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Family Lamiaceae
Romero
Rosmarinus officinalis
ROSEMARY

Mi die xiang

Scientific names Common names
Rosmarinus angustifolius Mill. Dumero (Tag.)
Rosmarinus flexuosus Jord. & Fourr. Romero (C. Bis., Tag., Span.) 
Rosmarinus latifolius Mill. Rosmarino (Ital.) 
Rosmarinus laxiflorus Noë Rosemary (Engl.) 
Rosmarinus laxiflorus Noë ex lange  
Rosmarinus officinalis L.  
Rosmarinus palaui (O.Bolos & Molin) Rivas Mart. & Costa  
Rosmarinus prostatus Mazziari  
Rosmarinus rigidus Jord. & Fourr.  
Rosmarinus serotinus Loscos  
Rosmarinus tenuifolius Jord. & Fourr.  
Salvia fasciculata Fernald  
Salvia rosmarinus Schleid.  
Rosmarinus officinalis L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Iklil al jabal.
BULGARIAN: Rozmarin.
CHINESE: Mi die xiang.
CROATIAN: Ružmarin .
CZECH: Rozmarýna, Rozmarýna lékařská, Rozmarýn lékařský.
DANISH: Rosmarin.
DUTCH: Rozemarijn.
ESTONIAN: Harilik rosmariin, Rosmariin.
FINNISH: Rosmariini.
FRENCH: Romarin, Romarin commun.
GERMAN: Rosmarin.
GREEK: Dendrolivano, Dentrolivano, Rozmari.
HEBREW: Rozmarin.
HUNGARIAN: Rozmaring.
ICELANDIC: Rósmarín, Sædögg .
ITALIAN: Rosmarino.
JAPANESE: Mannenrou, Roozumari, Roozumarii, Rozumarii, Rosumarin, Mannenrou.
KOREAN: Ro ju ma ri.
NORWEGIAN: Rosmarin.
PERSIAN: Eklil kuhi, Rozmari.
POLISH: Rozmaryn.
PORTUGUESE: Alecrim.
RUSSIAN: Rozmarin.
SERBIAN: Ružmarin.
SLOVAKIAN: Rozmarín, Rozmarín lekársky.
SLOVENIAN: Rožmarin.
SPANISH: Romero, Romero comun, Rosmario.
SWEDISH: Rosmarin.
TURKISH: Biberiye, Hasalban, Kuşdili otu.
UKRAINIAN: Rozmaryn, Rozmaryn spravzhnii.
VIETNAMESE: Lá hương thảo.

Botany
Romero is a small, erect. flowering woody undershrub, about 1 meter high, with densely arranged branches and leaves. Leaves are linear, about 1 to 3 centimeters long, with strong revolute edges, the lower portion covered with gray hairs. Flowers are bluish, less than 1 centimeter long, borne on racemes 1 to 3 centimeters long.

Distribution
- Introduced from Europe.
- Commonly sold in markets.
- Cultivated in gardens for medicinal purposes.

Properties
- Antispasmodic, abortifacient, emmenagogue, stimulant, bitter tonic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, aromatic, nervine, stomachic, febrifuge.
- Bitter and astringent leaves considered diuretic, dissolvent, and aperient.
- Oil is carminative and stimulant.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antihyperglycemic, anti-obesity, radioprotective, anti-androgenic, antianxiety, antidermatophytic, hypolipidemic, renoprotective, anti-implantation, hepatoprotective, memory improvement properties.


Constituents
- Volatile oil, 1.2 - 2% - alpha-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene, rosemarin.
- The most important constituents are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid.
- Rosmarin oil contains d-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene and camphor.
- Study of essential oil yielded 29 chemical compounds. Main constituents were 1,8 cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). (see study below) (
24)
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 37 compounds. Major constituents were dimenthol (38.83%), campholene aldehyde (16.02%),
α-pinene (11.05%), borneol (10%), camphene (5.31%), and terpenyl acetate (4.92%). (see study below) (27)
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 23 compounds representing 63.81% of total oil. Major components were a-pinene (18.25%), camphor (6.02%), 1,8-cineole (5.25%), camphene (5.02%), ß-pinene (4.58%), bornylacetate (4.35%), limonene (3.56%), borneol (3.10%),
α-terpineol (2.89%), and cymene (2.02%). (29)

