- Etymology: Rosemary derives from Latin ros (meaning dew) and marinus (meaning sea) -- dew of the sea. In Greek mythology, rosemary was draped around the neck of Aphrodite as she rose from the sea.
- In the Christian narrative, the occasional tale is told that when the Virgin Mary
spread her blue cloak over a white-blossoming bush, the flowers turned blue. The shrub is sometimes referred to as the "Rose of Mary."
- In Kate Greenway's Language of Flowers, rosemary signifies "remembrance."
- In both ancient Rome and Greece, rosemary was worn by couples at weddings and placed in the hands of the dead, both evoking remembrance and affection. (112)
- Greek students reportedly wear rosemary in their hair for examinations, as an aid to memory. (112)
Romero is a small, erect. flowering
woody undershrub, about 1 meter high, with densely arranged branches
and leaves. Leaves are linear, about 1 to 3 centimeters long, with strong revolute edges,
the lower portion covered with gray hairs. Flowers are bluish, less than 1 centimeter long, borne on racemes 1 to 3 centimeters long.
- Introduced from Europe.
- Commonly sold in markets.
- Cultivated in gardens for condiment use and medicinal purposes.
- Antispasmodic, abortifacient, emmenagogue,
stimulant, bitter tonic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, aromatic,
nervine, stomachic, febrifuge.
- Bitter and astringent leaves considered diuretic, dissolvent, and aperient.
- Oil is carminative and stimulant.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antihyperglycemic, anti-obesity, radioprotective, anti-androgenic, antianxiety, antidermatophytic, hypolipidemic, renoprotective, anti-implantation, hepatoprotective, memory improvement properties.
- Volatile oil, 1.2 - 2%
- alpha-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene, rosemarin.
- The most important constituents are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid.
- Rosmarin oil contains d-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene and camphor.
- Study of essential oil yielded 29 chemical compounds. Main constituents were 1,8 cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). (see study below) (24)
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 37 compounds. Major constituents were dimenthol (38.83%), campholene aldehyde (16.02%), α-pinene (11.05%), borneol (10%), camphene (5.31%), and terpenyl acetate (4.92%). (see study below) (27)
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 23 compounds representing 63.81% of total oil. Major components were α-pinene (18.25%), camphor (6.02%), 1,8-cineole (5.25%), camphene (5.02%), ß-pinene (4.58%), bornylacetate (4.35%), limonene (3.56%), borneol (3.10%), α-terpineol (2.89%), and cymene (2.02%). (29)
- Study of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil quantified 9 major terpenoid constituents. The major constituents were
1,8-cineole (52% of the oil by weight), α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor. (see study below) (33)
- GC and GC-MS analysis of essential oil yielded 36 components representing 95.33-97.03% of total oil composition. Main components were
1,8-cineole (22.61% - 23.85%), camphor (24.40% - 25.85%), α-pinene (10.74% - 12.59%), verbenone (4.90% - 5.77%), camphene (5.46% - 6.16%), β-pinene (3.28% - 4.02%), limonene (2.86% - 3.39%) and S-myrcene (1.89% - 1.95%).
(see study below) (34)
- Study of crude extract of leaves
yielded terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars and saponins. (see study below) (44)
- Essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation yielded 62 constituents representing 98.06 of total oil content. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant components. Constituents greater than 5% were camphor (18.9%), verbenone (11.3%), α-pinene (9.6%),
and ß-caryophyllene (5.1%). (see study below) (51)
- Polyphenolic content is characterized by the presence of carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmarinic acid, and hesperidin, as major components. The most effective antioxidant constituents are cyclic diterpene diphenols, carnosolic acid and carnosol. Extract contains carnosic acid, epirosmanol, rosmanol, methylcarnosate, and isorosmanol.
(see study below)
- Rosemary oils are obtained by steam distillation of twigs and fresh leaves. Essential oil contains mainly 1,8-cineole (46.4%), camphor (11.4%) and α-pinene (11.0%) (Sienkiewicz et al).
Another reported main constituents of essential oil were camphor (37.6%), 1,8-cineole (10.0%), p-cymene-7-ol (7.8%) and borneol (5.4%) (Bendedouche et al). (99)
- Compositional study yielded seven flavonoids in rosemary leaves, flower, roots and steam: 7-O-glucoside, hispidulin, diosmin, hesperidin, 3'-o-ß-D-glucuronide, genikwanin, and isoscutellarein 7-O-glucoside.
- GC-MS study of aerial parts for essential oil yielded major compounds of α- pinene (14.10%), camphene (11.47%), ß-pinene (12.02%), myrcene (3.31%), α-phellandrene (7.87%), eucalyptol (8.58%), 2-bornanone (3.42%), camphor (8.75%), isoborneol (3.48%),borneol (4.85%), and borneol acetate (6.49%). (see study below) (107)
As condiment in flavoring
and preserving meat.
- Steam of strong decoction of herb inhaled for coughs.
- Decoction of herb used as diuretic..
- Gas pains: Take decoction of herb as needed.
- For rheumatism, affected area soaked in decoction of herb.
- Conjunctivitis: Infusion of leaves used as an eyewash, 4 to 5 times
- Vapor baths, using 30 to 40 gms of leaves in boiling, water, used for rheumatism,
- Juice of leaves applied to areas of thinning hair and dandruff; also,
as rosemary vinegar.
- Rosemary tea also used as conditioning hair rinse,
- Infusion of leaves as tea for dyspepsia, flatulence.
- Decoction of leaves as mouthwash for gums disease, halitosis, sore throat.
- Decoction of herb used in aromatic baths.
- Infusion with oil for massages.
- Daily use of rosemary tea believed to prevent cataracts.
- For Hair wash: Steep 25
g of rosemary in 2 pints of cider vinegar for two weeks, shaking occasionally;
strain. In hair washing, put 1-2 tsp in the final rinse.
