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Family Labiatae / Lamiaceae
Salita
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm.
LINE-LEAF LEUCAS
Xian ye bai rong cao

Scientific names Common names
Hetrepta lavandulifolia (Sm.) Raf. Karukansoli (Tag.)
Leonorus indicus L. Kaskasumba (Ilk.)
Leucas brownii Briq. Lañga-lañga (Bik.)
Leucas indica (L.) Vatke [Illegitimate] Pansi-pansi (Bik., Tag.)
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. Paysi-paysi (Bis.)
Leucas linifolia Spreng. Salita (Tag.)
Leucas malabarica W.Theob. Solasolasihan (Tag.)
Phlomis linifolia Roth. Lavender-leaved leucas (Engl.)
  Line-leaf leucas (Engl.)
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BANGLADESH: Chhoto Halkusha, Gaochia, Donkolos, Droton, Dronpuspi, Pai Sung Sa, Pai Tung Sa (Marma), Sasaneo (Bwam).
CHINESE: Xian ye bai rong cao.
FRENCH: Leucas a feuilles de lavande, Armoise blanche.
HINDI: Chhota-halkusa, Gopha, Gumi, Guma.
INDONESIA: Paci-paci, Laranga, Lenglengan.
JAVANESE: Lenglengan, Linkgo-lingkoan, Nlenglenglan, Plengan.
KANNADA: Thumbe.
MALAYALAM: Thumba, Tumpa, Rudraspushpam.
MALAYSIA: Katumbak, Ketumbit.
MANIPURI: Mayanglambum.
NEPAL: Dulphe jhar.
SUNDANESE: Pachi-pachi.
TAMIL: Kadar kumbam, Sudarpoo tonri.
TELUGU: Tella tummi, Pulatumni.

Botany
Salita is an annual, erect, branched herb, 40 to 80 centimeters high, more or less covered with short hairs. Leaves are linear to linear-lanceolate, 5 to 9 centimeters long, 8 to 13 millimeters wide, pointed at both ends and somewhat toothed at the margins. Whorls of many flowers are axillary and terminal. Calyx is about 1 centimeter long, green, very oblique, and sharply toothed. Corolla is white and 1.5 centimeters long; the central lobe of the lower lip is obovate, truncate and 8 millimeters wide.

Distribution
- Introduced.
- Very common weed in open, waste places at low and medium altitudes.
- Found from Cagayan to Sorsogon Provinces in Luzon; and in Polilo, Mindoro and Mindanao (Surigao).

- Also occurs in Indian to southern China, the Mascarene Islands, and Malaya.

Constituents
- Chloroform extract yielded acacetin, chrysoeriol.
- An ethanolic extract yielded carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, essential oil, fatty alcohol, saponins, tannins. (4)
- Study yielded acacetin, chrysoeriol, linifoliside, linifoliol, chrysoeriol-6"(OAc)-4-ß-glucoside, lupeol and taraxerone.
- Aerial parts reported to yield a glycoside, linifoliside, an essential oil, and fatty alcohol.
- Study of essential oil of the SPME head space sample yielded main compounds of ß-caryophyllene (20.5%), linalool (19.8%) , 1-octen-3-ol (12%), cis-3-hexen-1-ol (11.6%) trans-2-hexen-1-ol (3.5%) hexanol (3.3%), 3-octanol (2.5%) and trans-2-octen-3-ol (2.3%). (14)
- Study for secondary metabolites yielded acacetin, chrysoeriol, luteolin, acacetin 7-O-ß-D-glucuronide, acetoside, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid. (see study below) (15)
- In a study of six species of Leucas, L. lavandulifolia extracts of leaves yielded alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, carbohydrates, proteins and amino acids. Quantitative analysis yielded total phenolics of 17.13 ± 0.53, flavnoids 42.75 ± 5.66, and tannins 2.18 ± 0.18. (17)
- Phytochemical screening of crude methanolic extract yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, glycosides, tannins, flavonoids, phytosterols, and phenols. (see study below) (19)

Properties
- Studies have shown anthelmintic, analgesic, antimicrobial, antitussive, diaphoretic, febrifuge, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, stimulant, stomachic and wound healing properties.

Parts used
Leaves.

Uses

Edibility
- Leaves cooked and eaten as vegetable.
Folkloric
- In the Philippines, poultice of fresh leaves applied on wounds, especially those with inflammation.
- Decoction of leaves used as stomachic.
- Crush leaves applied to areas of dermatoses.
- In India, leaves, raw or roasted and eaten with salt, have febrifugal properties.
- In India, plant used to alleviate abdominal discomforts such as stomach ulcerations and used to counteract abdominal and liver diseases. (9)
- In India, leaves are used as expectorant, laxative, stomachic, and tonic; used for piles and sore eyes. Juice of fresh leaves applied for colds and chronic headaches. In Assam, paste of young leaves used to stop nose bleeds. (14)
- Leaves are used for roundworms.
- Decoction or poultice of leaves used for old sores.
- Decoction of leaves used as anthelmintic.
- Decoction or poultice used for ulcers, skin disorders and leprosy.
- Used for rheumatism and snake bites.
- To remove mucus, juice used as eye drops, sniffed up the nostrils, or as gargle.

