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Family Malvaceae
Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.
Shan jia zi

Scientifric names  Common names 
Abelmoschus cruentus (Bertol.) Walp. Red sorrel (Engl.)
Furcaria sabdariffa Ulbr. Red tea (Engl.)
HIbiscus cruentus Bertol.  
HIbiscus fraternus L.  
HIbiscus gossypifolius Mill.                    Unresolved  
HIbiscus palmatilobus Baill.  
HIbiscus sabdariffa Linn.  
HIbiscus sanguineus Griff.                     Unresolved  
HIbiscus subdariffa Rottb.                      Unresolved  
Sabdariffa rubra Kostel  
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Luo shen hua, Mei gui jia, Shan jia zi.
GERMAN: Afrikanischer Eibisch, Hibiscus-Tee, Karkade-Tee, Roselle, Rote Malve.
GHANA: Sobolo.
FRENCH: Oseille de Guinée, Thé rose d'Abyssinie.
JAPANESE: Roozera, Roozeru, Rozerusou.
POLISH: Hibiskus szczawiowy, Ketmia szczawiowa.
PORTUGUESE: Caruru De Guine (Brazil), Quiabo Da Angola (Brazil), Rosela, Vinagreira.
THAI: Krachiap, Kra chiap daeng.

Roselle is an erect, branched, nearly smooth annual herb, 1 to 2 meters in height. Stems are purplish. Leaves are 8 to 12 centimeters long, variable in shape, entire or deeply 3- or 5-lobed, the lobes oblong to oblong-lanceolate. Calyx is somewhat hairy, lobes are pointed, connate below the middle, forming a fleshy cup. Corolla is pink with a dark center, about 5 centimeters long. Fruit is ovoid, pointed, hairy, about 2.5 centimeters long, enclosed by a fleshy and enlarged calyx.

- Planted for ornamental purposes and its edible calyces.
- Not spontaneous.
- Introduce post-Spanish colonization.
- Native of tropical Africa.
- Now pantropic.

• The dried calyces yield among others: cellulose, insoluble and soluble ash, tartaric acid, malic acid.
• Calyces are high in calcium, niacin, riboflavin, and iron.
• Food value per 100 g of fresh edible portion: Moisture 9.2 g, protein 1.145g. fat 2.61g, fiber 12 g, ash 6.9 g, calcium 1,263 mg, phosphorus 273.2 mg, iron 8.98 mg, carotene 0.029 mg, thiamine 0.117 mg, riboflavin 0.277 mg, niacin 3.765 mg, ascorbic acid 6.7 mg.
• The flowers yield a coloring matter that contain gossypetin, quercetin, hibiscetin
and free protocatechuic acid.
• Bitter seeds contain 20% oil with 26% albuminoids.
• Leaves yield oxalic acid.

• Analysis of unextracted (UE) and extracted (E) roselle seeds showed 15.36% (UE) 27.50% (E) digestible crude protein, 75.81% (UE) 68.83% (E) total digestible nutrients, 84.06% (UE) 64.23% (E) starch value, and 3184 kcal/kg (UE) 2891 kcal/kg (E) calculated metabolizable energy.
• Nutritional analysis of the plant by proximate method yielded carbohydrate content of 68.7%, crude fiber 14.6%, and ash content of 12.2%. (38)

• Leaves considered emollient, stomachic, scorbutic and febrifuge.
Seeds are diuretic and tonic.
• Flowers considered tonic and aperitive.

Parts used
Leaves and flowers.

Culinary / Nutritional
• Cultivated ornamentally and for the red and fleshy calyces that surround the fruit used for making jellies, wine and other food products. The jam, jelly, and sauce are similar in appearance and taste to cranberries.
• Young leaves used as a substitute for spinach; used in cooking of curries, meat or fish, and the native dish "sinigang."

• In Myanmar, green leaves are the main ingredient in making chin baung kyaw curry.
• Calyces are high in calcium, niacin, riboflavin, and iron
• In Nigeria, used for making refreshing beverage. (54)

• Leaves used as emollient.
• Lotion made from leaves used for sores.
• Decoction of seeds used for dysuria and strangury; for mild dyspepsia and debility.
• In Brazil, drink made from the plant, considered refrigerant and used for fevers.
• A boiled drink prepared from the fruit and calyx, dashed with salt, pepper, asafoetida and molasses, used for biliousness.
• Fruit used as antiscorbutic.
• Seeds are diuretic and tonic.
• In Chad, infusion of calyces used for plethora, bronchitis and coughs.
• Heated leaves applied to cracks in the feet; also, to boils and ulcers to hasten healing and maturation.
• In India seed decoction used for dysuria, strangury and mild dyspepsia.
• In Nigeria, seed decoction used to enhance or induce lactation in cases of poor milk production. (see study below) (27) Used as antihypertensive drug.
- Fiber: Plant yields bast fiber from the stems; used a jute substitute in making burlap.
- Coloring:
Plant yields a coloring matter used for food coloring.