- For dandruff, massage rosemary vinegar thoroughly into scalp, 20 mins
- As hair restorer, romero is macerated in alcohol and rubbed on twice daily. The hair lotion is suppose to stimulate the hair bulbs to renewed activity and prevents baldness.
- Postpartum bath: Boil a head of petals in a quart of water). (Related
- Used as antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhea.
- Decoction of leaves used as carminative and as an abortive.
- Infusion of leaves used for gastralgia, dyspepsia, flatulence and palpitations.
- Leaves used as febrifuge.
- In Mexico, a 2% infusion of leaves or its essence (6 drops every 24 hours) is considered stomachic.
- Volatile oil used as stimulant in liniments.
- In Turkish traditional medicine, used for treatment of diabetes.
- In Morocco, rosemary is one of 23 medicinal plant species from 11 botanical families used for prevention during the Covid-19 pandemic.
- Rituals: Used to ward off evil.
- Cosmetics: Rosemary essential oil and some components are used in make-ups.
- Memory enhancing: Hoping to aid memory, Greek students twined rosemary in their hair when studying for exams. (Parkinson 1567-1650) (44)
• Antioxidant: A study of the extracts of 8 Rosemary clones
indicated the antioxidant capacity of volatile oils and plant extracts
were closely related to the total phenol content. (1)
• Phytochemicals / Rosmarinic Acid: Studies yield rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, carnosolic acid, rosmanol, carnosol, diterpenes, among others. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from the GI tract and skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotrine B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and inhibits the complement system and presents therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of rosemary essential oil on experimental models of nociception and inflammation in animals. Results showed significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema. The EO also showed significant antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, (3)
Antinociceptive: Study showed the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity and supports the use of the plant in folk medicine. (6)
• Hyperglycemic / Volatile Oil: A study showed
the volatile oil of RO has hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory
effects in rabbit. (4)
Study concluded that RO extracts showed antidiabetogenic effect probably
from its potent antioxidant properties.
• Radioprotective / Prevention of Hematologic Alterations / Leaves:
Study of the modulatory influence of Rosemary leaves extract in Swiss albino mice dosed with 3 Gy gamma radiation showed increase in lipid peroxidation and regaining of hematologic parameters. Results suggest the possible radioprotective ability of the rosemary extract. (7)
• Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effect: The effects of volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves showed a direct smooth muscle relaxant effect in vitro testing of isolated aortic segments of rabbits. The inhibition of the contractions were dose-dependent and reversible. (8)
• Antibacterial: Study on the antibacterial activity of three selected plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana and Trigonella foenum-graecum) against beta lactamase-producing E coli and K pneumonia showed all three exhibited relatively low MICs and could be considered strong antibacterials. (9)
• Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome / Aerial Parts: Study showed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis could diminish morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. (10)
• Rosemary Scent / Cognitive Benefits / Alzheimer's Disease: Study suggests the aroma of rosemary may boost cognitive performance. The study assessed cognitive performance and mood in 20 volunteers exposed to 1,8-cineole. Participants performed serial subtraction and visual information processing tasks in cubicles diffused with aroma of rosemary. Results suggested serum levels of 18-cineole correlated with performance outcomes (correct responses and reaction times). The relationship between cineole and mood was "less pronounced." Results presented implications for Alzheimer's disease. 1,8-cineole is a simple monoterpene-type compound found in many essential oils. The compound can inhibit acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Study concludes the compounds absorbed from rosemary aroma affect cognition and subjective state independently through different neurochemical pathways. (11)
• Anti-Proliferative / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anti-proliferative property of R. officinalis on several human cancer cell lines and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro in a mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage/monocyte cell line. Results showed the crude ethanolic extract to have differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells. RO also showed substantial antioxidant activity. (14)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Cancer / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis and three of its main components 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and β-pinene for in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. The essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. The essential oil also exhibited strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. (15)
• Lipid Benefits and Hypoglycemic Effects: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and lipid effects of RO in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with rosemary for four weeks. Results showed a decrease in sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with an increase in HDL cholesterol. (16)
• Effects on Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion: Study evaluated the effect of intake of oral rosemary extract (gavage) on hemodynamic changes and tissue damages caused by I/R (ischemia / reperfusion. Results showed a significant reduction in plasma creatinine, BUN, absolute excretion of sodium, and an increase in absolute potassium excretion. Histopathological exam revealed a significant decrease in vascular congestion, Bowman's capsule space and oxidative stress. (17)
• Male Antifertility Potential: Study evaluated the antifertility potential of an ethanolic extract of R. officinalis in male albino rats. Results showed microscopic changes in the testis, compression of most of the seminiferous tubules, with irregular basement membrane and devoid of spermatogenic cells. Study revealed morphological evidence of dose dependent antifertility potential. (18)
• Antihypotensive / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of essential oil on primary hypotension. Results showed a clinically significant antihypotensive effect. (19)
• Renoprotective / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the protective role of rosemary on CCl4-induced renal damage. Exposure to CCl4 is known to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species. Results showed a renoprotective effect which was attributed to its antioxidant activity. (20)
• Androgenic Effect / Male Contraceptive Potential: Study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult male Wistar rats. Results showed RO may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which may contribute to the spermatogenesis process in rat. RO may have androgenic effect and a potential as an herbal male contraceptive. (21)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of rosemary leaf extracts confirmed antioxidant (DPPH and total phenolic content), antibacterial, and antifungal (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Candida albicans) activities. (23)
• Hepatoprotective / Essential Oil: Study of rosemary essential oil in rats with carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage showed prevention of CCl4-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Pretreatment also significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. (see constituents above) (24)
• Anti-Implantation Effects: Study evaluated the embryotoxic effects of rosemary plant on two different periods of Wistar rat pregnancy. Results suggest an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation. (25)
• Anti-Acne / Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation: Study investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Results showed significant suppression of secretion and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In an in vivo mouse model. concomitant intradermal injection of the ethanolic extract attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. (26)
• Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Activity was attributed to main essential oil components. (27)
