Salakapo is a climbing, hairy and somewhat woody vine. Leaves are oblong, 8 to 15 centimeters long, green, shining, somewhat harsh, pointed at the tip, and usually rounded at the base. Flowers are stalkless, pale-green, 5-parted, and borne on terminal, scorpioid inflorescences (cymes) about 10 centimeters or less in diameter. Calyx is 1.5 millimeters long, and hairy. Corolla is 5 millimeters long, with a limb 3.5 millimeters in diameter. Fruit is stalkless, rounded and 4 to 5 millimeters in diameter.
- In thickets and secondary forests at low and medium altitudes from the Babuyan Islands and northern Luzon to Palawan and Mindanao, in most or all islands and provinces.
- Occurs in Mauritius to Indo-China, Malaya and tropical Australia.
- Considered detoxicant, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory.
- In the Philippines, decoction of roots given internally after childbirth, to hasten expulsion of the placenta.
- Leaves applied as poultice on the forehead for headaches.
- In Taiwan, used as detoxicant and anti-inflammatory.
- Livestock: Leaves used for destroying larvae in cattle ulcers.
• Phytochemicals / Phenolic Compounds: Study isolated three new isoprenylbenzenes, tournefolins A, B and C, with two new -dihydroxybenzoyl compounds, and known compounds, salicylic acid and allantoin.
• Anti-Lipid Peroxidative Activity / Benzenoids / Antioxidant: Study yielded four new benzenoids, tournefola, tournefolic acids A and B, and B ethyl ester, together with salvianolic acid A, isosalvionolic acid C, lithospermic acid, salvianolic acid F and rosmarinic acid from the stems of T. sarmentosa. All isolated compounds exhibited anti-LDL-peroxidative activity, more potent than probucol except for salvianolic acid F. (2)
• Neuroprotective / Polyphenolic Compounds: Study has isolated a variety of polyphenolic compounds from T. sarmentosa, most possessing antioxidative activity, including tournefolic acid B, TAB methyl ester and TAB ethyl ester. Study showed TABM / TABE blocked the activation of the caspase cascade and eliminated the accumulation of O2, thus conferring neuroprotective effects on NMDA-mediated neurotoxicity. (3)
• Hepatoprotective: Study investigated the aqueous extract effect on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity in vivo and in vitro. Pre-treatment of hepatocytes with Ts extract before and during APAP stimulation attenuated the extent of lipid peroxidation, increased cell viability and GSH level, and enhanced antioxidant enzymes. Results showed Ts can prevent APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. (5)
• Immunoregulatory: Study investigated the signaling mechanism of T. sarmentosa-medicated immunoregulation. Results suggest T. sarmentosa extract exerts dual functions on macrophages: suppressing ROS (reactive oxygen species) within cells and enhancing inflammatory responses by improving phagocytic ability and proinflammatory cytokine release. (6)