamarindo, Tamarindo dolce.
JAPANESE: Tamarindo
KANNADA : Amla, Amli, Gotu, Huli, Hunase hannu, Hunase mara (tree), Hunise mara.
KHMER : 'âm'puul, Ampil (Cambodia), Ampil khui, Ampil tum, Khoua me.
KOREAN: Ta ma rin du.
LAOTIAN : Khaam, Kok mak kham, Mak kham, Naam maak khaam.
MALAY : Asam, Asam jawa, Asam kuning, Kemal (Java), Tambaring.
MALAYALAM : Amlam, Amlika, Madhurappuli, Puli
MARATHI : Ambali, Chicha.
NEPALESE: Amilii, Titrii.
ORIYA : Kainya, Koina, Konya, Omlika, Telul, Tentuli.
PERSIAN: Tamar i hindi (Iran), Tamre hendi.
POLISH : Tamarynd.
PORTUGUESE : Tamarindo (Brazil), Tamarindeiro, Tambarina.
PUNJABI : Imbli, Imlii.
RUSSIAN: Finik indiiskii, Indiyskiy finik, Tamarind, Tamarind indiiskii.
SANSKRIT : Amla, Amli, Amlika, Chukra, Sarvamda, Tintiri, Tintiddii.
SERBIAN : Indijska urma, Tamarinda.
SINHALESE : Siyambala, Siyambula.
SLOVAKIAN : Tamarindy.
SLOVENIAN : Indijska tamarinda.
SPANISH : Tamaríndo, Tamaríndo de la India.
SWAHILI : Mkwaju, Msisi, Ukwaju.
SWEDISH : Tamarind.
TAMIL : Ambilam, Amilam, Indam, புளி Puli.
TELUGU : Amlika, Chinta, Chinta chettu, Chintapandu, Sinja, Sinta.
THAI : Bakham somkham,Ma khaam, Ma kham wan.
TURKISH : Demirhindi, Hind hurma, Hind hurması, Hint hurması, Temer hindi ağacı, Temir hindi ağacı, Temirhindi.
URDU : Imlii.
VIETNAMESE : Cây me, Me, Me chua, Quả me, Trái me.

Botany
Sampalok is a large tree 12 to 25 meters high, nearly glabrous. Leaves are evenly pinnate, 6 to 10 centimeters long, with 20 to 40 leaflets, rather close, oblong, obtuse, 1 to 2 centimeters long. Racemes are mostly axillary though sometimes panicled, and reaching a length of 5 to 10 centimeters.
Calyx is about 1 centimeter long, the calyx tube turbinate, the teeth lanceolate, much imbricated, the lower 2 connate. Petals are yellowish with pink stripes, obovate-oblong, less than 1 centimeter long. Only the 3 upper petals developed, the 2 lateral ones ovate, the upper hooded, the 2 lower ones reduced to scales. Stamens monadelphous, only 3 developed, ovary many-ovuled. Fruits are pods oblong, thickened, 6 to 15 centimeters long, 2 to 3 centimeters wide, slightly compressed, the exocarp thin and crustaceous, the mesocarp pulpy acid and edible.

Distribution
- Planted throughout the settled areas of the Philippines.
- An attractive ornamental along avenues.
-
Prehistoric introduction.
- Probably a native of tropical Africa.
- Pantropic in cultivation.

Constituents
- Fixed oil, 15-20%; citric, acetic, butyric and oxalic acids; tannin; pectin.
- Various studies have shown high amounts of crude protein and essential amino acids, carbohydrates, minerals, potassium, phosphorus, calcium and magnesium.

- An analysis of tamarind pulp yielded: citric acid, 9.40; tartaric acid, 1.55; malic acid, 0.45; bitartrate of potash, 3.25; sugar, 12.5, gum, 4.7; vegetable jelly (pectin), 6.25; parenchyma, 34.35; and water, 27.55.
- Seed yielded tannin, a fixed oil, and insoluble matter. Analysis showed albuminoids, fat, carbohydrates, 63.22; fiber; and ash containing phosphorus and nitrogen.
- Fruit yields a trace of oxalic acid.
- Bark of old trees yield 7 per cent tannin.

Properties
- Propagation by seed, soaked in water for 8 to 9 days before transplanting.
- Flowering from April to October.
- Astringent, tonic, digestive, antiasthmatic, febrifuge, carminative, antiscorbutic, antibilious.
- Bark is considered astringent and tonic.
- Pulp considered refrigerant and laxative.
- Seed and testa are astringent.