• Inhibitory Against Food-Borne Pathogens / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of R. officinalis with high antibacterial activity could be a potential source for inhibitory substances against some food-borne pathogens and has the potential for use in food or food-processing systems. (28)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of R. officinalis essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw edema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Findings showed suppression of the extent of paw edema and protective effects on colonic mucosa and significantly decreased macroscopic scores for colonic inflammation. Results showed rosemary essential oil is able to influence several variables of murine experimental inflammatory models. (30)
• Effect on Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Humans: Study evaluated the effects of Rosemary leaves powder on glucose level and lipid profile in human. Rosmarinus officinalis improved not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemia in a dose-dependent manner and decreased lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant levels and suggests a potential to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. (31)
• Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome / Clinical Trial: Study evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse in a clinical trial of 81 patients. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves while the control group was treated with methadone and placebo. Results showed less severe withdrawal syndrome (bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia) in the case group compared to the control group. Study suggests rosemary has potential as an optional extra drug for treatment of opium withdrawal syndrome. (32)
• Insecticidal / Oil: Rosemary oil has insecticidal properties and is an active ingredient in a number of commercial insecticides. Study explored the relationship between chemical composition and insecticidal activity of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil. Results suggest that the toxicity of rosemary oil, at least to lepidopteran larvae, is due to the combined and possibly synergistic effects of several constituents, with no individual compound making a dominating contribution. (see constituents above) (33)
• No Seasonal Variation in Essential Oil Composition: Study in the hilly region of north India showed there were no drastic changes in the essential oil content and composition of rosemary due to season. Results suggests the crop may be harvested in any season to get good quality oil. (see constituents above) (34)
• Drug Interactions: Rosemary can affect the activity of various medications: anticoagulants (aspirin, coumadin, clopidogrel), ace inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril), diuretics (may increase the effect of diuretics like furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide) and lithium (may increase lithium to toxic levels). (36)
Skin Protective and Anti-Aging Effects / Combination of Rosemary and Grapefruit: Study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure and in improving skin wrinkling and elasticity. Results showed the long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun® can be considered a complementary nutrition strategy therapy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The effects may be due to inhibition of UVR-induced ROS and inflammatory markers (lipoperoxides and cytokines), as well as their direct action on intracellular signaling pathways. (37)
• Carnosol / Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of R. officinalis extract and its major constituent, carnosol, in male NMRI mice.
Results conclude that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin through inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity. (38)
• Dentifrice / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a dentifrice containing an alcoholic extract of rosemary on oral bacteria. The toothpaste containing rosemary extract exhibited an ability to inhibit the growth of S. mutans, S. oralis and L. rhamnosus suggest an antimicrobial activity similar to commercially available toothpastes for inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis. (39)
• Skin Tolerance Activity / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the yield and chemical properties of rosemary and white poplar essential oil. Skin test tolerance of EO was conducted by measurement of primary irritation index. The EO of both plants are of acceptable quality. The EO of Rosmarinus officinalis is non-irritating to the skin while the EO of Populus albais is slightly irritating. (40)
• Embryotoxic Effects / Anti-Implantation Effect: Study evaluated if rosemary plant induces abortion and/or interfere with the normal development of the concepts, doses of 26 mg of 30% (w/v). Results suggest rosemary extract may have an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation. (42)
• Anti-Neuropathic / Terpenoid: Study evaluated the neuroprotective properties of R. officinalis. Results showed a hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect the nervous tissues. Effect is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs (nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine). (43)
• Cytotoxicity / Toxicity Study: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity using dichlormethane extract was 168 µg/ml. Median lethal dose of an aqueous extract in albino Wistar rats was estimated to be >5000 mg/kbw. (44)
• Antioxidant / Rosmarinic Acid: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities of three pure compounds viz. carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and sesamol and two plants extracts (rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil) by DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging assays and ferric thiocyanate test. The rosemary extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the blackseed essential oil. rosemary was also found to have a higher phenolic content. (45)
• Protective Effect on Astrocytes: Study evaluated the protective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts on astrocytes culture submitted to oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Results showed a protective effect via antioxidant activity which may involved mechanisms others than a direct effect on ROS production or modulation of glutathione activity. (46)
Short-Term Effect on Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study investigated the possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. (47)
• In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibition of Leukocyte migration by Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of REA (rosemary essential oil) on leucocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. Main EO components were camphor 27.59%, 1-8-cineole 15.74%, α-pinene (16.58%) and ß-myrcene 20.01%. All doses of REO tested significant inhibited leucocyte chemotaxis by cassein. The effect of REO on leucocyte migration highlights an important anti-inflammatory mechanism of Rosmarinus officinalis. (48)
• Low Intestinal Permeability / Polyphenol and Terpenoids: Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted interest because of potential health benefits. Study evaluated the permeation properties of bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) in Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Results suggested most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is likely to be the primary mechanism of absorption. Use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract reduced the permeability of most compounds. Most compounds can be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability). (49)
• Effect on Immune Response and Lipid Profile: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of rosemary leaves and immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract on BALB/c mice. There was a significant decrease Pp<0.001) in plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and TG with a significant increase in HDL. Humoral immunity against membrane proteins of sheep erythrocytes showed a significant increase in IgM response. Only a 100 mg/kg rosemary induced significant increase in Con A-induced T-cell proliferation, whereas lower doses had no significant effect. Results suggest further studies to determine the active constituents responsible for the hypolipidemic effect and the stimulatory effect on some parameters of immune response. (50)
• Antibacterial Activity Against Oral Pathogens / Essential Oil: Essential oil yielded 62 constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the oil as well as its major constituents were tested against Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, considered potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The EO exhibited low activity against the selected microorganisms. S. mitis was the most susceptible, E. faecalis, the most resistant. Pure compounds were more active than the essential oil. (see constituents above) (51)