A study evaluating the effect of sour tea (H sabdariffa) on essential hypertension showed significant lowering of both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (1) A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study examined the anti-hypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa tisane (hibiscus tea) consumption in humans. Results suggest daily consumption of hibiscus tea, in an amount readily incorporated into the diet, lowers BP in pre- and mildly hypertensive adults. (22) Study evaluated the anti-hypertensive activity of aqueous calyx extract of H. sabdariffa on salt induced hypertensive albino rats. Extract and drug treated groups showed a significant reduction in diastolic and systolic blood pressure. (41)
Antimutagenic: A study of an 80% ethanol extract of roselle showed antimutagenic activity against MAM acetate, a colon carcinogen. (2)
Anti-Atherosclerotic / Hypolipidemic: A study of HB extract suggests it inhibits serum lipids and shows and anti-atherosclerotic activity. (3)
Nephroprotective / Diabetic Nephropathy Amelioration: Study showed HS extract possesses potential effects to ameliorate diabetic nephropathy in STZ induced type 1 diabetic rats via improving oxidative status and regulating Akt/Bad/14-3-3 signaling.(4)
Galactagogue / Lactogenic Effect: A study showed the seed extract of H sabdariffa possesses lactogenic activity, enhancing serum prolactin level which is the principal lactogenic hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary. Results establish the ethnomedical use of the seeds as a galactagogue. (•) Study showed the serum prolactin level of extract-treated rats showed a dose-dependent significant increase when compared to the control group. (5)
Anti-Hyperammonemia: A study showed administration of extract of HS altered the activities of the liver marker enzymes in ammonium chloride-induced hyperammonemic rats. (7)
Antihypertensive / Seed: Study showed the aqueous seed extract of HS produced a significant reduction in cat blood pressure. (8)
Antioxidant: A study showed the protective role of extract of HS against lipid peroxidation and suggests an antioxidant potential to be used for therapeutic purposes.

Hypolipidemic / Calyx / Leaves: A study of HS dried calyx ethanolic extract on the serum lipid profile of Sprague-Dawley rats showed triacylglycerols and LDL levels to be significantly less in all groups. All groups had lower cholesterol levels compared to control. No significant results were found on the HDL levels (10)
Antiviral / Anti-Measles Virus: A study of leaf extracts of red and green leaved Hibiscus sabdariffa showed antiviral activities against the Measles Virus. (12)
Hepatoprotective / Carbon Tetrachloride Hepatotoxicity: A study of the aqueous ethanol extract of the calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage showed healing of oxidative liver damage as determined by serum enzyme levels and liver thiobarbituric acid reactive substances levels. (13)
Antioxidant / Seeds: Study investigated the antioxidant activity of an ethanolic seed extract of H sabdariffa in toxicity induced by chronic administration of sodium nitrate in wistar rats. Results showed alleviation of induced toxicity by the antioxidant effect of HS. Substantial amounts of Vitamin E and Vitamin C in the seed oil observed on preliminary phytochemical screening may be responsible for the antioxidant effect. (14)
Anti-Obesity: Study investigated the effect of a calyx extract on fat absorption-excretion and body weight in rats. Results showed a significant increase in the amount of fatty acid in the feces. The components of the Hs extract at the intermediate and higher concentrations could be considered possible antiobesity agents. (15) Review focuses on the anti-obesity effect of H. sabdariffa. Studies have reported that HS modulates obesity through its antioxidant mechanism and reduction in adipogenesis, with a significant effect on lipid metabolism, fat absorption and excretion, and obesity related enzymes. (46) A previous study suggested H. sabdariffa extracts had a metabolic-regulating and liver protecting potential. This clinical trial showed consumption of HSE improved liver steatosis. There were no adverse effects, with no alteration in serum amylase and lipase. Results suggest HSE can be used as adjuvant for preventing obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver. (61)
Staining Effect: Roselle extract shows reasonable potential as a candidate nuclear stain especially when mordanted with iron alum or mordanted with potassium alum and acidified with acetic acid. (16)
Safety Study: Study concludes Hibiscus sabdariffa is probably a safe medicinal plant, short-term administration of the HS did not show harmful effects on body water and electrolyte levels.