Studies
Anti-Ulcer:
Study evaluated a methanolic extract of L. lavandulifolia for antiulcer activity in albino rats using an indomethacin-induced gastric ulcers model followed by pylorus ligation method. Results showed dose-dependent anti-ulcer activity as evidenced by reduction in ulcer index and gastric acid output. Misoprostol was used as standard drug. (1)
Anti-Diabetes: Study of methanol extract of Leucas lavandulaefolia on streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats showed a significant reduction of blood glucose. (2)
Hepatoprotective: Study of chloroform extract of aerial parts of L. lavandulifolia on D(+)galactosamine-induced hepatic injury in a rat model showed significant decreases in hepatic enzymes, total cholesterol and total bilirubin. Results suggest a hepatoprotective effect in rats.
Wound Healing: Study showed that L. lavandulifolia extract either in ointment or injection form produced a significant respond in both excision and incision wound models. The wound healing property was attributed to the presence of glycosides or terpenoids in the essential oil of the plant. (4)
Antitussive: Study in mice animal model showed significant dose-dependent inhibition of cough similar to the standard of codeine phosphate. (4)
Antidiarrheal: Study of the ethanolic extract of aerial parts showed reduction of diarrhea through inhibition of gastrointestinal motility and PGE-2-induced enteropooling.
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera on the Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma model. Dose dependent activity was noted with both methanolic and aqueous extracts. L. lavandulifolia methanol extract exhibited better activity than the other extracts, although not better than the reference drug Albendazole. (5)
Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera using earthworm Pheretima posthuma. A methanolic extract of L. lavandulifolia showed the dose-dependent activity better than the other extracts but not better than the reference drug albendazole. (8)
Analgesic / Hepatoprotective: Study of a methanolic extract of leaves in albino rats showed potent analgesic activity with significant reduction of pain threshold and increase latency period in thermal stimulation. In carbon tetrachloride induced damage, it showed antihepatotoxic activity with significant reduction of liver enzymes with no apparent disruptions of normal hepatic histological structure. (10)
Hypoglycemic / Flowers: Study of a chloroform extract of flowers in alloxan induced diabetic rats showed significant reduction of in blood glucose and HbA1c, with an increase in total hemoglobin.
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Toxicity: Study of ethyl acetate extract of aerial arts of L. lavadulalifolia showed significant hepatoprotective activity against CCl4-induced toxicity in rats. (12)
Antioxidant / Free Radical Scavenging: Study of evaluated the antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and cytotoxic effect of ethanolic extracts of whole plant of L. indica var lavadulifolia and L. indica var. nagalapuramiana. Results showed both extract to be a potential source of valuable antioxidant products. (13) / In a study of five plants in West Garo hills, Meghalaya, the extract of L. landulaefolia exhibited the highest radical scavenging activity at 98.51 ± 0.08 % with IC50 125.17  µg/ml. (16)
• Antibacterial / Attractant Activity: Study for secondary metabolites yielded acacetin, chrysoeriol, luteolin, acacetin 7-O-ß-D-glucuronide, acetoside, salicylic acid, and caffeic acid. Luteolin showed strong attractant activity towards the zoophores of the phytopathogenic Aphanomyces cochlioides. The isolated compounds showed antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus. (15)
• Selenium Nanoparticles / Leaves / Antibacterial: Study reports on the green synthesis of selenium nanoparticles using aqueous extracts of leaves. The reduction of selenium ions and stabilization of the nanoparticles were attributed to alkaloid and flavones. Study suggests the selenium nanoparticles could be a potential antibacterial agent. (18)
• Thrombolytic / Anthelmintic / Anxiolytic / Antidepressant: A crude methanolic extract of L. lavandulifolia was studied on Swiss-albino mice. The extract produced dose dependent clot lysis in human erythrocytes, marked anthelmintic activity in earthworms in a dose dependent manner. Using elevated plus maze, hole board, open field, and forced swim tests, results showed significant (p<0.01 and p<0.05) CNS depressant and anxiolytic activity. (19)

Availability
Wild-crafted.