• Polyphenolic Content / Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated various extracts of R. officinalis from dry and fresh herbs for antioxidant properties. A hydroalcoholic extract yielded the highest concentration of total polyphenols (0.601 mg/ml rosmarinic acid), total flavonoids (0.270 mg/ml luteoline) and romarinic acid (0.350 mg/ml). High polyphenolic content was confirmed by high values of antioxidant activity in various assays, i.e., DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, and SNP. Results suggest the importance of using fresh plants to obtain good quality extracts. (52)
• Anticancer / Effect on Adenosine Deaminase Activity: Study investigated the aqueous extracts of R. officinalis, U. diocia, and soybean on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues removed by by surgical operations. The rosemary extract inhibited ADA enzyme in cancerous (p<0.031) and noncancerous gastric tissues (p-0.948), but not in colon tissues. The ADA enzyme inhibition may play a part in the proposed anti-cancer activity. (53)
• Essential Oil as a Modulator of Bacterial Resistance / Leaves: Study evaluated the essential oil of leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis as a modulator of resistance bacterial drug on four strains of E. coli resistant ampicillin (AMP) and tetracycline (TET) and four Salmonella spp. strains resistant to nitrofurantoin (NIT). All strains showed susceptibility to the combined action of EO with antibiotics. Results suggest a potential for the used of rosemary EO in combination with antibiotics to combat pathogenic bacterial. (54)
• Protective Effect Against DNA Damage / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficiency of essential oil of RO to protect the DNA against free radical damages. GC-MS analysis of EO yielded camphor (22/35%), verbenone (23.48%), borneol (16.63% and eucalyptol (11.73%) as major components. The EO exhibited protection against DNA scission induced by OH- radicals generated from photolysis UV/H2O2. (55)
• Antifibrotic Effect in CCl4-Induced Liver Dysfunction / Leaves: Study evaluated the antifibrotic effect of Rosmarinus officinalis in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver dysfunction in rats. RO leaves powder supplementation prevented the rise of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and AOPP in plasma and liver tissues in CCl4 treated rats together with amelioration histological changes i.e., necrosis, periportal inflammation, iron deposition and fibrosis in the liver. (56)
• Antidepressant: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of R. officinalis in male Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant reduction of immobility time and increased swimming time in the forced swimming test. The antidepressant effect was comparable to that of imipramine in mice. (57)
• Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing effects of 5% R. officinalis extract compared to povidone-iodine and isotonic saline in incisional cutaneous wounds in a rabbit model. Results demonstrated the antiseptic, antimicrobial, and epithelization effects of rosemary extract on wound healing. Rabbits treated with rosemary extract healed faster than similar wounds treated with povidone-iodine and isotonic saline solution. (58)
• Antibiofilm Activity: Study evaluated the effects of R. officinalis (rosemary) and Syzygium cumini (jambolan) glycolic extracts and 0.12% chlorhexidine in biofilms formed by strains of coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative (CNS) Staphylococcus isolated from the oral cavity. R. officinalis promoted biofilm reductions from 12.1% to 78.7% in biofilms formed by strains of CPS, and 9.2% to 73.7% in biofilms of CNS. (59)
• Rosemary Oil for Androgenetic Alopecia: Study investigated the clinical efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and compared its effects with 2% minoxidil. Both groups experienced significant increase in hair count at the 6-month endpoint. Scalp itching was more frequent in the minoxidil group. Results provide evidence for rosemary oil in the treatment of AGA. (61)
• Promotion of Hair Growth / Leaves: Topical administration of R. officinalis leaf extract improved hair regrowth in a mice model that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. Study investigated the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-extract and focused on the inhibition of testosterone 5a-reductase. Results showed inhibitory activity. !2-Methoxycarnosic acid was identified as an active constituent of 5a-reduction inhibition. Study suggest the inhibition of binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Results suggest RO-ext as a promising crude drug for hair growth. (62)
• Diterpenes / Potential for Alzheimer's Disease: Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for antioxidant and various pharmacological activities. The diterpenes have been shown to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of in vivo and in vitro agents. The compounds display a vast range of pharmacological effects ranging from antioxidant, metal chelation, and anti-inflammatory properties. These are mechanisms involved in the potential therapeutic effect of compounds for Alzheimer's disease. Further effect of rosemary diterpenes in Aß formation, aggregation, and toxicity accounts for additional benefit in tackling AD. (63)
• Analgesic / Essential Oil: Study evaluated and compared the analgesic activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris in Wistar rats. The analgesic effect of Rosemary oil was statistically significant at four test doses of 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kbw. The analgesic effect was not comparable to aspirin even at higher concentration but was significantly more compared to control group. (64)
• Nephroprotective / Naphthalene Induced Toxicity: Naphthalene (NS) is a common environmental contaminant and abundant in tobacco smoke. Study evaluated the nephrotoxicity of NA and evaluated the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. NA showed harmful effects on rat kidney as evidenced by up regulation of positive immunoreaction for iNOS in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Rosemary extract treatment significantly reversed these effects induced by NA. The effect may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. (66)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Algal / Essential Oil: Essential oil of rosemary showed remarkable potency against four of the most notorious bacteria ( E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and S. aureus) and exhibited allelopathic impact against Chlorella vulgaris, a contaminant factor for the cyanobacterial isolates. (67)
• Protective Effect / Mitigation of Lipid Peroxidation and DNA-Damage from Arsenic Exposure: Study showed R. officinalis extract exerted no mutagenic effects and showed antimutagenic potential. reducing the DNA damage and lipid peroxidation resulting from As exposure. (68)
• Review / R. officinalis as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Agent: This review reports on the benefits of R. officinalis and how the plant product may treat health problems or control physiological disorders equivalent to or superior to the available medications. It describes the pharmacological effects of phytocompounds. It also suggests the potential for new treatment forms and pharmacological strategies for worldwide benefit. (69)
• Diuretic Effect: Study evaluated the diuretic effect of R. officinalis and C. erythraea, both reputed for treatment of urinary ailments. Daily oral administration of aqueous extracts of the two herbs at dose of 10 mg/kg of 8 or 16% extract in distilled water significantly enhanced diuresis in rats compared to control. For R. officinalis at dose of 8% peak urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride was reached after 6 days of treatment (p<0.001). Most effective dose for water and electrolyte excretion was 8% for both plants. (70)
• Insecticidal / Nanoencapsulated Essential Oil: Study investigated the insecticidal activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil for the effective management of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, a stored product pest beetle. Nanoprecipitation method was used to prepare rosemary oil-loaded nanocapsules. Results suggested the nanoencapsulated essential oils from R. officinalis can be use for effective of T. castaneum. The technique produced pesticides with controlled-release properties, reducing the concentration of applied doses and number of applications. (71)
• Antioxidant / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts: GC-MS analysis of aerial parts for essential oil yielded 15 components. Major constituents were 1,8-cineole (35.32%), trans-caryophyllene (14.47%), borneol (9.37%), camphor (8.97%), α-pinene (7.9%) and α-thujone (6.42%).