Parts used

· Leaves, fruits, flowers, and bark.
· Gather fruits from March to June when fruits ripen.
· Remove rind, dry under the sun.


Uses
Edibility / Culinary / Nutrition
- As a souring condiment.
- Source of vitamins B and C.
- Sweetened and candied.
The seeds, surrounded by a brownish pulp, tamarindo, are made into balls from which jams, sweets and drinks are made. The pulp, malasebo, is often eaten outright, with or without salt. The pulp is also an ingredient in Indian curries and chutnies.
- In India, seeds are eaten after the outer skin has been removed by roasting or soaking; then boiled or fried.
- The seed is sometimes used as famine food by aboriginal tribes.
- Young leaves and very young seedlings and flowers are cooked and eaten as greens and used popularly in the Philippines for seasoning "sinigang," and in India for curries. In Zimbabwe, leaves used in soups, flowers in salads.
- In some part of tropical America, a fermented drink is made from the pulp.
Folkloric

In the Philippines, the bark, leaves, flowers, fruits, and seeds are used medicinally in the way it is used in other countries.
Decoction of leaves used as an aromatic bath for fevers, puerperism, and convalescence.
Fever: Macerate pulp or ripe fruit in water, sweeten to taste, and drink.
Laxative: Pulp is considered a mild laxative because of the presence of potassium bitartrate. Eat pulp of ripe fruit liberally and follow with plenty of water.
Asthma: Bark; chop and boil a foot-long piece of bark in 3 glasses of water for 10 minutes. Adults, 1 cup after every meal and at bedtime; children, 1/2 cup 4 times daily; babies, 2 tbsps 4 times daily.
Decoction of ash: For colic, indigestion; as gargle for sore throats, aphthous sores.
Ash is considered astringent and tonic; used internally as a digestive. Ash preparation: Fry the bark with common salt in an earthen pot until it turns to powdered white ash; a heaping teaspoon of the ash to half-cup of boiling water; cool and drink for colic and indigestion.
Poultice or lotion from bark applied to ulcers, boils, and rashes.
Poultice of leaves to inflammatory swellings of ankles and joints.
Decoction of leaves as postpartum tea; also used as a wash for indolent ulcers.
Flowers for conjunctival inflammation. Internally, as decoction or infusion, for bleeding piles (4 glasses of tea daily).
Pulp surrounding the seeds is considered cooling and a gentle laxative.
Gargle of tamarind water used for healing aphthous ulcers and sore throat.
Tamarind pulp considered preventive and curative for scurvy.
In Mauritius, the Creoles mix salt with the pulp and use it as a liniment for rheumatism.
Tamarind infusion considered carminative and digestive, antiscorbutic and antibilious.
Young leaves used as fomentation for rheumatism and applied to sores and wounds.
In Malaya decoction of leaves used for fevers.
The leaves crushed with water and expressed, used for bilious fever and in scalding of urine.
Poultice of leaves crushed in water used for ankle and joint inflammations to reduce swelling and pain.
Decoction of leaves used as a wash for indolent ulcers.
Poultice of flowers used for conjunctival inflammation. Juice expressed from flowers used internally for bleeding piles.
Juice of leaves, warmed by dipping a red hot iron, used in dysentery.
Powdered seeds are given in dysentery; boiled and decocted, used as a poultice for boils.
In Cambodia, filtered hot juice of leaves used for conjunctivitis.
In the West Indies, decoction of leaves used jaundice and for worms in children.
Hindu physicians apply pounded leaves to erysipelas.
In Mauritius a bark decoction is used for asthma.
In Madagascar, bark decoction used for asthma and amenorrhea.
In East Sudan, the bark is considered tonic and febrifuge.
Others
Dyeing / Mordant: Leaves and flowers useful as mordants in dyeing. Yellow dye from the leaves colors wool red and turns indigo-dyed silk to green. Leaves used in bleaching buri palm to prepare it for hat making. In Java, an ink is obtained by burning the bark. The Hindus Kamaras use the starch in doll painting.
Fodder: Leaves
eaten by cattle and goats. Also, a fodder for silkworms.
Nectar: Flowers are considered a good source of nectar for honeybees in South India.
Seeds: Powder from tamarind kernels used in the Indian textile industry in several processes - sizing, finishing cotton, jute and spun viscose.

