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Family Capparidaceae
Crateva religiosa Forst. f.

Yiu tu chih

Scientific names Common names
Capparis magna Lour.                                 Unresolved Balai-lamok (Ilk.)
Crateva hansemannii K.Schum. Balai-namok (Ilk.)
Crateva macrocarpa Kurz Banugan (Bis.)
Crateva magna (Lour.) DC. Duliñgaok (Pamp.)
Crateva membranifolia Miq. Kalaluñgau (Tag.)
Crateva religiosa Forst. f. Mokalbot (Tag.)
Crateva speciosa Volkens Salingbobog (Bis., Tag.)
  Sacred garlic pear (Engl.)
  Spider plant (Engl.)
  Temple plant (Engl.)
  Three-leaved caper (Engl.)
Crateva religiosa G.Forst. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIA: Tonliem.
CHINESE: Yu mu, Yiu tu chih.
INDONESIA: Jaranan, Barunday, Sibaluak.
LAOS: Kumz.
SANSKRIT: Varuna, Ashmarighna, Ashmaghna.
TAMIL: Navala.
THAILAND: Kum-bok, Kum nam.
VIETNAM: B[us]n thi[ee]u, B[us]n l[owj].

Crateva derives from Crataevus, a Greek botanist in Hippocrates time; religiosa indicates growth near places of worship.

Salingbobog is a moderate-sized, spreading, unarmed, deciduous tree growing to a height of 15 meters. Bark is gray, the wood yellowish-white, turning light brown when old. Leaves are clustered at the ends of the branchlets, with a common petiole 5 to 10 centimeters long, at the summit of which are three leaflets. Leaflets are ovate-lanceolate or ovate, 7.5 to 12 centimeters long, 4 to 6 centimeters wide, pointed at the base, a a rather slender point at the tip. Flowers occur in terminal corymbs, about 5 centimeters in diameter, greenish-yellow, and at length, purplish. Petals are ovate or oblong, with the claw half as long as the limb. Fruit is ovoid or rounded, 3 to 5 centimeters in diameter, with a hard and rough rind. Seeds are about 10 centimeters in length, numerous, kidney-shaped, and embedded in a yellow pulp.

- In waste places, along streams and in thickets near the sea from northern Luzon to Masbate and Palawan, probably also in Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago.
- Sometimes planted as an ornamental tree for its beautiful flowers.
- Native to Japan, Australia, and much of SE Asia.
- Occurs in India, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Malaysia, Indonesia and China.

- Contains a principle similar to saponin.
- Bark yields tannin.

- Yields a triterpenoid, lupeol, an active principle.
- Study yielded epiafzelechin5-glucoside from the bark. (1)
- Phytochemical screening of extract of dried leaves yielded alklaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, resins, proteins, oils, steroids and terpenoids. (5)
- Lepeol has been isolated from the root bark; also, lupeol acetate, varunaol, spinasterol acetate, taraxasterol and 3-epilupeol. Bark has yielded a triterpene, diosgenin and two alkaloids, cadabicine and cadabcine diacetate. Leaves yielded isovitexin, proanthocyanidins, myricetin and phenolic acids, p-hydroxyl benzoic acid, vanilic acid, ferulic acid and sinapic acid. Fruits have yielded pentadecane, octanamide, 12-tricosanonoe and friedelin. (14)
- Phytochemical analysis of methanolic extract of normal flower yielded carbohydrates, steroids, proteins and amino acids while flower gall methanolic extract yielded carbohydrates, steroids, tannins, glycosides, proteins and amino acids, flavonoids, and alkaloids. Both showed absence of saponins. (see study below) (21)
- Phytochemical screening of five solvent extracts (aqueous, acetone, methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform) of leaves and stems yielded nine phytochemical compounds viz. alkaloids, flavonoids, phenols, tannins, steroids, terpenoids, coumarins, quinones, and saponins. (22)

- Bark has a disagreeable smell, the taste slightly bitter, biting and pungent.
- Generally considered diuretic, anti-inflammatory, laxative, antioxidant, antioxaluric, hepatoprotective, antilithic, antirheumatic, antiperiodic, antimycotic, contraceptive, anthelmintic, rubefacient.
- Leaves considered stomachic and tonic.
- Root and bark considered laxative, lithotriptic and alterative; promoting appetite and increasing biliary secretions.
- Leaves are rubefacient, tonic and febrifugal.