The EO was screened for in vitro antioxidant activities using DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching and reducing power. DPPH assay showed an IC50 inhibitory concentration of 110.20 µg/ml while the ß-carotene bleaching tests showed an IC50 of 20.00 µg/ml. Results suggest the EO can serve as an antioxidant agent in food and cosmetics and also serve an important function in prevention and treatment of various human diseases. (72)
• Fractionation and Extraction Technologies / Essential Oils: Study investigated existing and new technologies for effective separation and fractionation of bioactive compounds for industrial applications. According to reviewed studies, carnosic acid, carnosol, and rosmarinic acid are the most investigated compounds which are the primary contributors of bioassays with highest potential in natural drugs. Study highlights exploitation of deep eutectic solvent-based aqueous two-phase system for production of enriched fraction from R. officinalis. (73)
• Antimicrobial Against S. aureus and E coli / Essential Oil: Study investigated the chemical composition and antimicrobial properties of Rosemary essential oil on Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli in vitro. GC-MS analysis yielded 19 compounds, of which 1.8 cineole and α-pinene had highest EO composition. MIC and MBC of essential oils were 0.625 and 1.25% for S. aureus and 1.25 and 2.5% for E. coli, respectively. Results suggest the remarkable antibacterial activity has potential as replacement for synthetic antibiotics. (74)
• Effect on TNBC-Induced Colitis / Essential Oil / Leaves: Study evaluated the effect of rosemary leaves hydroalcoholic extract (RHE) and essential oil (REO) in a model of experimental colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. All test doses of RHE and REO were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices while greater doses were significantly effective to diminish histopathologic parameters irrespective of route administration. Results suggest potential for the plant for use as remedy for inflammatory bowel disease in traditional medicine. (75)
• Antiproliferation Effect on Human Ovarian Cancer Cells / Synergism with Cisplatin: Study evaluated the antiproliferation activity of rosemary extract (RE) against human ovarian cells. Results showed the extract has significant antiproliferation activity on human ovarian cancer A2780 and its CDDP resistant daughter cell line with IC50 estimated at 1/1000 and 1/400 dilutions, respectively. Of the three main active ingredients, carnosol (CS), carnosic acid (CA) and rosmarinic acid (RA), CS and RA also showed synergistic antiproliferation effect with cisplatin on A2780 cells. RE enhanced the antiproliferation effect with cisplatin on both A2780 and A2780CP70 cells. Results showed RE inhibited proliferation of ovarian cancer cell lines by affecting the cell cycle at multiple phases and induced apoptosis by modifying expression of multiple genes regulating apoptosis. Results suggest potential as an adjunct to cancer chemotherapy. (76)
• Antioxidant / Antiproliferative against Prostate Cancer Cells / Leaves: Study evaluated the polyphenolic content, antioxidant activity, and antiproliferative effect against human prostate cancer cell li8nes (LNCaP) of carnosol and carnosic acid. Extracts showed important polyphenolic content ranging from 74.15 µgGAE/mg to 146 µgGAE/mg. Carnosol and carnosic acid in rosemary crops ranged from 11.7 to 1.09%, respectively. Antioxidant activity was promising and ranged from 0.236 to 0.176 mg/mL. WST-assay for antiproliferation showed all tested extracts notably reduced cell viability with IC50s ranging from 14.15 to 15.04 µg/mL. Results showed carnosol and carnosic acid exhibited antioxidant and antiproliferative activities in a concentration-dependent manner. (77)
• Antibacterial Against Biofilm-Forming MRSA / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro antibacterial efficacy of leaf extracts of five medicinal plants against a panel of seven biofilm-forming MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). Three of the plants, including R. officinalis showed significant antibacterial activity. (78)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Analgesic / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and antialgic potency of nanoemulsion (NEORO) containing the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis (EORO), primarily composed of limonene, camphor, and 1,8-cineole. Results showed 50% inhibition of maximum peak of edema in rat paw edema induced by carrageenan and dose-dependent inhibition in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. Among the major compounds of EORO, the camphor molecule exhibited the largest number of interactions with therapeutic targets related to the inflammatory process, suggesting it is responsible for EORO's anti-inflammatory and antialgic effects. (79)
• Antidiabetic / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of ethanol extract of leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis on glucose homeostasis and antioxidant defense in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. Of the three doses of extract used, the highest dose (200 mg/kg) significantly lowered blood glucose level and increased serum insulin concentration. The extract also showed capability to inhibit lipid peroxidation and activate antioxidant enzymes. Results suggest that the potent antioxidant properties may be responsible for the antidiabetogenic effect. (80)
• α-Glucosidase Inhibitory Activity: Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) 50% ethanol extract remarkably inhibited rat intestinal α-glucosidase (sucrase) activity when compared with 31 different herbs and spices (aqueous and 50% ethanol aqueous extracts). A 0.01% aqueous solution of rosemary-distilled extract supplied as drinking water to STZ-induced diabetic mic significantly suppressed an increase in plasma glucose levels 4 days after injection of STZ. An active compound identified as luteolin showed maltase and sucrase inhibitory activities. Results suggest the extract may be beneficial in the prevention of diabetes and obesity. (81)