Wood: Highly prized for furniture, panelling, wheels, axles, mill gears, planking, mallets, handles, walking sticks, etc. In Mexico, wood is used for boiling purposes and provided an excellent source of charcoal for the manufacture of gunpowder.
Oil: Seeds yield an amber oil, useful as illuminant and a varnish.

Studies
Antibacterial: Aqueous pulp extract study showed antibacterial activity against all strains tested. Phytochemical screening yielded saponins, alkaloids and glycosides. Study confirms the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of infections. (1)
Antibacterial: Study evaluated the antibacterial activity of extracts from T. indica ripe fruit and Piper nigrum seed against S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa and Salmonella typhi. The ethanol extract of T indica showed higher activity against all test bacteria than that from P nigrum.
Hepatoprotective: Study showed a significant hepatoprotective effect with the aqueous extracts of tamarind leaves, fruits and unroasted seeds on paracetamol intoxicated rats. (2)
Anti-venom activity: Extracts of tamarind inhibited the major hydrolytic enzymes of early envenomation (local tissue damage, inflammation, hypotension). It also neutralized indirect hemolysis. It presents an alternative to serum therapy. (3)
Aspirin Bioavailability: Study showed Tamarindus indica fruit extract significantly increased the bioavailability of aspirin. (4)
Cosmetic Potential: Seed husk extract with polyphenolic components (Polyant-T) was tested for antioxidant efficiency and provides a potential use for color cosmetics and sunscreens. (5)
Hypolipidemic / Blood Pressure Effect / Fruits: Fruits were evaluated for effects on lipid profile, blood pressure and weight. Dried and pulverized pulp of fruits showed a beneficial effect on the lipid profile with a significant lowering of the total and LDL-chol without affecting the HDL level. There was also a significant reduction of diastolic blood pressure. (6)
Chemical Constituents: Study revealed the presence of 21 saturated (67.5%) and 11 unsaturated fatty acids (30.15%). The results showed great variation in fatty acids, elemental composition and total protein attributed to environmental and ecological factors.
Anti-Diabetic / Seeds / Pancreatic Islets: Study of aqueous extract of Tamarindus indica seeds against STZ-induced damages in pancreatic islands showed AETIS partially restores pancreatic beta cells and repairs STZ-induced damages in rats. (10)
Anti-Diabetic: Study of aqueous extract of seed showed potent antidiabetogenic activity that reduces blood sugar in streptozotocin-induced diabetic male rat. (14)
Anti-Diabetic / Fruits and Seeds: Study showed extracts of both fruit and seeds significantly lowered blood glucose levels in mice compared to control.(16)
Anti-Melioidosis: Melioidosis, caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei, is a life-threatening infection common among paddy cultivators in Southeast Asian countries. Study showed the methanolic extracts of T indica has anti-B. pseudomallei inhibitory potentials under invitro conditions. (11)
Spasmolytic: Study of the methanolic extract of fruits of Tamarindus indica on rabbit's jejunum preparations showed relaxing effects probably through calcium channel blockade. (12)
Genotoxicity Study: Study of extract made with T. indica was devoid of clastogenic and genotoxic activities in cells of rodents, when administered orally at three acute doses. (13)
Antioxidant: Study of T indica seed coat extract was found to possess strong antioxidant activity attributed to free radical scavenging activity. (15)
Analgesic: Study showed the aqueous extract of T indica possesses potential antinociceptive activity at both peripheral and central levels, mediated via an opioidergic mechanism. (17)
Fluoride Toxicity Amelioration: Fluoride is a cumulative poison, toxicity leading to bony and dental lesions developing over a period of time. Study showed the extracts of both T. indica and M. oleifera have some potential to mitigate fluoride toxicity. Changes in plasma biochemistry suggested less hepatic and renal damages in animals receiving plant extracts along with fluorinated water compared to those receiving fluorinated water alone. (18)
Anthelmintic: Study using an Indian earthworm as test worm confirmed T. indica's anthelmintic activity. The root extract not only demonstrated paralysis and also caused death in a shorter period of time compared to the reference drug Piperazine citrate. (19)
Acute Toxicity / Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies / Stem Bark: A crude extract of stem-bark was evaluated for toxicity and hepatotoxicokinetics on Wistar rats. Brine shrimp lethality assessment resulted in 70% (200 µg/mL) and 10% (20µg/mL) nauplii death with crude extract. Hepatotoxicokinetics dosing wistar rats with crude fractions at 25% and 50% of predetermined LD50 on chicken embryos showed elevation in the AST and ALT. Results suggest that dose standardization in folk herbal medicine is imperative as T. indica used as food and medicine has been shown to be toxic at high doses. (22)
Antibacterial / Stem Bark and Leaves: Phytochemical studies yielded tannins, saponins, sesquiterpenes, alkaloids, and phlobatamins. Extracts of stem bark and leaves were active against both gram positive and gram negative bacteria. (23)
ENO1 / Effect on Alpha Enolase Release / Lipid Effects: Study of a methanol extract of T. indica fruit pulp altered the release of ENO1, ApoA-I, TTR and GDI-2 from HepG2 cells. Results support the effect of T. indica on cellular lipid metabolism, particularly that of cholesterol. (24)
Antibacterial / Pulp Extract: Study evaluated an aqueous pulp extract of T. indica against four bacteria (E coli, S aureus, P aeruginosa and S typhi). The extract showed activity against tested bacteria: S. aureus >E coli>P aeruginosa. (25)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Hepatotoxicity: Study in Wistar rats showed an ethanolic extract of fruit pulp of Tamarindus indica ameliorated the damage caused by CCl4, with lowering of enzymes and bilirubin, further verified by histopathological improvement. (26)
Antioxidative / Diabetic Benefits / Bark: Study evaluated the antioxidative effect of an ethanolic extract of bark of T. indica to normoglycemic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed a significant decrease in peroxidation products, an increase in glutathione and glycogen content. The extract exhibited antioxidant property and an antidiabetic effect more effective than glibenclamide. (27)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Cultivated for fruiting and culinary use.
Sweetened and candied.