Parts used
Leaves, bark, roots.


- Berry like fruits are edible and used as astringent.
- Young shoots and fruits are eaten and used in curries.
- Fruits used as spice because of its garlic taste.
- In the Philippines, leaves used for irregular menstruation. Also, considered stomachic. Root employed as alterative.
- Bark sap used as a cure for tympanites and convulsions.
- Leave used to increase appetite and assist digestion.
- Root and bark used as laxative.
- Externally, fresh leaves are rubefacient; internally, used for fevers and as tonic.
- Poultice of crushed leaves used for swelling of the feet and burning sensations in the soles.
- Pounded bark and leaves applied as poultice in rheumatism.
- Fresh leaves, bruised with a little vinegar, applied to the skin as rubefacient and vesicant. Bark of fresh root used for the same purpose.
- Leaves used to stimulate appetite, increase bile secretion, and as laxative.
- Decoction of bark used for urinary calculi and various urinary disorders.
- Decoction of roots and bark used for calculus affections.
- In Bangladesh, used as an antidote to poison; used for respiratory tract disorders (bronchitis, asthma, pneumonia, tonsillitis and sore throat), skin diseases (eczema, abscess, acne, scabies, scars, warts), gastrointestinal disorders (dysentery, constipation, stomachaches, lack of appetite), headaches and toothaches.
- In India, used for inflammatory conditions and kidney stones.
- In Senegal, roots used in treatment of syphilis, jaundice, and yellow fever.