• Effect of Glucose Level, Lipid Profile and Lipid Peroxidation / Powdered Leaves: Study evaluated the effects of rosemary leaves powder on glucose level and lipid profile in 48 adult men and women. Results showed Rosmarinus officinalis appear to improve not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemmia in a dose dependent manner and decrease lipid peroxidation through increasing antioxidant levels. Study suggests potential for reducing risk of chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease. (82)
• Hepatoprotective / Antioxidant / Shoots: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of tinctures obtained from fresh young shoots on experimentally induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The tincture yielded phenolic diterpenes (carnosic acid, carnosol, rosmanol, rosmadial) and rosmarinic acid as major compounds, along with 1,8-cineole, camphene, linalool, borneol, and terpineol among monoterpenes. In vitro, the tincture showed significant antioxidant capacity. The hepatoprotective activity was attributed to an antioxidant mechanism from the significant amounts of polyphenols and terpenes in the fresh young shoots tincture. (83)
• Antianxiety: Study evaluated the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Rosmarinus officinalis on anxiety in mice using Elevated Plus Maze test in mice. The rosemary extract dose-dependently (p<0.01)( increased the mice spending time and entries number of mice in plus maze open arms indicating less stress. The dose of 400 mg/kg was similar to diazepam (1mg/kg). The antianxiety effect was attributed to the presence of flavonoids and their antioxidant property. (84)
• Spasmolytic / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the effect of an ethanol extract from R. officinalis aerial parts and mechanism involved using rings from isolated guinea pig ileum. The extract exhibited significant and concentration-dependent spasmolytic activity on contractions induced by KCl (potassium chloride), ACh (acetylcholine), and EFS (electrical field stimulation). Results reinforce the use of R. officinalis as antispasmodic in traditional medicine. It demonstrated the involvement of calcium channels, but not the participation of nicotinic receptors, prostaglandin or nitric oxide. (85)
• Antinociceptive and Anti-Inflammatory / Synergism with Syzygium aromaticum / Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the effect of combination of Syzygium aromaticum and R. officinalis on antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities using formalin and carrageenan assays in rats. Both showed significant concentration-dependent antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects when administered alone, with R. officinalis showing more potency. The combination showed synergistic interaction with potentiation of both pharmacological effects. (86)
• Effects on Nervous System Disorders / Review: Study reviewed the potential neuropharmacologic effects of different rosemary extracts and its active constituents on nervous system disorders. mechanisms, and preclinical applications. Review authenticates that rosemary is a worthy source for curing inflammation, analgesic, anti-anxiety, and memory boosting. It suggests further investigations on isolated constituents, especially carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and essential oil for use in people suffering from nervous system disorders. (87)
• Wound Healing / Essential Oil of Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the healing efficacy of both aqueous extract and essential oil of aerial parts on full-thickness wounds on alloxan-induced diabetic BALB/c mice. Results showed reduced inflammation, enhanced wound contraction, re-epithelization, regeneration of granulation tissue, angiogenesis and collagen deposition in the treated wounds. The essential oil was most active in healing diabetic wounds. (88)
• Rosemary-Based Toothpaste / Effect on Gingival Bleeding and Plaque Index / Clinical Trial: Study evaluated the action of toothpaste made from extract of R. officinalis in a clinical randomized, controlled, open and double-blind trial using gingival bleeding index (GBI) and plaque index (PI). Results showed the rosemary-based toothpaste effectively treated gingival bleeding and reduced bacterial plaque, when compared with conventional toothpaste. (89)
• Potential Effects on Immunity / Review: Review evaluated the potential effects of rosemary solvent extracts on human immune function. A number of studies have found stimulatory effect of rosemary and its active compounds on the immune system on in-vitro and animal study. Results showed the potential of rosemary and its main active components as dietary ingredients with immunomodulatory functionality and suggest double-blind randomized controlled human studies. (90)
• Topical Applications / Review: Review discusses the topical applications of rosemary found in literature and offers relevant information for the development of topical formulations of its bioactive compounds. Rosemary has potential applications in cosmetic formulations and treatment of pathological and non-pathological conditions, such as alopecia, cellulite, ultraviolet damage, and aging. (91)
• Anticancer / Review: Many studies have examined the antiproliferative and colony forming abilities of rosemary extract in vitro in colon, pancreas, breast, prostate, cervical, bladder, lung and leukemia cell lines. Rosemary extract has been shown to induce cell cycle arrest in a number of cancer cell lines. It has been shown to significantly inhibit viability of various cancer cell lines attributed to enhanced apoptosis and cell death. Review summarizes existing in vitro and in vivo studies focusing on anticancer effects of rosemary extract and polyphenols carnosic acid and rosmarinic acid, and their effects on key signaling molecules. (92)
• Potential Anticholinesterase / Antioxidant / Cognitive Decline Disorders: The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by cholinergic agents has been promoted as a potent strategy for treating and managing cognitive decline disorders. Study evaluated different Rosmarinus officinalis extracts for AChE inhibitory activity using galanthamine as a standard AChE inhibitor. An ethyl acetate extract at concentration of 250 µg/mL showed greatest inhibitory effect against AChE with significant 75% inhibition, comparable to galanthamine with 88% inhibition. The EA extract also showed highest total phenolic content. In silico study showed structural binding characterization of rosmarinic acid and carnosic acid with human AChE enzyme. Results suggest the EA extract may provide novel potential pharmacological leads for treatment of cognitive disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. (93)