Updated October 2018 / March 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Leucas lavandulifolia / Leaves and flowers . Photo by Jim Space, U.S. Forest Service / Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk (PIER) / PIER
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Leucas lavandulifolia / Close-up / Photo by Dinesh Valke / Thane, India / click on image to go to source page / Creative Commons / Wikimedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
EVALUATION OF ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF LEUCAS LAVANDULIFOLIA ON MUCOSAL LESION IN RAT / Jeetendra Kumar Gupta, Neeraj Upmanyu, A K Patnaik, Papiya Mitra Mazumder / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, Vol.3 Issue 2, April-June 2010
(2)
Hypoglycaemic activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia Rees. in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats / Kakali Saha et al / Phytotherapy Research, Volume 11 Issue 6, Pages 463 - 466
(3)
Leucas lavandulifolia Smith / GlobeInMed
(4)
Phytochemical and Pharmacological Profile of Leucas lavandulaefolia: A review / I K Makhija, K S Chandrashekar et al / Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 5: 500-507 / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2011.500.507
(5)
Investigation of in-vitro anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera / Jeetendra Kr. Gupta*, Krishn Kr. Agrawal, Anju Verma, Kishan Singh / Journal of Pharmacy Research, Vol 5, No 1 (2012)
(6)
LEUCAS LAVANDULIFOLIA Sm. / Vernacular names / Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh
(7)
Leucas lavandulifolia Smith / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
(8)
Investigation of in-vitro anthelmintic activity of L. lavandulifolia, L. cephalotes and L. aspera
/ Gupta, Jeetendra Kr.; Agrawal, Krishn Kr.; Verma, Anju; Singh, Kishan / Journal of Pharmacy Research; 2012, Vol. 5 Issue 1, p 212
(9)
Medicinal Plants as Anti-Ulcer Agents / T Lakshmi Srinivas, S Mohana Lakshmi, S Neelufar Shama, G Koteswara Reddy, K R Prasanna / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry 2013; 2 (4): 91-97
(10)
Analgesic and Hepatoprotective Activity of Methanolic Leaf Extract of Ocimum gratissimum (L.) / Friday O. Uhegbu, Ifeanyi Elekwa, Emmanuel I. Akubugwo, Godwin C. Chinyere and Emeka E.J. Iweala /
Research Journal of Medicinal Plant, 6: 108-115. / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2012.108.115
(11)
Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. / Synonyms / The Plant List
(12)
Hepatoprotective Activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia Against Carbon tetrachloride-Induced Hepatic Damage In Rats / K.S. Chandrashekar*, K.S. Prasanna / International Journal of Pharma Sciences and Research (IJPSR) Vol.1 (2), 2010, 101-103
(13)
Antioxidant, free radical scavenging and invitro cytotoxic studies of ethanolic extract of Leucas indica var lavandulifolia and Leucas indica var nagalapuramiana / Ramalingam Ramani, Sushruthi Sudini, Bindu Madhavi Boddupalli, Ravinder Nath Anisetti / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 2, Issue 3, Supplement, 2012, Pages S1637–S1642
(14)
ANALYSIS OF THE ESSENTIAL OIL VOLATILES OF LEUCAS INDICA USING GC-FDD, GC-MS AND OLFACTOMETRY / Rosamma MK / Thesis 2002
(15)
BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE COMPOUNDS FROM LEUCAS LAVANDULAEFOLIA / Parvin Begum, Yanqing Wang and Bunshi Fugetsu / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, March 2015 /  http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.6(3).1013-21
(16)
Antioxidant and antibacterial evaluation of medicinal plants used in the starter culture (Wanti) of fermented rice beverage in West Garo hills, Meghalaya / Nalanda Bala Murugan, Birendra Kumar Mishra and Biswajit Paul / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2018; 7(1): pp 1669-1674
(17)
Preliminary Phytochemical Screening of 6 Members of Leucas (Lamiaceae) / Geethika K, P Sunoj Kumar / Int. J. Pharm. Sci. Rev. Res., Nov-Dec 2017; 47(1) Article 10: pp 60-64
(18)
Green Synthesis of Selenium Nanoparticles from Leaf and Stem Extract of Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. and Their Application / R. Kirupagaran, A. Saritha, S. Bhuvaneswari / Journal of Nanoscience and Technology, 2016; 2(5): pp 224-226
(19)
Investigation of in vitro thrombolytic and anti-helminthic activity and in vivo anxiolytic and antidepressant potentiality with phytochemical nature of methanolic extract of Leucas lavandulifolia / Areful Islam Md. Saddam Hussain et al / Sustainable Chemistry and Pharmacy / AGRIS: International Information System for Agricultural Science and Technology
(20)
Studies on in vivo antitussive activity of Leucas lavandulaefolia using a cough model induced by sulphur dioxide gas in mice / Saha, Kakali, Pulok K. Mukherjee, T. Murugesan, B.P. Saha and M. Pal / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 57: pp 89-92.

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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