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Family Piperaceae
Sambañganai
Piper baccatum Blume
CLIMBING PEPPER OF JAVA

Scientific names Common names
Muldera baccata Miq.         Unresolved Sambañganai (Tag.)
Muldera recurva Zoll.         Unresolved Climbing pepper of Java (Engl.)
Piper baccatum Blume       Unresolved  
There is a dearth of information and studies on Piper baccatum. Quisumbing's compilation lists P. baccatum (sambañganai) as a separate species. Other compilations list it as synonym of Piper nigrum (black pepper).
Piper baccatum Blume is an unresolved name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
INDONESIA: Bodeh (Javanese), Rinu, Rinu manuk (Sundanese).

Gen info
There is an estimated total of 1200 species of Piper in the pantropical and neotropical regions. Works on Philippine wild Piperaceae have been extensive. Candole (1910) reported 133 species of Piper and 26 of Peperomia; Merill (1923), 115 Piper, 25 Peperomia, and Quisumbing (1930), documented 87 Piper and 21 Peperomia.

Botany
Sambañganai is a dioecious vine with branches smooth, terete, 2 to 4 millimetrs in diameter. Leaves are leathery, oblong-elliptic or rounded-ovate, 12 to 16.5 centimeters long, 4 to 9.5 centimeters wide, 5- to 7-plinerved, and smooth on both surfaces. Pistillate spikes are pendulous, 4.5 to 9.5 centimeters long, and about 1.5 centimeters in diameter. Bracts are smooth, conate to the rachis, with their ends fusing and forming the cupular receptacles. Fruits are globose, borne on the cupular receptacles, 4.5 to 6 millimeters long, 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter. Stigmas number 3 to 4, slightly hairy and rounded. Cupular receptacle is sessile to subsessile, stout, smooth outside, smooth to ciliate on the rim, and pilose inside. Staminate spikes are pendulous, slender, 3 to 6 centimeters long, and 2 to 2.25 millimeters in diameter. Stamens are 5, small, and sunk in the cupular receptacle, with very small, ovoid to subglobose, bilocular, 2-valved anthers, and the filaments oblong, swollen at the base and slightly longer than the anthers.

Distribution
- In forests at medium altitude, in Agusan and Lanao Provinces in Mindanao.
- Also occurs in Borneo and Java.

Parts used
Roots, leaves, stems.

Uses

Folkloric
- Decoction of roots used in venereal diseases.
-
Juice of plant drunk as cough remedy and shredded leaves used as neck poultice.
- In Indonesia, leaves and stems used for fever and swelling.
Others
- Fruits:
Used in tonics. Reportedly used to adulterate P. cubeba.


Studies
Naturally Occurring Antioxidants:
Study of compounds of Piper species (P. nigrum, P. retrofractum, P. baccatum) revealed 14 phenolic amides, two from P. baccatum. All the phenolic amides exhibited significant antioxidant activities more effective than naturally occurring alpha-tocopherol. (1)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Last update August 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Piperaceae : Piper baccatum det. J.V. LaFrankie 18-Mar-14 / Abaxial view of leaf Copyright © 2015 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL97276]/ Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Piperaceae : Piper baccatum det. J.V. LaFrankie 18-Mar-14 / Inflorescence / Copyright © 2015 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL97286] / Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Piperaceae : Piper baccatum det. J.V. LaFrankie 18-Mar-14 / Flowering vine / Copyright © 2015 by P.B. Pelser & J.F. Barcelona (contact: pieter.pelser@canterbury.ac.nz) [ref. DOL97310]/ Non-Commercial Use / click on image to go to source page / Phytoimages.siu.edu
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Piper baccatum Blume / Preserved Specimen Database of China Plant / Identifier: K - Herbarium Catalogue - K000794884 © The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. / Europeana: Rights Reserved - Free Access/ Europeana Foundation

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chemical constituents of peppers (Piper spp.) and application to food preservation: naturally occurring antioxidative compounds / N Nakartani, R Inatani, H Ohta and N Nishioka / Environ Health Perspect. 1986 August; 67: 135–142.
(2)
Piper baccatum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(3)
Piper L.:Piperaceae / Proseanet.Org
(4)
Initial Studies on Alkaloids from Lombok Medicinal Plants / Surya Hadi and John B. Bremner / Molecules 2001, 6, 117-129


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