• Arrhythmic Effects / Ventricular Arrhythmias: Study evaluated the protective effects of hydroalcoholic extract of rosemary on ventricular arrhythmias in Sprague Dawley rats. CaCl2 intravenously was used to induce ventricular arrhythmias. At doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg, the extract caused significant decrease in occurrence of PVB (premature ventricular beats, 50 and 75%% ), VT (ventricular tachycardia, 71.4 and 42.9% and 71.4%), and ventricular fibrillation (25% and 50%). Highest rate of reduction occurred with the 200 mg/kg dosage. (94)
• Acute Dermal and Oral Toxicity Studies / Essential Oils: Study evaluated the acute dermal and oral toxicity in mice and skin irritation of essential oil in rabbits. In sub-acute study, 1000 mg/kg was given to mice by gavage for 28 consecutive days. For dermal toxicity, a 10% ointment formulation was applied to rabbit skin. The LD50 of essential oil for both dermal and oral administration was greater than 2000 mg/kg. No mortality was recorded. No significant difference in body weights, biochemical parameters and gross abnormalities were noted in the subacute study. Kidneys and liver showed no macroscopic changes. The 10% oil ointment formulation showed no acute skin toxicity. Overall, study showed R. officinalis essential oil is non-toxic. (95)
• Antifungal / Aspergillus niger / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the in vitro antifungal effect of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil against fungal strain Aspergillus niger contaminating various food products. The EO contained 14 components, with 1,8-cineol (63.65%) as major component. Results showed antifungal activity on all strains tested with MIC of 0.5%. A fungistatic effect was noted. (96)
• Absence of Clastogenic Effects on Bone Marrow Cells: Study evaluated the clastogenic potential of R. officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in vivo on bone marrow cells of Wistar rats by induction of chromosome aberrations and micronuclei induction on polychromatic erythrocytes. Results showed the extract did not induce statistically significant increases in the average numbers of micronucleus or chromosome aberrations. (97)
• Rosemary as Food Preservative: As preservatives, rosemary extracts offer several technological advantages and benefits to consumers. EFSA (European Food Safety Authority) reviewed the safety of rosemary extracts. It concluded high-intake estimates ranging from 0.09 (the elderly) to 0.81 (children) mg/kg per day of carnosol and carnosic acid. In the EU, rosemary extracts in food and beverages are added to levels of up to 400 mg/kg (as sum of carnosic acid and carnosol). Rosemary extracts are usually prepared from dried rosemary leaves. Extraction yield varies, ranging between 2% to 26% based on raw material used. Studies have shown potent activity of rosemary by reducing color loss of carotenoids and delaying lipid oxidation in oils and meat products. For good sensory results and reduction of lipid oxidation after addition of foods, and inhibition of the formation of hydroperoxides, varying doses have been used: 500-1000 ppm of rosemary extract in beef; 0.05% concentration in pork; combination of 500 ppm vitamin C and 1000 ppm of rosemary in beef burgers. Rosemary also inhibits microbial growth, and essential oil incorporated into meat has shown antibacterial activity. The effectiveness of carnosic acid against pathogenic bacteria is superior to any other major extract component. Studies have shown rosemary oil inhibited the growth of common food bacteria contributing to food spoilage. Studies suggest rosemary extracts can be used in functional foods, pharmaceutical products, plant products, and food preservation. It is a cheap,, available, and non-toxic herb. (99)
• Transdermal Absorption Enhancing Effect on Diclofenac Topical Gel: Study evaluated the effect of rosemary essential oil on transdermal absorption of Na diclofenac from topical gel. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated using formalin and tail flick test in mice. Major constituents of EO were 1,8-cineol,
α-pinene, camphor, bornyl acetate, verbenone, borneol, camphene, and (E)-caryophyllene. Rosemary essential oil 1% promoted analgesic effect of drug. The enhancing effect on diclofenac percutaneous absorption was observed in 0.5 and 1% concentration (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) in the late phase. (100)
• Adverse Effects on Reproductive Function in Male Rats: Study evaluated the effect on fertility of adult Sprague-Dawley rats ingesting doses of 250 and 500 mg/kbw for 63 days. Results showed a significant decline in spermatogenesis in testes due to decrease in number of primary and secondary spermatocytes and spermatids, which was attributed to a significant decrease in testosterone. Sperm motility and density were also significant decreased. Treatment also markedly decreased the number of fetal resorptions in impregnated female rats, thereby reducing fertility. (101)
• Neuroprotective on Cerebral Ischemic Tolerance in Experimental Stroke / Leaves: Study evaluated the ischemic tolerance effect of R. officinalis leaf hydroalcoholic extract in an experimental stroke model. Dietary leaf extract could significantly reduce cortical and sub-cortical infarct volumes, neurologic deficit scores, cerebral edema, blood-brain barrier permeability in doses of 50, 75, and 100 mg/kbw per day. Although pretreatment plays in a role in generation of tolerance against cerebral IR injury, studies are needed to clarify the mechanism of ischemic tolerance. (102)
• Teeth Whitening Effect / Leaves: Study evaluated the teeth whitening effect of some plants used in Anatolian folk medicine for treatment of tooth staining. Extracted upper central incisors were used and immersed into three different essential oils of medicinal plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Mentha piperita, Ocimum basilicum) for different time periods (1 day, 1 week, 1 month). Within limits of the study, plants species and duration of immersion was found statistically significant. The tested plants showed a whitening effect by resulting significant change in tooth color. (103)
