- The earliest record of the medicinal plant Salvia plebeia was in the Compendium of Materia Medica (Ming Dynasty, A.D. 1590) to treat snake bite and trauma. (33)
Salvia plebeia is an annual, hairy herb. Stems are stout, erect, hoary, and 15 to 45 centimeters in height. Leaves are oblong ovate, 2.5 to 7.5 centimeters long, narrowed and pointed at both ends. Spikes are panicled, often fastigiate. Flowers are hardly 6 millimeters long, lilac or nearly white, occurring in small, very numerous whorls in numerous, slender, panicled, glandular racemes. Calyx is stalked, bell-shaped, and 10 to 12 millimeters long; the upper calyx-lip is entire, and the lower one obtusely 2-toothed. Corolla-tube is very short, and the included upper lip is short, nearly straight, slightly flattened, and concave. Nutlets are very minute and ellipsoid.
- Found in Cagayan Province in Luzon.
- Probably occurs also as a weed in and about towns in various provinces at low altitudes.
- Also occurs in India to China, Malaya and Australia.
- Phytochemical screenings have yielded flavones, lignans, and diterpenoids.
Study yielded six compounds: hispidulin-glucoronide, hispidulin-7-O-D-glucoside, 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, ß-sitosterol, 2'-hydroxy-5'-methoxybiochanin A and coniferyl aldehyde.
- Study on whole plant of Salvia plebeia yielded nine compounds: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin. Compounds 8 and 9 were reported for Salvia genus for the first time and 3-7 from S. plebeia for the first time. (4)
- Analysis for phenolic compounds yielded a predominant amount of rosmarinic acid, followed by luteolin and hispidulin.
- Study yielded two monomers of homoplantaginin and hispidulin.
- Essential oil yielded 49 ingredients. Main components were 1 ,2 ,3 ,4 ,4a ,5 ,6 ,8a-octahydro-7- methyl-4- methylene-1- (1- methylethyl) - naphthalene, Caryophyllene, [ s- ( E, E) ]-1-methyl-5- methylene-8- ( 1-methylethyl ) -1 , 6- Cyclodecadiene , ( 1S- cis) -1 ,2 ,3 ,5 ,6 ,8a-hexahydro-4 , 7-di methyl-1- ( 1- methylethyl)- Naphthalene-, alpha .- Cubebene, etc. (18)
- Study of essential oil of aerial parts yielded 33 components. Major compounds were caryophyllene oxide (15.54%), y-eudesmol (14.03%), τ-cadinol (10.21%), calamenene (9.63%), copaene (5.70 %), γ-cadinene (5.30 %), cadalene (5.28 %), α- muurolene (5.19 %), ledol (5.14 %) and α-cadinol (5.08 %). (see study below) (24)
- Study isolated five diterpenoids, including a new skeleton plebeianiol A (1), carnosol (2), isocarnosol (3), saficinolide (4) and 2,11,12-trihydroxy-7,20-epoxy-8,11,13-abietatriene (5). (see study below) (25)
- Study detected seven bioactive compounds (content range mg/g), namely caffeic acid (0.21-0.44), luteolin-7- glucoside (0.97-2.22), nepetin-7-glucoside (0.52-1.22), homoplantaginin (2.18-5.75), luteolin (0.12-0.44), nepetin )0.52-1.22) and hispidulin (0.80-1.67). (27)
- Study of whole plant yielded nine compounds viz., β -sitosterol(1), hispidulin (2), carnosol (3), rosmadial (4), ursolic acid (5), pectolinarigenin (6), epirosmanol (7), caffeic acid methyl ester (8), and scopoletin (9). (29)