Review / Hypertension Study / No Effect: Current trials of HS in reducing high blood pressure were poor. Four randomized controlled studies do not provide reliable evidence to support recommending HS for the treatment of primary hypertension in adults. (18)
Lactogenic Study / Prolactin Effect: Study evaluated the effect of an ethyl acetate fraction of seed on pituitary prolactin and milk production in albino rats. Results showed a significant increase in prolactin level. Results infer the EA seed fraction has lactogenic activity, increasing pituitary prolactin level and milk production in lactating female albino rats. The LD50 of ethyl acetate fraction was above to be above 5000 mg/kg. (19)
Review / Treatment of Hypertension and Hyperlipidemia / Animal and Human Studies: This review reports
of a comprehensive body of evidence suggesting that HS extracts are promising as treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia. Of the potential hypolipidemic and hypotensive mechanisms, the most common explanation is the antioxidant effects of the anthocyanins inhibition of LDL-C oxidation, which impeded atherosclerosis, an important cardiovascular risk factor. Author suggests more high quality animal and human studies to provide recommendations for its potential public health benefit. (23)
Toxicity Study: Study evaluated acute and chronic toxicities of water extract from calyces of Hibiscus sabariffa in male and female rats. A single oral administration of extract in the amount of 5,000 mg/kbw did not produce acute toxicity. A 270-day chronic toxicity evaluation at doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kbw did not cause chronic toxicity in rat. (25)
Protective Against Oxidative Stress Induced Damage on RBC Membrane: Study evaluated the effect of an aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa calyx on hydrogen peroxide induced oxidative stress on rat RBC membranes. The extract showed a protective effect by reducing oxidative stress damage in vitro. Dose concentrations of 0.5 mg/ml Roselle extract reduced peroxidation on lipids by reducing the concentration of MDA and helped RBC membrane antioxidant defense system by increasing GSH and lowering SOD concentrations. (26)
Safety Study During Pregnancy and Lactation: Study reviewed the literation on use, safety, efficacy, and pharmacology during pregnancy and lactation. Results showed no scientific evidence to support use of H. sabdariffa during pregnancy and lactation. In vitro studies of seeds in animals suggest a lactogenic effect. Animal studies have also shown delayed puberty, elevation of body weight and BMI in female rats. Authors advise caution with the use of HS during pregnancy and lactation until human research determines its safety. (27)
Antifungal Synergism with Voriconazole in Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans: Study reports on the antimicrobial effect of H. sabdariffa extract, a common herbal drink, in combination with voriconazole or fluconazole against C. albicans isolates. Results showed a high degree of synergism of the extract with voriconazole against fluconazole-resistant C. albicans. The extract showed no effect with fluconazole. (28)
Hypotensive Effect / Anthocyanins: Extraction study on H. sabdariffa analyzed total phenol content and antioxidant capacity using various assays. Highest concentration was through water extraction, providing the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. Partition coefficients of anthocyanins showed aglycone and glucoside forms of hibiscus anthocyanins behave differently when in the presence of cell wall material, which could effect absorption and bioactiviy of the anthocyanins. A human crossover study on daily consumption of H. sabdariffa juice for 8 weeks showed a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure. Study suggests regular consumption of HS extracts may reduce cardiovascular risk. (29)
Effect on Spermatogenesis / Fruit: Study evaluated the effect of aqueous fruit extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on spermatogenesis and sperm of adult male mice. Results showed an adverse effect on spermatogenesis and sperm parameters in mice, with significant differences in FSH, LH, and testosterone hormones, with testes histology showing a significant decrease in lumina spermatozoa.       (30)
Corrosion Inhibition: Study of calyx extract of H. sabdariffa on mild steel corrosion showed suppression corrosion in both acid media (2M HCl and 1M H2SO4) through mix-inhibition mechanism. Inhibition efficiency increase with increase in extract concentration and synergistically increased in the presence of halide ions. (
• Anthocyanins / Antioxidant / Petals: Study investigated the relationship between antioxidant activity and anthocyanin content in Roselle petals. Results showed the antioxidant capacity of Roselle extract increased when extraction time or weight of petals increased. FRAP showed a linear relationship with anthocyanin. Results showed anthocyanin is the major source of antioxidant capacity in Roselle extract. Study indicated the anthocyanin and a brown pigment in the extract accounted for about 51% and 24% of the antioxidant capacity, respectively. (33)
• Antioxidant /
Anthocyanins / Flowers: Study evaluated the antioxidant potential of three fractions of ethanol crude extract from dried flowers of H. sabdariffa by DPPH and XO activity. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest capacity for scavenging free radical (EC50 0.017 mg/ml) and the chloroform soluble fraction showed strongest XO inhibitory effect (EC50 0.742 mg/ml). The dried flower extracts protected rat hepatocytes from t-BHP-induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity b y different mechanisms. (34)
• Reduction of Serum Cholesterol in Men and Women: A clinical study investigated the cholesterol- lowering potential of HS extract in human subjects. Results showed a dosage of 2 capsules of HSE (with a meal) for 1 month significantly lowered the serum cholesterol level. (35)
• Inhibition of A
ngiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE) Activity / Anthocyanins: Study evaluated the constituents responsible for the ACE inhibitory activity of aqueous extract of HS. Study isolated anthocyanins delphinidin-3-O-sambubioside (1) and cyanidin-3-O-sambubioside (2). The compounds showed competitive ACE inhibitor activity with IC50 of 84.5 and 68.4 µg/mL, respectively. Results support the folk medicine use of HS calyces as antihypertensive. (36)
• Effect of Sour Tea on Hypertension in T2 Diabetic Patients:
A double-blind randomized controlled trial compared the antihypertensive effectiveness of sour tea (H. sabdariffa) with black tea infusion in diabetic patients. Results showed consuming ST infusion had positive effects on BP in T2DM patients with mild hypertension. (37)