• Green Corrosion Inhibition of Steel / Polyphenols: Study evaluated R. officinalis extract on corrosion inhibition of XC48 steel by mass loss method, SEM. EIS, PDP, FTIR and LC-MS. Results showed that among the most abundant component detected in the RO extract, carnosic acid has greater inhibitor potential with respect to carnosol. (104)
• Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and Butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) Inhibition: Study evaluated the AChE and BChE) inhibitory activity of various extracts, rosmarinic acid, and essential oil from Rosmarinus officinalis. Rosmarinic acid showed 85.8% inhibition against AChE at only 1.0 mg/mL. (105)
• Polyherbal Mouthwash / Gingivitis / Clinical Trial: A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial evaluated a polyherbal mouthwash containing hydroalcoholic extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis, Zingiber officinalis and Calendula officinalis compared with chlorhexidine and placebo mouthwashes in 60 subjects with gingivitis. Mouthwash was used twice a day, after breakfast and dinner, for a period of two weeks. Results showed polyherbal mouthwash was effective in the treatment of gingivitis with an efficacy comparable to that of chlorhexidine mouthwash. (106)
• Antinociceptive / Essential Oil of Aerial Parts: Study evaluated the antinociceptive properties of essential oil from R. officinalis aerial parts using a rat model of arthritic pain. The EO at doses of 100, 300, and 600 mg/kg i.p. produced a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect as evidenced by significant reduction in dysfunction in the pain-induced functional impairment model in the rat (PIFIR), mainly at high doses. Results suggest, at least in part, involvement of the serotonergic system via 5-HT1a receptors and endogenous opioids in the antinociceptive effect of R. officinalis essential oil in the PIFIR model. (see constituents above) (107)
• Antileishmanial Effect / Essential Oil and Nano-Emulsions: Study evaluated the antileishmanial effects of Rosmarinus officinalis and Lavandula augustifolia essential oils and nano-emulsions on Leishmania major. Both essential oil and nano-emulsions of lavander and rosemary showed antileishmanial activity on promastigote. On amastigote assay, lavander and rosemary EO and nano-emulsions were effective at least in concentration of 0.12 µl/mL and 0.06 µl/mL (p=0.0001, respectively, on mean infected macrophages and amastigotes macrophages. Cytotoxicity assay against macrophage revealed no toxicity on the host cells at IC50 concentrations. (108)
• Antioxidant Related Effects in Humans: Study evaluated the the antioxidant related effects of rosemary in humans by in vitro and in vivo studies. Rosemary extract showed efficient total antioxidant capacity, reducing power, scavenging activity of DPPH, scavenging activity of -OH, and reasonable iron chelating activity. Pre-incubation of erythrocytes in vitro with methanolic extract of rosemary exposed to H2O2 showed significantly decreased MDA production, PC production (anti-protein oxidant) and oxidant hemolysis (i.e. anti-hemolytic) in a concentration dependent manner. Oral administration of aqueous extracts to healthy volunteers significantly increased serum TAS, erythrocyte MDA, with no effect on kidney, liver, cardiac and pancreatic biological parameters. Results suggest efficient in vitro and in vivo antioxidant related effects with potential for improving baseline defense mechanisms against oxidative stress, with no adverse effects. (109)
• Antibacterial Synergism / Essential Oils: Study evaluated the antibacterial effects of three essential oils tested against three bacterial strains (ATCC: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). Results showed all three EOs have antibacterial activity against the three tested bacteria at 20 µl. In combination, study revealed the maximum required were 0.5 µl/ml for Artemisia herba alba and 1 µl/ml for Lavandula angustifolia and Rosmarinus officinalis. Results indicate a synergism for combination of lavender, wormwood and rosemary essential oils at very low concentrations compared to MICs. (110)
• Potential Complementary Agent in Anticancer Therapy: Rosemary has been reported to have antitumor activities both in vitro and in animal studies. Some studies attribute activities to its major components, such as carnosic acid, carnosol, ursolic acid, and rosmarinic acid. Initially, antitumor effects were attributed to its antioxidant activity. Recent studies have showed a lack of correlation between antitumor and antioxidant effects, and suggested molecular mechanisms to its tumor inhibitory properties. Review summarized the reported anticancer effects of rosemary, and the molecular mechanisms related to the effects, and the interactions between rosemary and currently used anticancer drugs, and discussed the potential of using rosemary extract as a complementary agent in cancer therapy. (111)
In the news
• Rosemary Aroma May Improve Prospective Memory: Study conducted by Dr. Jemma McCready and Dr. Mark Moss from the University of Northumbria, England, suggests the aroma of rosemary oil may improve prospective memory in adults. The EO may enhance the ability to remember events and remember complete tasks at particular times in the future. The EO was diffused in a testing room by placing four drops on an aroma stream fan diffuser. Participants in the rosemary-scented room performed better on the prospective memory tasks than participants in the room with no scent. Blood analysis showed significantly greater amounts of 1,8-cineole in the plasma of those in the rosemary scented room, suggesting the influence of aroma was mediated pharmacologically. (41)
• Rosemary and Longevity / The Italian Variant: In Acciaroli Italy, a pungent variety of locally grown rosemary, 10 times as strong as common rosemary, is a daily part of the diet, used on everything they cook. The local population, with more than usual nonagenarians and centenarians, about one in 60 is 90 or older, boasting of virtually no cataracts, no bone fractures, excellent cardio and low incidence of Alzheimer's disease, along with a high interest in sex,-- attributed to the consumption of their variety of rosemary. (113)
Rosemary oil in the cybermarket.