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Family Asteraceae
Pterocaulon redolens (Forst. f.) F.-Vill.
Yi jing cao

Scientific names Common names
Chlaenobulus spicatus (Labill.) Cass. Sambong-gala (Tag.)
Conyza redolens G.Forst. ex Willd. Subusob (Ilk.)
Gnaphalium cylindrostachyum Wall. Subusob-a-balang (Ilk.)
Gnaphalium redolens Forst. [Illegitimate] Wing stem grass (Engl.)
Monenteles redolens (G.Forst. ex Willd.) Labill.  
Monenteles redolens (Willd.) DC.  
Monenteles spicatus Labill.  
Pterocaulon billardierei F.Muell.  
Pterocaulon cylindrostachyum CB Clarke  
Pterocaulon redolens (G.Forst. ex Willd.) Benth. ex Fern.-Vill  
Pterocaulon spicatum (Labill.) Domin  
Sphaeranthus elongatus Blanco  
Tessaria redolens (Willd.) Less.  
Sambong-gala is a local name shared by botobotonisan and sambong-gala (Pterocaulon redolens).
Pterocaulon redolens (G.Forst. ex Willd.) Benth. ex Fern.-Vill. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Yi jing cao.

Sambong-gala is a woolly, erect, branched herb, 0.5 to 1 meter in height, with stems bearing very conspicuous longitudinal wings. Leaves are alternate, stalkless, lanceolate, 3 to 7 centimeters long, and toothed at the margins. Heads are small and borne in large numbers on the upper parts of the branches. Flowers are pink to purplish.

- In open waste places at low and medium altitudes in Lepanto and the Benguet Sub-provinces, Cagayan, Ilocos Norte, Pangasinan, Bataan, and Batangas Provinces in Luzon, and in Mindoro.
- Occurs in Burma to New Caledonia and Australia.

- Study of aerial parts yielded seven coumarins (5-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, ayapin, puberulin, 5-methoxyscopoletin, 2',3'-dihydroxypuberulin, isofraxidin, and 5-(2',3'-dihydroxy-3'-methylbutyloxy)-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin) and three flavonoids (luteolin, tomentin, and chrysosplenol C). (see study below) (1)
- Study of aerial parts of Pterocaulon redolens provided one new natural coumarin, namely, 2',3'-dihydroxypuberulin, six known coumarins identified as 5-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, ayapin, sabandinol, puberulin, 5-methoxyscopoletin and isofraxidin, and also gave three known flavonoids, chrysosplenol C, luteolin and tomentin.

Parts used


- Decoction of leaves used for stimulant baths.
- In Nueva Ecija, a mix of leaves of subusob and lagundi used to treat high fever. (6)

Phytochemicals / Anti-Mycobacterial / Cytotoxicity / Aerial Parts:
Studies on the chemical constituents of the aerial parts of Pterocaulon redolens isolated ten components: seven coumarins and three flavonoids. Six coumarins and one flavonoid displayed mild activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One flavonoid possessed moderate cytotoxicity against breast cancer and human small cell lung cancer cell lines. (see study above) (1)
• Coumarins / Cytotoxicity / Anti-Leukemia Potential: Among the coumarins present in Pterocaulon species, 5-methoxy-6,7-methylenedioxycoumarin, found in Pterocaulon redolens, P. alopecuroides, P. balansae, P. polystachyum, P. serrulatum, and P. virgatum, is the most studied, a compound which has shown cytotoxicity against glioma cell lines and was able to induce markers of cell differentiation, suggesting a potential therapeutic application in the management of leukemia. (5)


Updated November 2018 / July 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawing / Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) F.-Vill. / © Collected by www.plant.ac.cn / ZHIWUTONG / CLICK ON IMAGE TO GO TO SOURCE PAGE

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS OF PTEROCAULON REDOLENS / Tsutomu Ishikawa, Mayuree Kanlayavattanakul, Nijsiri Ruangrungsi, Toshiko Watanabe / / Heterocycles, Vol 61; No 1, pp.183-187(2003)
Pterocaulon redolens (Willd.) Fern. - Vill. / Catalogue of Life, China
Pterocaulon redolens / Synonyms / The Plant List
Chemical constituents and biological activities of Pterocaulon redolens and Cladogynos orientalis / Mayuree Kanlayavattanakul / Thesis 2004
Quantification of Coumarins in Aqueous Extract of Pterocaulon balansae (Asteraceae) and Characterization of a New Compound / Bruna Medeiros-Neves, Francisco Maikon Corrêa de Barros, Gilsane Lino von Poser and Helder Ferreira Teixeira / Molecules 2015, 20, 18083-18094 / doi:10.3390/molecules201018083
Philippine plants and natural products used traditionally / Philippine Traditional Knowledge Digital Library of Health

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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