- Study of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil quantified 9 major terpenoid constituents. The major constituents were 1,8-cineole (52% of the oil by weight), α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor. (see study below) (33)
- GC and GC-MS analysis of essential oil yielded 36 components representing 95.33-97.03% of total oil composition. Main components were 1,8-cineole (22.61% - 23.85%), camphor (24.40% - 25.85%), α-pinene (10.74% - 12.59%), verbenone (4.90% - 5.77%), camphene (5.46% - 6.16%), β-pinene (3.28% - 4.02%), limonene (2.86% - 3.39%) and S-myrcene (1.89% - 1.95%). (see study below) (34)
- Study of crude extract of leaves yielded terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars and saponins. (see study below) (44)
- Essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation yielded 62 constituents representing 98.06 of total oil content. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant components. Constituents greater than 5% were camphor (18.9%), verbenone (11.3%), a-pinene (9.6%), ß-myrcene (8.6%), 1,8-cineole (8.0%), and ß-caryophyllene (5.1%). (see study below) (51)

Parts used
Leaves

Uses
Culinary
As condiment in flavoring and preserving meat.
Folkloric
- Steam of strong decoction of herb inhaled for coughs.
- D ecoction of herb used as diuretic..
- Gas pains: Take decoction of herb as needed.
- For rheumatism, affected area soaked in decoction of herb.
- Conjunctivitis: Infusion of leaves used as an eyewash, 4 to 5 times daily.
- Vapor baths, using 30 to 40 gms of leaves in boiling, water, used for rheumatism, catarrh.
- Juice of leaves applied to areas of thinning hair and dandruff; also, as rosemary vinegar.
- Rosemary tea also used as conditioning hair rinse,
- Infusion of leaves as tea for dyspepsia, flatulence.
- Decoction of leaves as mouthwash for gums disease, halitosis, sore throat.
- Decoction of herb used in aromatic baths.
- Infusion with oil for massages.
- Daily use of rosemary tea believed to prevent cataracts.
- For Hair wash:
Steep 25 g of rosemary in 2 pints of cider vinegar for two weeks, shaking occasionally; strain. In hair washing, put 1-2 tsp in the final rinse.
- For dandruff, massage rosemary vinegar thoroughly into scalp, 20 mins before washing.
- As hair restorer, romero is macerated in alcohol and rubbed on twice daily. The hair lotion is suppose to stimulate the hair bulbs to renewed activity and prevents baldness.
- Postpartum bath: Boil a head of petals in a quart of water). (Related article:
Suob)
- Used as antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhea.

- Decoction of leaves used as carminative and as an abortive.
- Infusion of leaves used for gastralgia, dyspepsia, flatulence and palpitations.
- Leaves used as febrifuge.
- In Mexico, a 2% infusion of leaves or its essence (6 drops every 24 hours) is considered stomachic.
- Volatile oil used as stimulant in liniments.
Others
- Rituals: Used to ward off evil.
- Cosmetics
: Rosemary essential oil and some components are used in make-ups.
- Memory enhancing: Hoping to aid memory, Greek students twined rosemary in their hair when studying for exams. (Parkinson 1567-1650) (44)

Studies
Antioxidant:
A study of the extracts of 8 Rosemary clones indicated the antioxidant capacity of volatile oils and plant extracts were closely related to the total phenol content. (1)
Phytochemicals / Rosmarinic Acid:
Studies yield rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, carnosolic acid, rosmanol, carnosol, diterpenes, among others. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from the GI tract and skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotrine B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and inhibits the complement system and presents therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.
Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Essential Oil:
Study evaluated the effects of rosemary essential oil on experimental models of nociception and inflammation in animals. Results showed significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema. The EO also showed significant antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, (3)