• Minor Interaction with Acetaminophen:
Drinking a hibiscus beverage before taking acetaminophen might increase how fast the body eliminates acetaminophen. (39)
• Therapeutic Effective in the Treatment of Hypertension:
Randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical trial on the therapeutic effective of H. sabdariffa in hypertensive patients at 200 mg of anthocyanin daily for 16 weeks showed an effect less than that of lisinopril. However, the treatment significantly reduced systolic and diastolic blood pressure and showed 100% safety. Because of a diuretic effect, night administration was contraindicated. (40)
• Gastric Ulcer Protective:
Study evaluated the anti-ulcerogenic activity of ethanolic extract of dried calyces in different ulcer models in Wistar albino rats i.e. cold restraint stress, pylorus ligation, necrotizing agents, and indomethacin induced gastric ulcer models. The extract showed an ability to significantly protect against gastric mucosal injury in all models used. Pharmacological and biochemical findings were supported by histological assessment in the stomach. (42)
• Clinical Trial on Hypolipidemic Effect / Leaves:
Double-blind, placebo controlled, randomized trial evaluated the hypolipidemic effect of HS leaves extract in 50 patients. At 1 gm per day of the leaf extract, there was no discernible blood lipid lowering effect. The observed effects might have been the result of patients following standard dietary and physical activity advice. (43)
• Antioxidant / Polyphenolic Rich Extract:
Study evaluated the scavenging abilities of Hibiscus polyphenolic rich extract against superoxide ions generated during XO mediated breakdown of xanthine to uric acid. Results showed the 1.0% and 2.5% (v/v) diethyl ether extract significantly inhibited superoxide ions by 42.35 and 100.00% respectively. Results suggest HS may be beneficial in reducing oxidative damage to lipid and prevent or reduced development or progression of free radical mediated diseases. (44)
• Anti-Inflammatory:
Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory activity of methanolic extract of H. sabdariffa in adult wistar rat. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan induced inflammation with decrease in paw diameter. Results were similar to the action of diclofenac. (45)
• Biochemical Effect on Reproductive Hormones / Calyx:
Study evaluated the biochemical effect of H. sabdariffa calyx extract on male rat reproductive hormones. A 28-day administration of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa is associated with decreased circulating plasma levels of follicle stimulating hormone, testosterone, luteinizing hormone and prolactin in male wistar rats. (47)
• Antihypertensive / Leaves: Study investigated the antihypertensive effects of methanolic extract of HS leaves in rats with hypertension induced by a salt-loading diet for 6 weeks. Result showed significant reduction (p<0.05) of blood pressure and heart rate in hypertensive rats in a dose-dependent manner. Effects were similar to that of captopril. The antihypertensive effect may be mediated by a reduction in serum oxidative stress. (48)
• Cytotoxic / Antioxidative / Breast Cancer Cell Lines:
Study evaluated the cytotoxic and antioxidant effects of water and methanolic extracts of H. sabdariffa on cancerous MCF7 and non-cancerous MCF12Aa breast cell lines. The ORAC assay of the methanolic extract demonstrated a higher total antioxidant capacity than the water extract. The HS extracts selectively induced apoptosis via ROS generation and the mitochondrial dysfunctional pathway in MCF cells. Results suggest the extracts contain compounds that selectively confer pro-oxidant and cytotoxic effects on MCF7 cancer cells. (49)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Petals:
Study evaluated an aqueous petal extracts of H. sabdariffa for hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties in Wistar rats with DNPH induced hepatotoxicity. The hepatoprotective and antioxidant properties were statistically identical (p<0.05) for markers of hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress. (50)
• Meta-Analysis / Effect on Arterial Hypertension: Meta-analysis assessed the potential antihypertensive effects of H. sabdariffa. Fixed-effect meta-regression indicated a significant effect of H. sabdariffa supplementation in lowering both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. (51)
• Synergism with Antibiotics Against Helicobacter pylori:
Study evaluated the in vitro antimicrobial combinatory effect of aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa with antibiotics (clarithromycin, amoxicillin, metronidazole) against H. pylori strains. The aqueous extract exhibited remarkable bacteriostatic effect against all HP strains tested with MICs ranging from 9.18 to 16.68 µg/mL. Results showed a potential for AEHS as a therapeutic candidate alone or in combination with antibiotics for the treatment of HP infection. (52)
• Antibacterial:
Study of H. sabdariffa extracts sowed antibacterial activity. The 96% alcohol extract yielded a higher amount of bioactive compounds. The most sensitive strains were Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Enterobacter cloacae ATCC 13047. Antibacterial activity depended on concentration, on solvent used, as well as resistance of the bacteria under study to the bioactive compounds. (53)
• Effect on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte Profile / Comparative Study with Hydrochlorothiazide: Study evaluated the effect of HS consumption on blood pressure and electrolytes of Nigerians with mild to moderate hypertension and compared it with hydrochlorothiazide, a widely used antihypertensive drug. Hibiscus sabdariffa was a more effective antihypertensive agent than HCTZ in mild to moderate hypertension, showing a longer duration of action, and did not cause electrolyte imbalance. (54)
• Enhancement of Myocardial Capillarization in Spontaneous Hypertension: Study investigated the effect of water extract of dried calyx of HS and Hibiscus anthocyanins on left ventricular myocardial capillary length and surface are in spontaneously hypertensivre rats. HS ingestion significantly reduced SBP, DBP, and LV mass in a dose-dependent fashion but did affect HR. HS significantly increased surface area and length density of myocardial capillaries and length density. The effects may be beneficial in restoring myocyte nutritional status compromised by the hypertrophic state of hypertension. (55)
• Phenolic and Flavonoid Content / Antioxidant / Antitumoral / Leaf and Calyx:
Study evaluated the phenolic and flavonoid contents and antioxidant and antitumoral activity of leaf and calyx extracts of H. sabdariffa cultivated with poultry litter and organosuper®. Highest phenolic and flavonoid contents were seen in the leaf extracts. Both exhibited free radical scavenging action. The methanol extract from calyces showed significant selective activity against leukemia cell line (K-562), with concentration dependent cytotoxic and cytocidal effects. (56)
• Anthocyanin / Inhibition of N-Nitrosomethylurea-Induced Leukemia:
Study previously reported anthocyanins from roselle that showed significant anticancer activity in promyelocytic leukemia cells. This study explored the antitumor effect of anthocyanin, a bioactive polyphenol of roselle in a rat model of chemically induced leukemia. The oral administration of Hibiscus anthocyanin (0.2%) significantly inhibited progression of NMU-induced leukemia by approximately 33% in rats. (57)
• Effect on the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone System / Clinical Study:
A double-blind controlled randomized clinical study evaluated the effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on three basic components of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system: plasma renin, serum angiotension-converting enzyme (ACE), and plasma aldosterone (PA) in Nigerians with mild to moderate hypertension. HS reduced serum ACE and PA in mild to moderate patients with equal efficacy as lisinopril. Activity are possibly due to the presence of anthocyanins in the extract. (58)
• Prevention of Insulin Resistance:
Study evaluated the effect of HS extract on fasting blood glucose level, fasting blood insulin level, and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR)in high-fructose fed Sprague-Dawley rats. At dose of 400 mg/kbw, the blood glucose, insulin and HOMA-IR were significantly lower. (59)
• Neuroprotective Against Glucose Deprivation Induced PC12 Cells Injury:
Serum/glucose deprivation (SGD) is a model for the understanding of the molecular mechanisms of neuronal damage during ischemia in vitro and the search for neuroprotective drugs against ischemia-induced brain injury. Study showed HS extract has protective effects of HS against SGD-induced PC12 cells injury. Results suggest a potential as a therapeutic option for neurodegenerative disorders. (62)
• Phytoest
rogens / Estrogenic Activity:Study evaluated 10 widely used herbs in the Middle East for quantification of five known phytoestrogens. Some of the plants were devoid of tested phytoestrogens i.e., genistein, biochanin A, daidzein, quercetin, and kaempferol. Hibiscus sabdariffa was found to be richest in quercetin and daidzein, 3.70 ± 0.02 and 49.3 ± 0.05 µg/g of dried plant, respectively, with 13.5 ± 0.2 µg/g of kaempferol. H. sabdariffa also showed modest and significant proliferative effect on MCF-7 cells. (63)
• Corolla as Acid-Base Indicator:
Acid-base titration requires indicators that show color change at each pH interval. Study yielded an anthocyanin from Roselle's corolla which was used for extraction of the indicator. Roselle's corolla indicator gave red color in acidic solution and green in basic solution, results similar to that of methyl orange. (64)
• Cyclooxygenase Inhibitory Activity / Antioxidant: In vitro study evaluated the antioxidant activity of various extracts of three varieties of sorrel as well as their potential for reducing blood viscosity. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity was measured using COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes rate of oxygen uptake in prostaglandin synthesis. Antioxidant activity was highest in the red variety, with the methanol extract showing highest activity. There was higher COX-1 inhibition than COX-2 inhibition, with a high potential to decrease blood viscosity. Results support the ethnomedicinal use of HS for the treatment of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. (65)
• Antihepatotoxic / STZ Diabetic-Induced Liver Damage: Study evaluated the anti-hepatotoxic activities of a flavonoid-rich aqueous fraction of methanolic extract in STZ-induced diabetic Wistar rats, Hepatoprotective effects were evident from amelioration of hepatic fibrosis and excessive glycogen deposition along with restoration of elevated liver enzymes. The anti-hepatotoxic activity could be partly attributed to antioxidant activity and the presence of flavonoids. (66)
• Hepatoprotective / Acetaminophen Induced Liver Injury / Leaves: Study of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract of leaves showed hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen induced hepatocellular injury, along with reduction of blood cholesterol levels. Activity could be attributed to it free radical scavenging property and presence of natural antioxidants. (67)
• Hepatoprotective / DMBA-Induced Toxicity: Study showed Roselle possess significant hepato- protective effect against hepatic injury induced by DMBA treatment. Results showed potential for use of Roselle in the prevention of oxidative stress caused by free radicals from pollutants and foods. (68)
• Antigenotoxic / Free Radical Scavenging / Flowers:
Study evaluated fractions of ethanolic extract of flowers for antioxidant and free radical scavenging activity. Results showed HS flower extracts possess strong antimutagenic activity and free radical scavenging effects of active oxygen species. (69)
• Hematopoetic Potential / Anthocyanin-Rich Red Dye: Study evaluated the protective efficacy of anthocyanin-rich dye of H. sabdariffa against cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-induced hypochromic microcytic anemia and oxidative stress in rat blood cells. Results showed supplementation of anthocyanin-rich red dye of HS counteracted the toxic effects of cadmium chloride on hematological and oxidative stress parameters. (70)
• Comparison with Enalapril on Effect in Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis Model: Study evaluated the inhibitory effect of H. sabdariffa extract on angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) compared to enalapril in a rat model of bleomycin-induced pulmonary fibrosis. There was a significant increase in lung index and levels of MDA, HP, ANG II and pro-inflammatory cytokines after bleomycin administration. Pre-treatment with with enalapril, PCA, and HS extract resulted in reduction of above factors. Enalapril and HS extract could mitigate the progression of fibrosis viz ACE blocking and a decrease in level of oxidative stress, and prevent the formation of fibroblasts, inflammatory cells and alveolar thickening caused by bleomycin. (71)
• Radioprotective / Radiation-Induced Liver Damage: Study of the methanolic extract of leaves of Vernonia amygdalina and Hibiscus sabdariffa, and vitamin C suggest that, taken together together, they could increase the antioxidant defense systems and may protect animals from gamma-induced radiation liver damage in male Wistar albino rats. (72)