- Various studies have isolated about 40 chemical constituents from this species including
flavonoids, phenolic acids, diterpenes, triterpenes and others. Some compounds in these classes include: Flavonoids nepitrin, 2′-hydroxyl-5′-methyoxybiochanin A, 5-hydroxy-4′,7-dimethoxy-isoflavne, pectolinarigenin, luteolin-7-O-β-d-glucoside, 6-methoxynaringenin-7-O-β-d-glucoside and luteolin; phenolic acids caffeic acid, caffeic acid methyl ester, rosmarinic acid methyl ester, and 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid; diterpenes epoxysalviacoccin, salviacoccon, royleanonic acid, carnosol and epirosmanol; triterpenes ursolic acid, 2α,3β,24-trihydroxy and 2α,3β-dihydroxyolea-12-en-28-oic acid and oleanic acid; and other compounds conferyl aldehyde, β-sitosterol, scopoletin, salviaplebeiaside, β-daucosterol and two lignin diesters. (33)
- Study of flavonoid enriched fraction of alcoholic extracts yielded four flavonoid compounds: 5,4′‐dihydroxy‐6‐methoxy‐7‐glucosyloxy flavone (1). (homoplantaginin, hispidulin‐7‐glucoside) and 5, 7, 4′‐trihydroxy‐6‐methoxy flavone (hispidulin) (2), 5, 3′, 4′‐trihydroxy‐6‐methoxy‐7‐glucosyloxy flavone (nepitrin, eupafolin‐7‐glucoside) (3) and 5,7,3′,4′‐tetrahydroxy‐6‐methoxy flavone (eupafolin, nepetin) (4). (see study below) (37)
- Phytochemical study of Salvia plebeia yielded six new (1-6) and four known (7-10) terpenoids. Compounds 1 and 2 are new diterpenoids, 3-5 are new meroditerpenoids, 6-9 are sesquiterpenoids, and 10 is a known meroditerpenoid. (see study below) (38)
- Study of Salvia plebeia whole plant isolated two new
flavones, neocafhispidulin (1) and 6″-O-acetyl homoplantaginin (2), together with 10 known flavones and 1 polyphenol. (see study below) (39)
- Study of methanol extract of aerial parts of Salvia plebeia isolated two novel benzzoylated monoterpene glycosides, plebeiosides A (1) and B (2), along with twelve known compounds, including four flavonoids (4, 5, 7,10), two sesquiterpenoids (8, 12), four phenolics (9, 10, 13, 14), a steroid (6), and a triterpenoid (3). (see study below) (45)
- Study isolated sapleflavone, a new flavone glucoside, from the aerial parts of Salvia plebeia, along with three known compounds, salplebeone A, salplebeone D, and 6-O-methyl-scutellarein. (49)
- Considered astringent, diuretic, vermifuge.
- Antihepatotoxic, antidiarrheal, antispasmodic, analgesic.
- Studies have shown antioxidant, diuretic, hepatoprotective, antinociceptive, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherosclerosis, anti-tumor, anti-allergic properties.
Flowers and leaves used as condiment.
- Seeds are used in gonorrhea, menorrhagia, diarrhea, and hemorrhoids.
- Used in folk medicine for treatment of hepatitis, cough, and inflammation.
- Paste of plant applied to wounds between toes caused by prolonged walking barefoot in muddy water.
- In Bombay, used to increase sexual powers.
- In China, used as anti-inflammatory and for treating urinary tract infections, bronchitis, and nephritis.
- In Korea and China, used to treat inflammatory skin diseases, asthma, dermatitis, toothache.