Antinociceptive: Study showed the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity and supports the use of the plant in folk medicine. (6)
Hyperglycemic / Volatile Oil:
A study showed the volatile oil of RO has hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects in rabbit. (4)
Antidiabetogenic: Study concluded that RO extracts showed antidiabetogenic effect probably from its potent antioxidant properties.
Radioprotective / Leaves:
Study of the modulatory influence of Rosemary leaves extract in Swiss albino mice dosed with 3 Gy gamma radiation showed increase in lipid peroxidation and regaining of hematologic parameters. Results suggest the possible radioprotective ability of the rosemary extract. (7)
Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effect:
The effects of volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves showed a direct smooth muscle relaxant effect in vitro testing of isolated aortic segments of rabbits. The inhibition of the contractions were dose-dependent and reversible. (8)
Antibacterial:
Study on the antibacterial activity of three selected plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana and Trigonella foenum-graecum) against beta lactamase-producing E coli and K pneumonia showed all three exhibited relatively low MICs and could be considered strong antibacterials. (9)
Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome / Aerial Parts: Study showed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis could diminish morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. (10)
Rosemary Scent / Cognitive Benefits / Alzheimer's Disease:
Study suggests the aroma of rosemary may boost cognitive performance. The study assessed cognitive performance and mood in 20 volunteers exposed to 1,8-cineole. Participants performed serial subtraction and visual information processing tasks in cubicles diffused with aroma of rosemary. Results suggested serum levels of 18-cineole correlated with performance outcomes (correct responses and reaction times). The relationship between cineole and mood was "less pronounced." Results presented implications for Alzheimer's disease. 1,8-cineole is a simple monoterpene-type compound found in many essential oils. The compound can inhibit acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Study concludes the compounds absorbed from rosemary aroma affect cognition and subjective state independently through different neurochemical pathways. (11)
Anti-Proliferative / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the anti-proliferative property of R. officinalis on several human cancer cell lines and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro in a mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage/monocyte cell line. Results showed the crude ethanolic extract to have differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells. RO also showed substantial antioxidant activity. (14)
Antibacterial / Anti-Cancer / Essential Oil:
Study evaluated the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis and three of its main components
1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and β-pinene for in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. The essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. The essential oil also exhibited strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. (15)
Lipid Benefits and Hypoglycemic Effects:
Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and lipid effects of RO in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with rosemary for four weeks. Results showed a decrease in sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with an increase in HDL cholesterol. (16)
Effects on Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion:
Study evaluated the effect of intake of oral rosemary extract (gavage) on hemodynamic changes and tissue damages caused by I/R (ischemia / reperfusion. Results showed a significant reduction in plasma creatinine, BUN, absolute excretion of sodium, and an increase in absolute potassium excretion. Histopathological exam revealed a significant decrease in vascular congestion, Bowman's capsule space and oxidative stress.
(17)
Male Antifertility Potential:
Study evaluated the antifertility potential of an ethanolic extract of R. officinalis in male albino rats. Results showed microscopic changes in the testis, compression of most of the seminiferous tubules, with irregular basement membrane and devoid of spermatogenic cells. Study revealed morphological evidence of dose dependent antifertility potential. (18)
Antihypotensive / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of essential oil on primary hypotension. Results showed a clinically significant antihypotensive effect.
(19)
Renoprotective / Essential Oil:
Study evaluated the protective role of rosemary on CCl4-induced renal damage. Exposure to CCl4 is known to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species. Results showed a renoprotective effect which was attributed to its antioxidant activity. (
20)
Androgenic Effect / Male Contraceptive Potential:
Study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult male Wistar rats. Results showed RO may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which may contribute to the spermatogenesis process in rat. RO may have androgenic effect and a potential as an herbal male contraceptive. (
21)
Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves:
Study of rosemary leaf extracts confirmed antioxidant (DPPH and total phenolic content), antibacterial, and antifungal (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Candida albicans) activities. (
23)
Hepatoprotective / Essential Oil:
Study of rosemary essential oil in rats with carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage showed prevention of CCl4-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Pretreatment also significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. (see constituents above) (
24)
Anti-Implantation Effects: Study evaluated the embryotoxic effects of rosemary plant on two different periods of Wistar rat pregnancy. Results suggest an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation. (25)