Interactions / Toxicology
Studies in healthy volunteers showed altered chloroquine, acetaminophen and diclofenac pharmacokinetics. (32) Hypotensive effects might be of concern in patients on antihypertensives.
The LD50 of ethyl acetate fraction of seed was above to be above 5000 mg/kg. (19) The median lethal dose of the calyx extract in rats is estimated to be higher than 5 g/kg. (Ali BH, Al Wabel N, Blunden G. Phytochemical, pharmacological and toxicological aspects of Hibiscus sabdariffa L.: a review. Phytother Res. 2005;19(5):369-375.) (32)

- Wild-crafted.
- Cultivated.
- Teas and extracts in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated April 2018 / December 2017 / March 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
IMAGE SOURCE: Hibiscus sabdariffa, Cairo, Egypt / File:Flower Hibiscus Sabdariffa.jpg / B. Simpson Cairocamels / April 2006 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
The effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on essential hypertension / M Haji Faraji and A H Haji Tarkhani / Journ of Ethnopharmacology • Vol 65, No 3, pp 231-236, June 1999 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00157-3
Effects of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn.), a Thai Medicinal Plant, on the Mutagenicity of Various Known Mutagens in Salmonella typhimurium and on Formation of Aberrant Crypt Foci Induced by the Colon Carcinogens Azoxymethane and 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine in F344 rats / T Chewonarin et al / Food and Chemical Toxicology • Vol 37 Issue 6, pp 591-601, June 1999/ doi:10.1016/S0278-6915(99)00041-
Hibiscus sabdariffa Extract Inhibits the Development of Atherosclerosis in Cholesterol-Fed Rabbits / Chang-Che Chen et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2003, 51 (18), pp 5472–5477 / DOI: 10.1021/jf030065w
Aqueous Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Ameliorate Diabetic Nephropathy via Regulating Oxidative Status and Akt/Bad/14-3-3in an Experimental Animal Model / Shou-Chieh Wang et al / eCAM, doi:10.1093/ecam/nep181
Toxicological And Lactogenic Studies On The Seeds Of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn (Malvaceae) Extract On Serum Prolactin Levels Of Albino Wistar Rats / Ibrahim Bako Gaya et al /Internet Journal of Endocrinology. 2009 Volume 5 Number 2
Study of the Effect of Aqueous Hibiscus Sabdariffa Linn Seed Extract on Serum Prolactin Level of
Lactating Female Albino Rats
/ Okasha M A M et al / European Journal of Scientific Research
ISSN 1450-216X Vol.22 No.4 (2008), pp.575-583
Influence of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the rhythmic alterations of liver markers in experimental hyperammonemic rats / M Mohammmed Essa and P Subramanian / DOI: 10.1080/09291010701633552 /
Biological Rhythm Research, Volume 40, Issue 3 June 2009 , pages 273 - 278
Hypotensive Effect of Aqueous Seed Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (Malvaceae) on Normotensive Cat / I G Bako et al / International Journal of Animal Sciences and Veterinary Advances 2(1): 5-8, 2010
The Consumption of Hibiscus sabdariffa Dried Calyx Ethanolic Extract Reduced Lipid Profile in Rats / Octavio Carvajal-Zarrabal et al / Plant Foods for Human Nutrition (Formerly Qualitas Plantarum) • Volume 60, Number 4 / December, 2005 / DOI 10.1007/s11130-005-9023-x
Roselle / Wikipedia
Antiviral effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Celosia argentea on measles virus / Omilabu A. Sunday et al / African Journal of Microbiology Research Vol. 4 (4), pp. 293-296, Febuary, 2010
Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract on carbon tetrachloride induced liver damage / D. Dahiru, O. J. Obi and H. Umaru / BIOKEMISTRI 15 (1): 27-33 (June 2003)
Antioxidant Effect of Ethanolic Seed Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn (Malvaceae) Alleviate the Toxicity Induced by Chronic Administration of Sodium Nitrate on Some Haematological Parameters in Wistars Rats / I G Bako, M A Mabrouk et al / Advance Journal of Food Science and Technology 1(1): 39-42, 2009
Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Dried Calyx Ethanol Extract on Fat Absorption-Excretion, and Body Weight Implication in Rats / O. Carvajal-Zarrabal, P. M. Hayward-Jones, Z. Orta-Flores et al / J Biomed Biotechnol. 2009; 2009: 394592. / doi: 10.1155/2009/394592
A Study of the Staining Effect of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on the Histologic Section of the Testis
/ Egbujo E, Adisa O J, Yahaya A B / Int. J. Morphol., 26(4):927-930, 2008.
The Effect of Hibiscus Sabdariffa on Lipid Profile, Creatinine, and Serum Electrolytes: A Randomized Clinical Trial / Abbas Mohagheghi, Shirin Maghsoud et al / ISRN Gastroenterology, Volume 2011 (2011),
/ doi:10.5402/2011/976019
The effectiveness of Hibiscus sabdariffa in the treatment of hypertension: A systematic review / H A Wahabi, L A Alansary, A H Al-Sabban, P Glasziuo / Phytomedicine 17 (2010) 83–86
Lactogenic study of the ethyl-acetate fraction of Hibiscus sabdariffa linn seed on pituitary prolactin level of lactating albino rats / I G Bako, A M Mabrouk, S M Abubakar, A Mohamme / IJARND,International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products, Vol 6, No 2, 2013
Sorting Hibiscus names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. / Synonyms / The Plant List