- In Taiwan, used in the treatment of hepatitis and tumors. (37)
• Antioxidant: Study yielded six compounds. (See:Constituents) Compounds 3, 4 and 5 ( 6-methoxy-luteolin-7-glucoside, β-sitosterol, 2′-hydroxy-5′-methoxybiochanin A) showed strong antioxidant activities. (2)
• Pharmacologic Activities / Diuretic Effect: Study on pharmacologic activities of Compound Salvia Plebeia Granules (CSPG) long used for treating UTIs showed a dose-related diuretic effect, antipyretic, antiblastic, and anti-inflammatory effects. Results support its folkloric use on treating urinary tract infections. (3)
• Chemical Constituents: Study on whole plant of Salvia plebeia yielded nine compounds: ß-sitosterol, hispidulin, carnosol, rosmadial, ursolic acid, pectolinarigenin, epirosmanol, caffeic acid methyl ester and scopoletin. 8 and 9 were reported for Salvia genus for the first time and 3-7 from S. plebeia for the first time. (4)
• New Phenylbutanone Glucoside: Study yielded a new phenylbutanone glucoside, salviaplebeiaside, along with two known phenolic compounds, rosmarinic acid methyl ester and luteolin-7-O-ß-D-glucoside. (5)
• Hepatoprotective: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effects of "Chhit-Chan-Than," a Taiwan herbal remedy believed to have anti-inflammatory and detoxification activities, and used in the treatment of hepatitis. The crude extracts of the three herbal components - Salvia plebeia, O gratissimum and O basilicum - were studied. Results showed that S. plebeia was the most potent of the three crude extracts, protecting the liver against CCl4-intoxication and D-GaIN-induced hepatotoxicity. (6)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Angiogenic / Antinociceptive / Antioxidant: Study showed an ethanol extract to possess anti-inflammatory and related anti-angiogenic, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities. (11)
• Antitumor / Aerial Parts: Study of various extracts of aerial parts of S. plebeia showed the dichlormethane extract to have the most potent cytotoxic effect against K562 cells. Results suggest the extract may inhibit the cancer cell proliferation by inducing cell apoptosis. (12)
• Promotion of Cholesterol Efflux / Anti-Atherosclerosis: Foam cells are formed at the first stage of atherosclerosis development. Study investigated the influence of sage weed extract on cholesterol handling of J774A1 murine macrophages. Results showed the extract antagonized oxidized LDL uptake and promoted cholesterol efflux in lipid-laden macrophages. SWE may be a potential therapeutic agent against development of atherosclerosis. (13)
• Nutrition-Based Soil VS Hydroponics on Herbal Activity: Plebian herba cultivated in nutrition-based soil improved the inhibitory effect on free radicals of DPPH, ABTS and NO, increased the phenolics such as caffeic acid, luteolin-7-glucoside, homoplantaginin, hispidulin and eupatorin. Free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as a-glucosidase inhibitory effect were higher in S. plebeia grown in nutrition based soil than in hydroponics and traditional condition. (15)
• Effect on Murine Macrophage-Mediated Cytotoxicity: Macrophages play any important role in host defense against tumors by killing tumor cells. Study showed extracts of Salvia plebeia induced antitumor activity and enhanced the tumoricidal activity of macrophages. Results suggest immunomodulatory factors in the extract responsible for the induction of antitumor activity. (16)
• Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Hepatic Injury: A flavonoid rich extract of herbal raw materials yielded luteolin-7-glucoside, nepetin-7-glucoside, homoplantaginin, luteolin, nepetin, and hispidulin. Results showed striking benefits in preventing CCl4-induced acute hepatic injury in mice. (17)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Human Rheumatoid Synovial Fibroblasts: Study evaluated the effects of S. plebeia extract on inflammatory arthritis using collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) mouse model. SPE inhibited Th1/Th2/Th17 phenotype CD4+ T lymphocyte expansion in inguinal lymph nodes and expression of inflammatory mediators such as cytokines, MMP1 and MMP3 in ankle joint tissue. There was down-regulation of NF-kB, Akt, and mitogen-activated protein kinases in RA synovial fibroblasts. Results suggest the SPE has therapeutic efficacy against chronic inflammatory arthritis and a potential for the treatment of RA. (21)