Anti-Acne / Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation:
Study investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Results showed significant suppression of secretion and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In an in vivo mouse model. concomitant intradermal injection of the ethanolic extract attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. (26)
Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Activity was attributed to main essential oil components. (27)
Inhibitory Against Food-Borne Pathogens / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of R. officinalis with high antibacterial activity could be a potential source for inhibitory substances against some food-borne pathogens and has the potential for use in food or food-processing systems. (28)
Anti-Inflammatory / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of R. officinalis essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw edema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Findings showed suppression of the extent of paw edema and protective effects on colonic mucosa and significantly decreased macroscopic scores for colonic inflammation. Results showed rosemary essential oil is able to influence several variables of murine experimental inflammatory models. (30)
• Effect on Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Humans: Study evaluated the effects of Rosemary leaves powder on glucose level and lipid profile in human. Rosmarinus officinalis improved not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemia in a dose-dependent manner and decreased lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant levels and suggests a potential to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. (31)
• Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome / Clinical Trial: Study evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse in a clinical trial of 81 patients. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves while the control group was treated with methadone and placebo. Results showed less severe withdrawal syndrome (bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia) in the case group compared to the control group. Study suggests rosemary has potential as an optional extra drug for treatment of opium withdrawal syndrome. (32)

• Insecticidal / Oil: Rosemary oil has insecticidal properties and is an active ingredient in a number of commercial insectides. Study explored the relationship between chemical composition and insecticidal activity of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil. Results suggest that the toxicity of rosemary oil, at least to lepidopteran larvae, is due to the combined and possibly synergistic effects of several constituents, with no individual compound making a dominating contribution. (see constituents above) (33)
• No Seasonal Variation in Essential Oil Composition: Study in the hilly region of north India showed there were no drastic changes in the essential oil content and composition of rosemary due to season. Results suggests the crop may be harvested in any season to get good quality oil. (see constituents above) (34)
• Drug Interactions: Rosemary can affect the activity of various medications: anticoagulants (aspirin, coumadin, clopidogrel), ace inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril), diuretics (may increase the effect of diuretics like furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide) and lithium (may increase lithium to toxic levels). (36)
• Skin Protective and Antiageing Effects / Combination of Rosemary and Grapefruit: Study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure and in improving skin wrinkling and elasticity. Results showed the long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun® can be considered a complementary nutrition strategy therapy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The effects may be due to inhibition of UVR-induced ROS and inflammatory markers (lipoperoxides and cytokines), as well as their direct action on intracellular signaling pathways. (37)
• Carnosol / Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of R. officinalis extract and its major constituent, carnosol, in male NMRI mice. Results conclude that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin through inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity. (38)
• Dentrifice / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a dentrifrice containing an alcoholic extract of rosemary on oral bacteria. The toothpaste containing rosemary extract exhibited an ability to inhibit the growth of S. mutans, S. oralis and L. rhamnosus suggest an antimicrobial activity similar to commercially available toothpastes for inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis. (39)
(40)
• Skin Tolerance Activity / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the yield and chemical properties of rosemary and white poplar essential oil. Skin test tolerance of EO was conductied by measurement of primary irritation index. The EO of both plants are of acceptable quality. The EO of Rosmarinus officinalis is non-irritating to the skin while the EO of Populus albais is slightly irritating. (40)
• Embryotoxic Effects: Study evaluated if rosemary plant induces abortion and/or interfere with the normal development of the concepts, doses of 26 mg of 30% (w/v). Results suggest rosemary extract may have an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation. (42)
• Anti-Neuropathic / Terpenoid: Study evaluated the neuroprotective properties of R. officinalis. Results showed a hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect the nervous tissues. Effect is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs (nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine). (43)
• Cytotoxicity / Toxicity Study: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity using dichlormethane extract was 168 µg/ml. Median lethal dose of an aqueous extract in albino Wistar rats was estimated to be >5000 mg/kbw. (44)
• Antioxidant / Rosmarinic Acid: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities of three pure compounds viz. carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and sesamol and two plants extracts (rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil) by DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging assays and ferric thiocyanate test. The rosemary extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the blackseed essential oil. rosemary was also found to have a higher phenolic content. (45)
• Protective Effect on Astrocytes: Study evaluated the protective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts on astrocytes culture submitted to oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Results showed a protective effect via antioxidant activity which may involved mechanisms others than a direct effect on ROS production or modulation of glutathione activity. (46)
Short-Term Effect on Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study investigated the possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. (47)