Hibiscus sabdariffa L. tea (tisane) lowers blood pressure in prehypertensive and mildly hypertensive adults/ McKay DL, Chen CY, Saltzman E, Blumberg JB. / J Nutr. 2010 Feb;140(2):298-303. doi: 10.3945/jn.109.115097. Epub 2009 Dec 16.
Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in the treatment of hypertension and hyperlipidemia: a comprehensive review of animal and human studies. / Hopkins AL, Lamm MG, Funk JL, Ritenbaugh C. / Fitoterapia. 2013 Mar;85:84-94. doi: 10.1016/j.fitote.2013.01.003. Epub 2013 Jan 17.
Chemical and nutritional studies on roselle seeds (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.)
/ M. S. Samy / Zeitschrift für Ernährungswissenschaft, March 1980, Volume 19, Issue 1, pp 47-49
TOXICITY STUDIES OF THE WATER EXTRACT FROM THE CALYCES OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA L. IN RATS / Seewaboon Sireeratawong, Arunporn Itharat, Parirat Khonsung, Nirush Lertprasertsuke, Kanjana Jaijoy / Afr J Tradit Complement Altern. Med., Vol 10, No 4 (2013)
Effect of Aqueous Extract of Roselle Calyx (Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn) on Hidrogen Peroxide Induced Oxidative Stress of Rat Red Blood Cell Membranes / Jamaludin Mohamed*, Nor Anizah Mohd Nor, Siti Balkis Budin / International Journal of Collaborative Research on Internal Medicine & Public Health, Vol 4, No 12 (2012)
Hibiscus sabdariffa L: Safety and Efficacy during Pregnancy and Lactation / N Enwerem, M Azuine / Planta Med 2013; 79 - PS6 / DOI: 10.1055/s-0033-1348820
Antibacterial effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) extract in synergism with voriconazole and fluconazole against fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans isolates: An in vitro study. / Issam Alshami and Ahmed Eid Alharbi / Biomedical Research 2014; 25 (3): 401-404
Bioactivity of anthocyanins from Hibiscus sabdariffa / Sindi, Hebah Abbas / 2013, PhD thesis, University of Leeds.
Corrosion Inhibitive Effect and Adsorption Behaviour of Hibiscus Sabdariffa Extract on Mild Steel in Acidic Media / Emeka E. Oguzie* / Portugaliae Electrochimica Acta 26 (2008) 303-314
Hibiscus / Drugs.Com
Anthocyanin and antioxidant capacity in Roselle (Hibiscus Sabdariffa L.) extract / Pi-Jen Tsai, John McIntosh, Philip Pearce, Blake Camden, Brian R Jordan / Food Research International, Vol 35, Issue 4 (2002) / https://doi.org/10.1016/S0963-9969(01)00129-6
Protective effects of dried flower extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against oxidative stress in rat primary hepatocytes / TH Tseng, ES Kao, CY Chu, FP Chou, HW Lin Wu, CJ Wang / Food and Chemical Toxicology, Vol 35, Issue 12, December 1997, Pages 1159-1164 / https://doi.org/10.1016/S0278-6915(97)85468-3
Hibiscus sabdariffa extract reduces serum cholesterol in men and women / Tzu-Li Lina, Hui-Hsuan Lin, Chang-che Chen, Ming-Cheng Lin, Ming-Chih chou, and Chau-Jong Wang / Nutrition Research, Vol 27, Issue 3, March 2007 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nutres.2007.01.007
Inhibition of angiotensin convertin enzyme (ACE) activity by the anthocyanins delphinidin- and cyanidin-3-O-sambubiosides from Hibiscus sabdariffa / Deyanira Ojeda, Enrique Jiménez-Ferrer, Alejandro Zamilpa, Armando Herrera-Arellano, Jaime Tortoriello, Laura Alvarez / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Vol 127, Issue 1, Jan 2010; pp 7-10 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2009.09.059
The effects of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa) on hypertension in patients with type II diabetes / H Mozaffari-Khosravi, B A Jalali-Khanabadi, M Afkhami-Ardekani, F Fatehi & M Noori-Shadkam / Journal of Human Hypertension (2008) 234854 (2009) / doi:10.1038/jhh.2008.100
Medicinal Uses of Roselle Plant (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.): A Mini Review / K. PURO*, R. SUNJUKTA, S. SAMIR, S. GHATAK, I. SHAKUNTALA, A. SEN / Indian Journal of Hill Farming 27(1): 81-90
Interaction / WebMD
Therapeutic Effectiveness of an Herbal Medicinal Product of Hibiscus sabdariffa in Hypertensive Patients: A 16 Week Controlled and Randomized Clinical Study  / Herrera-Arellano, Zamilpa A, Jiménez-Ferrer JE, Cruz-Hernández AM,, Clemente-Catonga A, Herrera-Alvarez S and Tortoriello J / Med Aromat Plants (Los Angel) 5:265. / doi: 10.4172/2167-0412.1000265
Antihypertensive activity of Hibiscus Sabdariffa aqueous calyx extract in Albino rats / Abubakar MG, Ukwuani AN, and Mande UU / Sky Journal of Biochemistry Research Vol 4(3), pp 16-20, Sept 2015
Gastric ulcer protective activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa: An experimental, biochemical and histological study
/ Alqasoumi, Saleh; Al-Dosari, Mohammed, Al-Sohaibani, Mohammed, Al-Howiriny, Tawfe; Al-Yahya, Mohammed, Rafatullah, Syed / Clinical and Experimental Medical Journal, Vol 4, Issue 1 (2010) / DOI: 10.1556/CEMED.4.2010.1.12
An evaluation of the hypolipidemic effect of an extract of Hibiscus Sabdariffa leaves in hyperlipidemic Indians: a double blind, placebo controlled trial / Rebecca Kuriyan, Divya R KumarRajendran Rand  Anura V Kurpad / BMC Complementary and Alternative MedicineThe official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR)2010 / 10:27 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-10-27
Antioxidant Potential of Polyphenol Rich Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa / Abiodun Olusoji Owoade*, Adewale Adetutu and Olubukola Sinbad Olorunnisola / British Journal of Medicine and Medical Research, Vol 16, Issue 4
Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Methanolic E xtract of H ibiscus sabdariffa on C arrageenan Induced Inflammation in Wistar Rat / Meraiyebu AB, Olaniyan OT*, Eneze C, Anjorin YD, Dare JB / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Science Invention, Vol 2, Issue 3, March 2013
/ ANNA SHEBA L* AND ILAKKIA A / Int J Pharm Bio Sci 2016 Oct ; 7(4): (B) 341 – 345
Biochemical Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa Calyx Extracts on the Reproductive Hormones of Male Wistar Rat / Chukwunonso K. Nwabufo* and O Olusanya / Advances in Applied Science Research, 2017, 8(2):38-41
Antihypertensive effect of methanolic extract from the leaves of Hibiscus Sabdariffa L. in rats / Morufu E. Balogun, Daniel C. Nwachukwu, Eghosa E. Iyare, Elizabeth E. Besong, JacintaN.Obimma and Serges F.A. Djobissie / Der Pharmacia Lettre, 2016, 8 (19):473-484
Hepatoprotective and antioxidant activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa petal extracts in Wistar rats
/ Abba P. Obouayeba, Lydie Boyvin, Gervais M. M’Boh, Sekou Diabaté, Tanoh H. Kouakou, Allico J. Djaman, Jean D. N’Guessan / International Journal of Basic & Clinical Pharmacology, Vol 3, No 5 (2014)