• Anti-Allergic / Anti-Inflammatory: Study showed SP extract inhibits pro inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-6, as well as nitric oxide production in LPS-treated macrophages. Results suggest SP extract can control LPS-induced inflammatory reaction and prevent antigen-induced Th2 immune response in mice. (22)
• Hypolipidemic / Anti-Atheroslcerosis: Study investigated the ability of sage weed (S. plebeia) extract to influence cholesterol handling of J774A1 murine macrophages. Results demonstrate that the SP extract antagonized oxidized LDL uptake and promoted cholesterol efflux in lipid-laden macrophages. Findings suggest SP extract may be protective against the development of atherosclerosis. (23)
• Larvicidal / Aedes aegypti / Essential Oil of Aerial Parts: Study investigated the activity of S. plebeia aerial parts essential oil against larvae of Aedes aegypti. Essential oil yielded 33 components. The EO exhibited larvicidal activity against Ae. aegypti at a median lethal concentration (LC50) of 46.26 µg/ml. Results suggest a potential safe and natural larvicide. (see constituents above) (24)
• Diterpenoids / Antioxidant / Anti-Inflammatory: Study isolated five diterpenoids, including a new skeleton plebeianiol A (1), carnosol (2), isocarnosol (3), saficinolide (4) and 2,11,12-trihydroxy-7,20-epoxy-8,11,13-abietatriene (5). Compounds 1, 2, and 5 showed DPPH radical scavenging activities with IC50 vales of 20.0-29.6 µM. Compounds 1-3 inhibited nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS-induced macrophages with IC50s from 18.0-23.6 µM. Results showed compounds 1 and 2 had significant effects on antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. (25)
• Suppression of Atopic Dermatitis-Like Lesions: Study investigated the effects of S. plebeia extract on atopic dermatitis (AD)-like skin lesions in an AD model in BABL/c mice by repeated exposure to house dust mite extract and DNCG to the ears. The extract significantly suppressed the expression of cytokines and chemokines through down-regulation of mitogen-activity protein kinases, nuclear factor-kB, and STAT1 in HaCaT cells. Results suggest a potential treatment for atopic dermatitis. (26)
• Anti-Adipogenic / Antiobesity: Study investigated the effects of ethanolic extract of Salvia plebeia on differentiation and lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Results showed significant attenuation of lipid accumulation during adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells, significant inhibition of lipid droplet accumulation, down-regulation of adipogenic transcriptional factors and target genes. Findings suggest S. plebeia may be a safe and effective natural substance in the management of obesity. (28) Study investigated the antiobesity effects of S. plebeia ethanolic extracts (SPE) in mice fed high-fat diets. Results suggest SPE attenuated fat accumulation by suppressing the expression of genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis activity. Study suggests a potential therapy for reduction of body weight and antiobesity intervention. (40)
• Homoplantaginin / Amelioration of PA-Induced Endothelial Inflammation: Study investigated the effect of homoplantaginin on PA (palmitic acid)-treated human umbilical vein endothelial cells inflammation. Results showed homoplantaginin protected endothelial cells from PA-induced endothelial inflammation by suppressing toll-like receptor-4 and NLRP3 pathways and restoring nitric oxide generation. Findings suggest a potential for the treatment of vascular diseases. (30)
• Hispidulin / Anti-Tumor / EMMPRIN-Modulating: Hispidulin, a flavonoid compound of S. plebeia, has been reported to have anti-tumor effects against solid tumors in vitro and in vivo. Study investigated the effects of hispidulin on human leukemia cell line in vitro. Results showed hispidulin inhibited AML cell proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, and induces apoptosis through an intrinsinc mitochondrial pathway. Results strongly indicated the modulating effect of hispidulin on EMMPRIN (extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer) is correlated with its inhibitory effect on both the Akt and STAT3 signaling pathways. (31)