• In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibition of Leukocyte migration by Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of REA (rosemary essential oil) on leucocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. Main EO components were camphor 27.59%, 1-8-cineole 15.74%, a-pinene (16.58%) and ß-myrcene 20.01%. All doses of REO tested significant inhibited leucocyte chemotaxis by cassein. The effect of REO on leucocyte migration highlights an important anti-inflammatory mechanism of Ro. (48)
• Low Intestinal Permeability / Polyphenol and Terpenoids: Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted interest because of potential health benefits. Study evaluated the permeation properties of bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) in Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Results suggested most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is likely to be the primary mechanism of absorption. Use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract reduced the permeability of most compounds. Most compounds can be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability). (49)
• Effect on Immune Response and Lipid Profile: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of rosemary leaves and immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract on BALB/c mice. There was a significant decrease Pp<0.001) in plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and TG with a significant increase in HDL. Humoral immunity against membrane proteins of sheep erythrocytes showed a significant increase in IgM response. Only a 100 mg/kg rosemary induced significant increase in Con A-induced T-cell proliferation, whereas lower doses had no significant effect. Results suggest further studies to determine the active constituents responsible for the hypolipidemic effect and the stimulatory effect on some parameters of immune response. (50)
• Antibacterial Activity Against Oral Pathogens / Essential Oil: Essential oil yielded 62 constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the oil as well as its major constituents were tested against Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, considered potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The EO exhibited low activity against the selected microorganisms. S. mitis was the most susceptible, E. faecalis, the most resistant. Pure compounds were more active than the essential oil. (see constituents above) (51)
• Polyphenolic Content / Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated various extracts of R. officinalis from dry and fresh herbs for antioxidant properties. A hydroalcoholic extract yielded the highest concentration of total polyphenols (0.601 mg/ml rosmarinic acid), total flavonoids (0.270 mg/ml luteoline) and romarinic acid (0.350 mg/ml). High polyphenolic content was confirmed by high values of antioxidant activity in various assays, i.e., DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, and SNP. Results suggest the importance of using fresh plants to obtain good quality extracts. (52)
• Anticancer / Effect on Adenosine Deaminase Activity: Study investigated the aqueous extracts of R. officinalis, U. diocia, and soybean on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues removed by by surgical operations. The rosemary extract inhibited ADA enzyme in cancerous (p<0.031) and noncancerous gastric tissues (p-0.948), but not in colon tissues. The ADA enzymeinhibition may play a part in the proposed anti-cancer activity. (53)
• Essential Oil as a Modulator of Bacterial Resistance / Leaves: Study evaluated the essential oil of leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis as a modulator of resistance bacterial drug on four strains of E. coli resistant amipicillin (AMP) and tetracycline (TET) and four Salmonella spp. strains resistant to nitrofurantoin (NIT). All strains showed susceptibility to the combined action of EO with antibiotics. Results suggest a potential for the used of rosemary EO in combination with antibiotics to combat pathogenic bacterial. (54)
• Protective Effect Against DNA Damage / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficiency of essential oil of RO to protect the DNA against free radical damages. GC-MS analysis of EO yielded camphor (22/35%), verbenone (23.48%), borneol (16.63% and eucalyptol (11.73%) as major components. The EO exhibited protection against DNA scission induced by OH- radicals generated from photolysis UV/H2O2. (55)
• Antifibrotic Effect in CCl4-Induced Liver Dysfunction / Leaves: Study evaluated the antifibrotic effect of Rosmarinus officinalis in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver dysfunction in rats. RO leaves powder supplementation prevented the rise of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and AOPP in plasma and liver tissues in CCl4 treated rats together with amelioration histological changes i.e., necrosis, periportal inflammation, iron deposition and fibrosis in the liver. (56)
• Antidepressant: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of R. officinalis in male Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant reduction of immobility time and increased swimming time in the forced swimming test. The antidepressant effect was comparable to that of imipramine in mice. (57)
• Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing effects of 5% R. officinalis extract compared to povidone-iodine and isotonic saline in incisional cutaneous wounds in a rabbit model. Results demonstrated the antiseptic, antimicrobial, and epitheliazing effects of rosemary extract on wound healing. Rabbits treated with rosemary extract healed faster than similar wounds treated with povidone-iodine and isotonic saline solution. (58)
• Antibiofilm Activity: Study evaluated the effects of R. officinalis (rosemary) and Syzygium cumini (jambolan) glycolic extracts and 0.12% chlorhexidine in biofilms formed by strains of coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative (CNS) Staphylococcus isolated from the oral cavity. R. officinalis promoted biofilm reductions from 12.1% to 78.7% in biofilms formed by strains of CPS, and 9.2% to 73.7% in biolfilms of CNS. (59)
• Rosemary Oil for Androgenetic Alopecia: Study investigated the clinical efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and compared its effects with 2% minoxidil. Both groups experienced significant increase in hair count at the 6-month endpoint. Scalp itching was more frequent in the minoxidil group. Results provide evidence for rosemary oil in the treatment of AGA. (61)
• Promotion of Hair Growth / Leaves:Topical administration of R. officinalis leaf extract improved hair regrowth in a mice model that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. Study investigated the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-extract and focused on the inhibition of testosterone 5a-reductase. Results showed inhibitory activity. !2-Methoxycarnosic acid was identified as an active constituent of 5a-reduction inhibition. Study suggest the inhibition of binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Results suggest RO-ext as a promising crude drug for hair growth. (62)