Study showed the ethanol extract of C religiosa significant inhibited the growth of selected fungal pathogens - C albicans, C tropicalis, C krusei, Cryptococcus marinus and Aspergilus niger. (2)
Antimutagenic Potential / Seeds: Study established the antimutagenic activity of C ovatum, C religiosa, P campechiana and P odorata. Cytotoxic triterpenes were identified from the seeds of C religiosa. (4)
Wound Healing / Dried Leaves: Study of methanol extract from dried leaves of Crateva religiosa showed wound healing activity superior to that of penicillin. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, resins, proteins, oils, steroids, and terpenoids. (5)
Anti-Inflammatory: A pentacyclic triterpene, lupeol, and an ester derivative lupeol linolate were tested for anti-inflammatory activity. Lupeol linolate found better compared to lupeol and indomethacin.
Lupeol / Antimalarial: Lupeol showed anti-malarial potential against chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falcifarum.
Antiarthritic / Lupeol: Lupeol, a tritepenoid, isolated from C religiosa has been shown to possess antiarthritic activity through suppression of the immune system.
Antibacterial: A methanol extract of CR was studied for activity against different pathogenic bacterial species (B subtilis, S aureus, E coli, P aeruginosa, K pneumoniae, S typhi, P mirabilis and Micrococcus sp). The apical bark was more effective than the middle bark and mature bark in inhibiting the growth of all bacteria. (7)
T-Lymphocyte Sup pres ion / Lupeol: Study showed lupeol suppressed various immune factors such as phagocytic activity of macrophages, T-lymphocyte activity including CD4+T cell mediated cytokine generation. (8)
Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory potential of Cretava religiosa. Extracts showed dose-dependent decrease in paw edema in the carrageenan model. The alcoholic extract showed more profound effect that aqueous extracts correlating with flavonoid and triterpenoid content. (9)
Wound Healing / Ointment Preparation: Results showed topical application of three prepared herbal ointments on excised wound surfaces accelerated wound healing by dose-dependently decreasing wound areas. (10)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of various extracts of C. religiosa against bacteria isolated from Thryonomys swinderianus (Escherichia coli, Shigella sonei, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasturella pestis and Yersinia enterocolitis). All extracts were effective against the tested organisms. The EAE showed more potency against some of the tested bacteria. (11)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antibacterial: Study reports on a cost-effective and eco-friendly technique for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were investigated for antibacterial activity against gram negative and gram positive bacteria. Results showed good antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria. (15)
• Anti-Arthritic: Study evaluated the anti-arthritic potential of C. religiosa in a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) induced model. Arthritis was induced by injecting CFA below the plantar aponeurosis of the right hind paw. Results showed both alcoholic and aqueous extracts significantly (p<0.01) decreased paw edema and significantly rectified the deranged hematological and biochemical parameters. Alcoholic extracts showed more effect than aqueous extracts in terms of % inhibition. (16)
• Antimicrobial / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activities of leaf extract and fractions of C. religiosa using agar diffusion method and egg-albumin induced rat hind paw edema respectively. Results showed antimicrobial activity which were comparable to standard drugs. The diethyl ether extract showed concentration dependent and significant (p<0.001) anti-inflammatory activity. (17)
• Insecticidal: Study evaluated extracts of Crateva religiosa for insecticidal activity against devastating insects of maize and neibe (Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus). Results showed a chloroform extracts gave better mortality rate. The insect C. maculatus was more sensitive to the treatment. (18)
• Antitrypanosomal / Leaves: Study evaluated crude hexane and ethyl acetate extracts for in vitro bioactivity against African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei brucei blood stream forms. Extracts showed moderate antitrypanosomal activity (MIC 12.5 µg/ml). (19)
• Antimicrobial / Stem Barks: Study evaluated chloroform, dichlormethane and 50% ethanol extracts of Crateva religiosa for antimicrobial activity against four pathogenic bacterial and two fungal strains. All three extracts showed significant activity against the bacterial strains, while the chloroform extract was inactive against fungal strains. (20)
• Volatile Constituents / Normal Flower and Insect Induced Flower Gall: Study evaluated the major and minor phytochemical compounds in normal flowers and flower galls. GC-MS analysis of normal and galled flower of C. religiosa yielded 84 and 64 phytochemical compounds respectively. Stress conditions produced large number of fatty acids and secondary metabolites, with the flower gall showed higher unsaturated fatty acid content than normal flower extract. Fatty acids, oleic acid and palmitic acid, were higher in the flower gall than normal flower, and myristic acid was detected only in the gall extract. (see constituents above) (21)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Bark: Study evaluated various extracts of bark of Crataeva religiosa for analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities using acetic acid induced writhing and carrageenan induced paw edema in mice and rat respectively. Ethanolic and aqueous extracts showed significant analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity at 400 mg/kg dose. (23)