• Anti-Oxidative / Anti-Allergic / Leaves and Roots: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities and anti-allergic effects of ethanol extracts of S. plebeia leaves and roots. Both leaves and roots induced significant radical scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). Treatment of RBL-2H3 cells with leaves and roots extracts in vitro decreased ß-hexosaminidase release and significantly inhibited IgE-antigen complex-mediated IL-4 and TNF-α mRNA expression in RBL-2H3 cells. Results suggest S. plebeia can protect or reduce allergic asthma through high antioxidant and anti-allergic mechanisms. (32)
• Effect of Various Cultivation Conditions on Antioxidant And Enzyme Inhibitory Activities: Study showed free radical scavenging and SOD activity, as well as alpha-glucosidase inhibitory effect, were higher in Plebeian herbs grown in nutrition-based soil compared to plants grown in hydroponics and traditional condition. (34)
• Case Report of Salvia Poisoning: Homoplantaginin, a compound isolated from Salvia plebeia, has been reported to have a protective and therapeutic effect on hepatocyte injury. This study reports on a case of serious liver and kidney damage due to incorrect use of Salvia plebeia. The patient gave a history of self-treating a cold by taking "litchi grass bulbs" 50 g/day for one week. The patient presented with fatigue, dizziness, jaudice, low back pain and shortness of breath. Lab evaluation showed DIC (disseminated intravascular coagulation). Patient survived after systemic and comprehensive critical care, including plasma infusion of blood coagulation factor, LMWH acupuncture. The author advised the medicinal part of S. plebeia is the full over-ground part of the plant, not the bulb. Study also caution against using the herb with other drugs. (35)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Anti-Asthma / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated 80% ethanol extracts of S. plebeia on ovalbumin induced inflammatory response in a mouse model. Results showed amelioration of induced inflammatory response in RAW 264.7 and BEAS-2B cells. Extract treatment was effective in improving histopathological changes in the lungs of asthma mice model via modulation of eosinophils and Th2 cytokines. Results suggest a potential therapeutic agent for asthma. (36)
• Flavonoid Components / Anticancer: Study of flavonoid enriched fraction of alcoholic extracts yielded four flavonoid compounds. The flavones, hispidulin (2) and eupafolin (4), have been shown to have cytotoxic activity against human carcinoma of the nasopharynx in KB cell culture. (37)
• Bioactive Terpenoids / NO Inhibitory Activities / iNOS Interactions. Phytochemical study of Salvia plebeia yielded six new (1-6) and four known (7-10) terpenoids. The isolates inhibited NO generation induced by lipopolysaccharide in BV-2 cells. Molecular docking studies revealed interactions of bioactive compounds with the iNOS protein. (see constituents above) (38)
• Anti-Tyrosinase / Anti-Inflammatory / Flavones: Study of Salvia plebeia whole plant isolated two new flavones, neocafhispidulin (1) and 6″-O-acetyl homoplantaginin (2), together with 10 known flavones and 1 polyphenol. Compounds 1, 5, 8, 10, and 11 exhibited anti-tyrosinase activities, while compounds 3, 4, and 13 showed potential anti-inflammatory activities. (39)
• Sedative / Gastroprotective: Study evaluated Salvia plebeia for sedative and gastroprotective activities using a pentobarbital-induced assay and HCl/EtOH-induced and indomethacin induced assays, respectively, in mice. The MeOH extract and EtOAc fraction were effective, the latter more than the former. Five compounds were isolated, of which rosmarinic acid (RA) comprised the largest proportion (28.5% of the MeOH, 33.0% of the EtOAcE). The RA played a major role in the sedative and gastroprotective effects of S. plebeia. (41)