In the news
Rosemary Aroma May Improve Prospective Memory:
Study conducted by Dr. Jemma McCready and Dr. Mark Moss from the University of Northumbria, England, suggests the aroma of rosemary oil may improve prospective memory in adults. The EO may enhance the ability to remember events and remember complete tasks at particular times in the future. The EO was diffused in a testing room by placing four drops on an aroma stream fan diffuser. Participants in the rosemary-scented room performed better on the prospective memory tasks than participants in the room with no scent. Blood analysis showed significantly greater amounts of 1,8-cineole in the plasma of those in the rosemary scented room, suggesting the influence of aroma was mediated pharmacologically. (41)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
 
Rosemary oil in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Updated November 2017 / May 2017 / March 2016


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Public Domain / Flora von Deutschland Osterreich und der Schweiz (1885) / Rosmarinus officinalis / GNU Free Documentation License / Kurt Stueber, 2007 / www.BioLib.de
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flowers / Rosmarinus officinalis 'Tuscan Blue' / Rosmarinus officinalis 'Tuscan Blue'1.jpg / Kenpei / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikipedia

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antioxidant effect of various rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) clones
Volume 47(1-4):111-113, 2003 / Acta Biologica Szegediensis
(2)
Rosemary vinegar / The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Natural Remedies, p. 127 / Norman Shealy, MD., PhD / ElementBooks 1998
(3)
Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive Effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil in Experimental Animal Models / I. Takaki, L.E. Bersani-Amado, A. Vendruscolo, S.M. Sartoretto, S.P. Diniz, C.A. Bersani-Amado, and R.K.N. Cuman / Journal of Medicinal Food. December 2008, 11(4): 741-746. / doi:10.1089/jmf.2007.0524.
(4)
Hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory effects of Rosmarinus officinalis
J Ethnopharmacol/22Jul1994;43(3):217-21
(5)
Pharmacology of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.) and its therapeutic potentials / M R Al-Sereitia et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology • Vol. 37, February 1999, pp.124-131
(6)
Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. using three different experimental models in rodents / M E Gonzalez-Trujano et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 111, Issue 3, 22 May 2007, Pages 476-482 / doi:10.1016/j.jep.2006.12.011
(7)
PREVENTION OF RADIATION INDUCED HEMATOLOGICAL ALTERATIONS BY MEDICINAL PLANT ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS, IN MICE / Garima Sancheti and P K Goyal / African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative medicines (AJTCAM), Vol 4, No 2 (2007)
(8)
A Vascular Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis /
Mahmoud B. Aqel / Summary
Pharmaceutical Biology • 1992, Vol. 30, No. 4, Pages 281-288 / DOI 10.3109/13880209209054014/