Last Update August 2013

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Tamarindus indica Blanco1.14-cropped.jpg / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883/ Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE/ Leguminosae - Tamarindus indica. / Le jardin fleuriste, journal général des progrès et des intérêts horticoles et botaniques by Charles Lemaire (editor)./ Gand [Gent], F. et E. Gyselynck, 1852, volume 2, plate 133. / Meemelink
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE/ File:Tamarindus indica Taub79.png / Leguminosae. in Engelmann (ed.): Natürliche Pflanzenfamilien. Vol. III, 3. / Paul Hermann Wilhelm Taubert (1862-1897) / Public Domain / Wikipedia
SOURCES

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Tamarindus indica Pulp Extract / Asian Journ Biochem 3(2):134-138, 2008 / ISSN 1815-9923
(2)
Protective effect of Tamarindus indica linn against paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity in rats / BP Pimple, P V Kadam et al /
Indian Journ of Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2007, Vol 69, Issue 6, Pp 827-831/ DOI: 10.4103/0250-474X.39445
(3)
The anti-snake venom properties of Tamarindus indica (leguminosae) seed extract
/ Phytotherapy research ISSN 0951-418X . 2006, vol. 20, no10, pp. 851-858
(4)
Effect of Tamarindus indica L. on the bioavailability of aspirin in healthy human volunteers./ Eur J Drug Metab Pharmacokinet. 1996 Jul-Sep;21(3):223-6.
(5)
A new hydrophylic antioxidant from Tamarindus indica / SÖFW-journal ISSN 0942-7694 . 2004, vol. 130, no7, pp. 10-16
(6)
EFFECT OF TAMARINDUS INDICA FRUITS ON BLOOD PRESSURE AND LIPID-PROFILE IN HUMAN MODEL: AN IN VIVO APPROACH
/ A.S.M. MARUF IFTEKHAR, ISRAT RAYHAN, MOHIUDDIN ABDUL QUADIR, SHARIF AKHTERUZZAMAN AND ABUL HASNAT / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., 2006, Vol.19(2), 125-129
(7)
Tamarind / Tamarindus indica / Morton, J. 1987. Tamarind. p. 115–121. In: Fruits of warm climates. Julia F. Morton, Miami, FL.
(8)
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF TAMARINDUS INDICA L. MEDICINAL PLANT IN SINDH / Samina Kabir Khanzada, W Shaikh et al / Pak. J. Bot., 40(6): 2553-2559, 2008.
(9)
Antibacterial Activity of Tamarindus indica Fruit and Piper nigrum Seed / Warda S Abdel Gadir, Fathia Mohamed and Amel Bakhiet / Research Journ of Microbiology 2 (11): 824-830, 2007
(10)
A STEREOLOGICAL STUDY OF EFFECTS OF AQUEOUS EXTRACT OF TAMARINDUS INDICA SEEDS ON PANCREATIC ISLETS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN-INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / Hamidreza Mahmoudzadeh-Sagheb et al / Pak. J. Pharm. Sci., Vol.23, No.4, October 2010, pp.427-434 427
(11)
The effect of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica Linn. on the growth of clinical isolates of Burkholderia pseudomallei / Shankar Esaki Muthu, Subhadra Nandakumar and Usha Anand Rao / Indian J Med Res 122, December 2005, pp 525-528
(12)
Spasmolytic activity of fruits of Tamarindus indica L. / N Ali, Swa Shah / PHARMACOLOGY, 2010, Volume 2, Issue 3, Pp 261-264
(13)