• Anti-Aging / Inhibitory Effect on UV-Induced Photoaging / Leaves: Study evaluated the anti-aging effects of S. plebeia methabolic leaf extract and its fractions. Study showed the ME mediated UV-induced photoaging-associated ion channels, TRPV1, ORAI1 channel activity in HEK293T cells overexpressing TRPV1 or ORAI1 and STIM1. Dichlormethane and hexane fractions inhibited tyrosinase activity, while the EA and butanol fractions inhibited elastase activity. Tyrosinase and elastase, both UV-induced photoaging -associated enzymes, regulate skin pigmentation and wrinkle formation. Results suggest S. plebeia leaves has potential as novel treatment for UV-induced photoaging. (42)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Salvia plebeia and C. oppositifolia against fungal and bacterial strains. Phytochemical screening of both plants yielded alkaloids, phenolics, flavonoids, tannins, glycosides, saponins, and steroids. The leaf extracts of both plants exhibited significant antimicrobial activity, with highest antibacterial and antifungal activity observed in methanolic extracts. (43)
• Anti-Inflammatory Sesquiterpenoids / Salviplenoid A / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated ethanol extract of aerial parts of S. plebeia for anti-inflammatory activity in a model of LPS-induced up-regulated of NO in RAW264.7 macrophages. Six new (1-6, salviplenoids A-F) and ten known (7-16) sesquiterpenoids were isolated. Among all the sesquiterpenoids, the new salviplenoid A (compound 1) exhibited the most potent anti-inflammatory activity in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells via inhibition of NF-kB and Erk1/2 signaling pathways. (44)
• Antiviral Compounds / Aerial Parts: Study of methanol extract of aerial parts of Salvia plebeia isolated two novel benzoylated monoterpene glycosides, plebeiosides A (1) and B (2), along with twelve known compounds, including four flavonoids (4, 5, 7,10), two sesquiterpenoids (8, 12), four phenolics (9, 10, 13, 14), a steroid (6), and a triterpenoid (3). Compounds 5, 7, 9, and 11 exhibited potent enzymatic inhibition against H1N1 neuraminidase with IC50 ranging from 11.18 ± 1.73 to 19.83 ± 2.28 µM. Two flavonoids (5 and 7) and one rosmarinic acid methyl ester (9) reduced cytopathic effects of H1N1 virus during replication. Study suggests a potential for compounds 5, 7, and 9 as new lead structures for the development of new neuramiidase inhibitors. (46)
Promotion of Cholesterol Efflux / Anti-Atherosclerosis: Study evaluated the influence of a sage weed extract in cholesterol handling of J774A1 murine macrophages. Study demonstrated SWE antagonized oxidized LDL uptake and promoted cholesterol efflux in lipid-laden macrophages. Results suggest the SWE may serve as a protective agent against the development of atherosclerosis. (47)
• Inhibition of Xanthine Oxidase / Reduction of Uric Acid: Study of S. plebeia showed inhibition of xanthine oxidase enzyme in an animal model of hyperuricemia. The urate-lowering effect in vivo was supported by in vitro identification of compounds viz. nepetin, scutellarein, and luteolin, which significantly contributed to in vitro bioactivity, with IC50 of 2.35, 1.74, and 1.90 µM, respectively. Results suggest potential for the development of new therapeutics for hyperuricemia. (48)
• Inhibition of Th1 and Th17 Cells / Review: The search for drugs capable of targeting Th1 and Th17 may lead to the development of effective treatments for inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The study investigated plants and plant derivatives for potential effect on inflammatory diseases by inhibiting Th1 and Th17. Salvia plebeia extract (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) decreased Th1, Th2, and Th17 expansion in lymph node and expression of Th1, Th2, and Th17 cytokines through down-regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase, nuclear factor-kappa B and STAT1 in HaCaT cells in ear tissue. SPE also blocked inflammatory response in a murine model of arthritis as well as in human rheumatoid synovial fibroblasts. (50)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated Salvia plebeia methanolic extract and seven representative ingredients against inflammation in in vitro murine macrophages and in vivo mouse models. The SPME significantly reduced inflammatory processes in both in vivo TPA-induced ear edema model and in-vitro lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated macrophages. SPME decreased the release of NO and PGE2 and expression of inducible NO synthase (iNOS). The SPME yielded seven active components viz., luteoloside (1), nepitrin (2), homoplantagenin (3), luteolin (4), nepetin (5), hispidulin (6), and eupatorin (7). These compounds inhibited NO and PGE2 production and iNOS and COS-II protein expression through HO-1 induction via activation of Nrf2. (51)