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Family Euphobiaceae
Saligao
Cleidion javanicum Blume
San tai hua

Scientific names Common names
Acalypha spicigera Klotzsch Agipos (Tag.)
Cleidion javanicum Blume Hantatampsi (C. Bis.)
Lasiostylis salicifolia C.Presl. Kayugkog (Tag.)
Macaranga tamiana K.Schum. Lapo-lapo (Ilk.)
Rottlera urandra Daizell Malagasaba (Tag.)
Tanarius tamianus (K.Schum.) Kuntze Malatuba (Bik.)
Tetraglossa indica Bedd. Saligao (Tag.)
Tragia filiformis Poir. Tayokan (Tag.)
A revision of the Malesian species in the genus Cleidion is presented. Cleidion javanicum is shown to be the correct name for the widespread type species (instead of the name C. spiciflorum). (5)
Cleidion javanicum Blume is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Bang bing hua, San tai hua.
MALAYALAM: Yellari.
THAI: Di mee, Dimi, Ma-dee-mee, Maj maduug.
VIETNAMESE: Phân loại khoa học.

Botany
Saligao is a large shrub or tree. Bark Is smooth to slightly fissured. Leaves are alternate or subopposite, oblong, about 12 centimeters long, and 5 centimeters wide. Flowers are solitary or few in a cluster, borne on the axils of the leaves. Fruit is somewhat rounded, about 3 centimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- In forests at low and medium altitudes in most or all provinces from northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao.
- Also occurs in India and Ceylon through Malaya to New Guinea.

Constituents
- Essential oil of leaves yielded 10 constituents accounting for 92.60% of the total oil. Major constituents were ethyl linoleolate (32.12 %), hexadecanoic acid (26.77 %), trans-phytol (24.64 %) and iso- phytol (4.80 %). (See studies below) (4)

Properties
- Plant reported to be poisonous.
- Considered abortifacient, analgesic, antipyretic, diaphoretic, stomachic.


Parts used
Bark, seeds, leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- Decoction of leaves will produce abortion.
- Decoction of bark, taken internally, used as stomachic.
- Seeds reported to be effective for constipation.


Studies
Phytochemicals:
Study of the leaves isolated two flavone glycosides, acacetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and diosmetin-7-O-b-D-glucopyranoside, a phenylpropanoid glycoside, plus p-propenylphenol-b-D-glucopyranoside, a linear diterpene, trans-phytol, and a lanostane triterpene, (24S)-24-methyl-5a-lanosta-9(11),25-dien-3b-ol. (1)
Clerodane: Study isolated a polyoxygenated clerodane, spiciflorin, and also a glucoside of anol (2), columbin, scopoletin, 3,3',4-O-trimethylellagic acid, acetylaleuritolic acid, common triterpenes and phenols.
(2)
Essential Oil / Leaves / Antioxidant / Antibacterial / Cytotoxicity: Essential oil from leaves yielded ten constituents accounting for 92.6% of the total oil. (See constituents above) The oil showed non-cytotoxic effects against Vero cells. It exhibited anti-cancer activity against three human cancer cell lines (KB-oral cavity cancer, MCF7-Breast Cancer, and NCI-H187-Small Cell Lung Cancer. It showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. It also exhibited significant antioxidant activity. (4)

Availability
Wild-crafted.

Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update April 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: / Photo / Cleidion javanicum / © Phongsak Phonsena/ click on image to go to source page / Non-Commercial Ude / Flora Malesiana / National Herbarium
IMAGE SOURCE: / Line drawings / Cleidion javanicum / © Joanna Porck 2004 / © Jan Van Os 2001 / Click on image to go to source page / Non-commercial use / Flora Malesiana / National Herbarium

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Chemical Constituents of Cleidion spiciflorum Leaves / Supotchana Menkham and Rutt Suttisri / The Thai Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Volume 27, Numbers 1-2, January - June 2003, Page 33-39
(2)
Clerodanes and other constituents of Cleidion spiciflorum / Waree Naengchomnong, Paulo M Pinho et al / Phytochemistry. 2006 May 19;: 16716368

(3)
Cleidion javanicum Blume (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(4)
Chemical composition and biological activities of the essential oil from leaves of Cleidion javanicum Bl /
Sanseera, D., Niwatananun, W., Liawruangrath, B., Liawruangrath, S., Baramee, A. & Pyne, S. G. / Journal of Essential Oil-Bearing Plants, 15 (2), 186-194.
(5)
Revision of the genus Cleidion (Euphorbiaceae) in Malesia / Kulju, Kristo K.M.; Van Welzen, Peter C. / Blumea - Biodiversity, Evolution and Biogeography of Plants, Volume 50, Number 1, April 2005 , pp. 197-219(23)
(6)
Cleidion javanicum / Synonyms / The Plant List
(7)

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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