Updated Nov 2018 / Jan 2017 / July 2013

IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Crateva religiosa.jpg / Eric Guinther (Marshman at en.wikipedia) / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / File:Crateva religiosa Blanco1.176-cropped.jpg / Francisco Manuel Blanco / Flora de Filipinas / 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(−)-Epiafzelechin 5-O-βD-glucoside from crataeva religiosa / V K Sethi et al / Phytochemistry
Volume 23, Issue 10, 1984, Pages 2402-2403
ANTIMYCOTIC POTENTIAL OF CRATAEVA RELIGIOSA HOOK AND FORST AGAINST SOME SELECTED FUNGAL PATHOGENS / Sabuj Sahoo, Sagar Mishra et al / Acta Poloniae Pharmaceutica ñ Drug Research, Vol. 65 No. 2 pp. 245ñ247, 2008
A Comparative Analysis of Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicinal Healers in Three Districts of Bangladesh and Inquiry as to Mode of Selection of Medicinal Plants / Ariful Haque Mollik, Shahadat Hossan et al / www.ethnobotanyjournal.org/vol8/i1547-3465-08-195.pdf
Antimutagenic potential and phytochemical analysis of selected Philippine plants / Christine Chichioco-Hernandez and Noemi Paguigan / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 2009; Vol 5, Issue20: pp 388-393
Studies on wound healing properties of Crateva religiosa leaf extract / U Ajali, KM Ezealisiji, EO Onuoha / Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences, 2010; Vol 7, No 4 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jophas.v7i4.63457
Medicinal Profile of a Scared Drug in Ayurveda: Crataeva religiosa A Review / Patil, Udaysing Hari / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research
Suppression of T lymphocyte activity by lupeol isolated from Crataeva religiosa / Bani S, Kaul A, Khan B, Ahmad SF, Suri KA, Gupta BD, Satti NK, Qazi GN. / Phytother Res. 2006 Apr;20(4):279-87.
Acute and Chronic Anti-Inflammatory Evaluation of Crateva regliosa in Rats
/ S Tripathy, M Asha, D Pradham / International Journal of Pharmacy & Technology
Evaluation of the Wound Healing Effect of Herbal Ointment Formulated with Crateva religiosa Leaf Extract / Research Paper / Google Books
Antimicrobial activity of Crataeva religiosa Forst against bacteria isolated from Thryonomys swinderianus Temminck / Latifou Lagnika*, Eugenie Anago, Menonvè Atindehou, Brice Adjahoutonon, Karim Dramane and Ambaliou Sanni / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 10(49), pp. 10034-10039, 31 August, 2011 / DOI: 10.5897/AJB10.2435
Crateva religiosa / Vernacular names / GLOinMED
Crateva religiosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
Medicinal Profile of a Scared Drug in Ayurveda: Crataeva religiosa A Review / Udaysing Hari Patil and Gaikwad D.K. / J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.3(1), 2011,923-929

Synthesis of Biogenic Silver Nanoparticles From Medicinal Plant And It’s Antibacterial Activity / IOSR Journal of Applied Chemistry (IOSR-JAC), Volume 9, Issue 8 Ver. I (Aug. 2016), PP 29-33
Antiarthritic Evaluation of Crateva religiosa Extracts / Shyamalendu Tripathy , Debashis Pradhan & Bimala Tripathy / American Journal of Phytomedicine and Clinical Therapeutics
Phytochemical and insecticidal study of three organic extracts of Crataeva religiosa Forst on Sitophilus zeamais and Callosobruchus maculatus / El Hadji Gorgui DIOUF, Abdoulaye SAMB, Dogo SECK, Moussoukhoye DIOP / Int. Res J Pharm. App Sci., 2014; 4(4):13-18
Scientific Investigation of Antitrypanosomal Activity of Crateva Adansonii DC Leaves Extracts / Ngozichukwuka Peace Igoli, Alexander I Gray, Carol Clements, Nzekwe U / Indo Global Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 2(3): 226-229, November 2012
Profiling of secondary metabolites and antimicrobial activity of Crateva religiosa G. Forst. Bark – A rare medicinal plant of Maharashtra India / N. A. Wagay, N. A. Khan, S. P. Rothe / Int. J. Biosci., May 2017; 10(5): pp 343-354 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/10.5.343-354
Analysis of volatile constituents in normal flower and insect induced flower gall of Crataeva religiosa / Surabhi Sharma, Preeti Mishra and Vidya Patni / Journal of Pharmacognosy and Phytochemistry, 2018; 7(1): pp 2667-2673
Preliminary phytochemical screening of different solvent extracts of leaves and stem of Crataeva
religiosa Hook & Frost
/ Sethupandian Geetha, Kokkaiah Irulandi, Sinthia Ganesan, Palanichamy Mehalingam / International Journal of Botany Studies, May 2016; 1(4): pp 24-26
Effects of Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Activity of Bark of Crataeva Religiosa
/ Dr. P. Gowsalya / International Journal & Magazine of Engineering, Technology, Management and Research, July 2016; 3(7): pp 143-148

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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