Effect of sour tea (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) on arterial hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials / Serban, Corina; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Ursoniu, Sorin; Andrica, Florina; Banach, Maciej / Journal of Hypertension, June 2015; Vol 33, Issue 6: pp 1119-1127 / doi: 10.1097/HJH.0000000000000585
In vitro synergistic effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract in combination with standard antibiotics against Helicobacter pylori clinical isolates / Sherif T S Hassan, Katerian Berchova, Michaela Majerova, Marie Pokorna & Emil Svajdlenka / Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology (2016) Vol 54, Issue 9: pp 1736-1740 / https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2015.1126618
MONITORING THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HIBISCUS SABDARIFFA EXTRACTS / Magda, PANAITESCU, Ecaterina LENGYEL / Management of Sustainable Development Sibiu, Romania, Volume 9, No.1, June 2017 / DOI 10.1515/msd-2017-0011
Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffaon blood pressure and electrolyte profile of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians: A comparative study with hydrochlorothiazide / DC Nwachukwu, E Aneke, NZ Nwachukwu, LFO Obika, UI Nwagha, AA Eze / Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice (2015) Vol 18, Issue 6: pp 762-770
Long-term ingestion of Hibiscus sabdariffa calyx extract enhances myocardial capillarization in the spontaneously hypertensive rat / Ibrahim Inuwa, Badreldin H Ali, Intisar Al-Lawati / Experimental Biology and Medicine (2012) Vol 237, Issue 5
Phenolic compounds of Hibiscus sabdariffa and influence of organic residues on its antioxidant and antitumoral properties / ASN Formagio, DD Ramos, MC Vieira, SR Ramalho, MM Silva, NAH Zarate, MA Foglio, JE Carvalho / Braz. J. Biol. vol.75 no.1 São Carlos Jan./Mar. 2015 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.07413 
An Anthocyanin-Rich Extract from Hibiscus sabdariffa Linnaeus Inhibits N-Nitrosomethylurea-Induced Leukemia in Rats / Tsung-Chang Tsai, Hui-Pei Huang, Yun-Ching Chang, and Chau-Jong Wang / J. Agric. Food Chem. 62(7): 1572-1580 / DOI10.1021/jf405235j
Effects of aqueous extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system of Nigerians with mild to moderate essential hypertension: A comparative study with lisinopril / Daniel Chukwu Nwachukwu, Eddy Ikemefuna Aneke, Leonard Fidelis Obika, Nkiru Zuada / Indian Journal of Pharmacology (2015) Vol 47, Issue 5: pp 540-545 / DOI: 10.4103/0253-7613.165194
Prevention of insulin resistance with Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. extract in high-fructose fed rat
/ Trinovita Andraini, Sophie Yolanda / Medical Journal of Indonesia, Vol 23, No 4 (2014) / DOI: http://doi.org/10/13181/mji.v23i4.848 /
Antioxidant and cytotoxic effect of Barringtonia racemosa and Hibiscus sabdariffa fruit extracts in MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line / Norliyana Amran, Anis Najwa Abdul Rani, Roziahanim Mahmud, Khoo Boon Yin / Pharmacognosy Research (2016) Vol 8, Issue 1: pp 66-70 / DOI: 10.4103/0974-8490.171104
Hibiscus sabdariffa extract inhibits obesity and fat accumulation, and improves liver steatosis in humans  / Hong-Chou Chang, Chiung-Huei Peng, Da-Ming Yeh, Erl-Shyh Kao, and Chau-Jong Wang / Food & Function (2014) Issue 4
Protective effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa against serum/glucose deprivation-induced PC12 cells injury / Journal of Phytomedicine, Article 7, Vol 5, Issue 3, April 2015: pp 231-237 / DOI: 10.22038/AJP.2015.4112
Estrogenic Activities of Ten Medicinal Herbs from the Middle East  / Ibtesam A Saeed, Lizna Ali, Ayesha Jabeen, Mohammad Khasawneh, Tahir A Rizvi, S Salman Ashraf / Journal of Chromatographic Science, Volume 51, Issue 1, 1 January 2013: pp 33–39 / https://doi.org/10.1093/chromsci/bms101
Corolla of Roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) as acid-base indicator / Siti Nuryanti, Sabirin Matsjeh, Chairil Anwar, Tri Joko Raharjo, Baharuddin Hamzah / European Journal of Chemistry  2013, 4(1), 20-24 / doi:https://doi.org/10.5155/eurjchem.4.1.20-24.620
Antioxidant and cyclooxygenase inhibitory activity of sorrel (Hibiscus sabdariffa) / Christian, K.R.Nair, M.G.Jackson, J.C. / AGRIS: Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations
Anti-hepatotoxic activities of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. in animal model of streptozotocin diabetes-induced liver damage / David O Adeyemi, Victor O UkwenyaEfere M Obuotor and Stephen O Adewole / BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine: The official journal of the International Society for Complementary Medicine Research (ISCMR) 2014; 14:277 / https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6882-14-277
Biochemical Effects of the Aqueous Extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Liver Marker Enzymes and Lipid Profiles in Acetaminophen-challenged Rats / Joshua Parker Elijah, Ukegbu Chinere Young, Eze Chuma, Nkwocha Chinenye Chinelo, Okafor Joshua Onyiagoziri, Amaechi Ogara, Nduka Florence Obiageli, Ozougwu Vincwent, Evenike Joshua Oteri, and Ugochukwu Nkiru Emmanuela / Research Journal of Medicinal Plants, 11: 48-54. / DOI: 10.3923/rjmp.2017.48.54 
Effect of rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa L) extract on glutathione-S-transferase activity in rats / Nurkhasanah, Laela Hayu Nurani and Zainur Rahman Hakim / Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research October 2017; 16 (10): 2411-2416 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v16i10.14
Free radical scavenging and antigenotoxic activities of natural phenolic compounds in dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L / Ebenezer Olatunde Farombi, Akindele Fakoya / Molecular Nutrition, Vol 49, Issue 12, Dec 2005: pp 1120-1128 / https://doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.200500084
Anthocyanin–Rich Red Dye of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Calyx Modulates CdCl2- Induced Hypochromic Microcytic Anaemia and Oxidative Stress in Rat Red Blood Cells / Rania M.Al Groom and Khaled Al- Kubaisy / Journal of Environment (2016), Vol. 5, Issue 1: pp. 13-18
Comparison of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. extract and enalapril with regard to their effect on lung fibrosis in a bleomycin-induced rat model of lung fibrosis / Ali Asghar Hemmeti, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Alireza Malayeri, Mohammad Ali Rashadi Nooshabadi, Nastara Ranibari, and Mohammad Reza Rashidi Nosshabadi / Natural Pharmaceutical Products, e38798 / DOI: 10.17795/jjnpp-38798
Protective Effects of Extracts of Vernonia amygdalina, Hibiscus sabdariffa and Vitamin C against Radiation-induced Liver Damage in Rats / Oluwatosin Adaramoye, Bayo Ogunberro, Oluchi Anyaegbu, Michael Fafunso / J. Radiat. Res., 49, 123–131 (2008)


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