Assessment of the potential genotoxic risk of medicinal Tamarindus indica fruit pulp extract using in vivo assays / F M V Silva, M F Leite et al / Genetics and Molecular Research 8 (3): 1085-1092 (2009)
(14)
Antidiabetic effect of aqueous extract of seed of Tamarindus indica in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / R Maiti / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 92, Issue 1, May 2004, Pages 85-91 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.02.002
(15)
Evaluation of Antioxidant avtivity of Tamarindus indica seed coat / Narendra Vyas, Narayan prasad Gavatia, Mukul Tailang; A K Pathak / Poster / !3 th National convention of Indian Society of Pharmacognosy, Bhopal (2009)
(16)
Evaluation of anti-hyperglycemic potential of methanolic extract of Tamarindus indica L. (Fabaceae) fruits and seeds in glucose-induced hyperglycemic mice / Moushumi Ghosh Roy, Shahnaz Rahman, Fatema Rehana et al / Free Library
(17)
In vivo Analgesic Effect of Aqueous Extract of Tamarindus indica L. Fruits / S. Khalida, W.M. Shaik Mossadeq et al / Med Princ Pract 2010;19:255-259 (DOI: 10.1159/000312710)
(18)
Tamarindus indica and Moringa oleifera extract administration ameliorates fluoride toxicity in rabbits / R Ranjan, D Swarup et al / Indian Journ of Experimental Biology, Vol 47, Nov 2009, pp 900-905
(19)
STUDIES ON ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ROOTS EXTRACT OF TAMARINDUS INDICA LINN
BY USING DIFFERENT SOLVENT SYSTEMS
/ K Mallikarjuna Rao / IJPRD/2011/PUB/ARTI/VOV-2/ISSUE-12/FEB/009
(20)
Tamarindus indica L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(21)
Sorting Tamarindus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(22)
Acute Toxicity and Hepatotoxicokinetic Studies of Tamarindus indica Extract / Uchechukwu U. Nwodo, Augustine A. Ngene, Aruh O. Anaga, Vincent N. Chigor, Igbinosa I. Henrietta and Anthony I. Okoh / Molecules 2011, 16, 7415-7427; doi:10.3390/molecules16097415
(23)
Antimicrobial Activity of Tamarindus indica Linn / JH Doughari / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, December 2006; 5 (2): 597-603
(24)
Tamarindus indica Extract Alters Release of Alpha Enolase, Apolipoprotein A-I, Transthyretin and Rab GDP Dissociation Inhibitor Beta from HepG2 Cells / Ursula Rho Wan Chong, Puteri Shafinaz Abdul-Rahman, Azlina Abdul-Aziz, Onn Haji Hashim, Sarni Mat Junit mail / PLoS ONE 7(6): e39476. / doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0039476
(25)
Phytochemical Screening and Antibacterial Activity of Tamarindus Indica Pulp Extract / M.G. Abukakar, A.N. Ukwuani and R.A. Shehu / Asian Journal of Biochemistry, , 2008, 3: 134-138. /
DOI: 10.3923/ajb.2008.134.138
(26)
Protective Effect of Ethanolic Extract of Tamarindus indica Against CCl4 Induced Liver Damage in Rats / Samia M. A. El Badwi, Nabiela M. El Bagir and Ahmed E. Amin / Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences, 7(2): 813-818, 2013 I
(27)
Anti-Oxidative Effect of Tamarindus Indica in Alloxan Induced Diabetic Rats / M.A. Bhutkar, S.B. Bhise / International Journal of Research in Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences, Vol. 2 (3) Jul – Sep 2011

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