(9)
Antibacterial Activity of the Extracts Obtained from Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana, and Trigonella foenum-graecum on Highly Drug-Resistant Gram Negative Bacilli / Roula Abdel-Massih, Elias Abdou et al / Journal of Botany, Vol 2010 (2010), Article ID 464087, 8 pages / doi:10.1155/2010/464087
(10)
Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis L. aerial parts extract on morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice / Hossein Hosseinzadeh and Mahnaz Nourbakhsh / Phytotherapy Research, Vol 17, Issue 8, pages 938–941, September 2003
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Scent of Rosemary May Boost Cognitive Performance
/ Megan Brooks / Medscape Medical News
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Plasma 1,8-cineole correlates with cognitive performance following exposure to rosemary essential oil aroma / Mark Moss / Therapeutic Advances in Psychopharmacology, February 24, 2012/ 2045125312436573

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Sorting Rosmarinus names / /Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1995 - 2020 / A Work in Progress. School of Agriculture and Food Systems. Faculty of Land & Food Resources. The University of Melbourne. Australia.
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Anti-proliferative and antioxidant properties of rosemary Rosmarinus officinalis.
/ Cheung S1, Tai J. / Oncol Rep. 2007 Jun;17(6):1525-31.
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Antibacterial Activity and Anticancer Activity of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Compared to That of Its Main Components / Wei Wang, Nan Li, Meng Luo, Yuangang Zu,* and Thomas Efferth / Molecules 2012, 17, 2704-2713; doi:10.3390/molecules17032704
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Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) on Lipid Profile of Diabetic Rats
/ Abdul-Rahim Al-Jamal,* and Taha Alqadi / Jordan Journal of Biological Sciences, Vol 4, No 4, December 2011, pp 199-204.
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The Study of the Effects of Post Treatment with Rosmarinus Officinalis Aqueous Extract the First 48 Hours after Renal Ischemia/Reperfusion in Rats / Saeed Changizi Ashtiyani , Marzieh Zohrabi, Akbar Hassanpoor, Saeed Hajihashemi , Nasser Hosseini / Journal of Physiology and Pathophysiology Vol. 3(2), pp. 12-19, March 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JPAP11.035
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An Electron Microscopic Study of the Antifertility Potential of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) in Male Albino Rats / Rania A. Salah El-Din, Abd El-Rahman El-Shahat & Rasha Ahmed Elmansy / Int. J. Morphol., 30(2):666-672, 2012.
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EFFECTIVENESS OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS ESSENTIAL OIL AS ANTIHYPOTENSIVE AGENT IN PRIMARY HYPOTENSIVE PATIENTS AND ITS INFLUENCE ON HEALTH-RELATED QUALITY OF LIFE. / J Fernández LF, Palomino OM, Frutos G. / Ethnopharmacol. 2013 Nov 20. / doi: 10.1016/j.jep.2013.11.006.
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Protective Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis) Leaves Extract on Carbon Tetrachloride - Induced Nephrotoxicity in Albino Rats / Saber A. Sakr and Hawazen A. Lamfon / Life Science Journal, 2012;9(1)
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Evaluation of an Aqueous-Ethanolic Extract from Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) for its Activity on the Hormonal and Cellular Function of Testes in Adult Male Rat / Hamed Heidari-Vala, Reza Ebrahimi Hariry, Mohammad Reza Sadeghi, Mohammad Mehdi Akhondia, Marefat Ghaffari Novin and Mahnaz Heidari* /
Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research (2013), 12 (2): 445-451
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Rosmarinus officinalis / Synonyms / The Plant List
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Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) - a study of the composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of extracts obtained with supercritical carbon dioxide / Aziza Kamal Genena; Haiko Hense, *; Artur Smânia Junior; Simone Machado de Souza /
Ciênc. Tecnol. Aliment. vol.28 no.2 Campinas Apr./June 2008 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0101-20612008000200030
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Antioxidant activity of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) essential oil and its hepatoprotective potential./
Rašković A, Milanović I, Pavlović N1, Ćebović T, Vukmirović S, Mikov M. / BMC Complement Altern Med. 2014 Jul 7;14:225 / doi: 10.1186/1472-6882-14-225.
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Study of the embryotoxic effects of an extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). / Lemonica IP, Damasceno DC, di-Stasi LC. / Braz J Med Biol Res. 1996 Feb;29(2):223-7.
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Rosmarinus officinalis Extract Suppresses Propionibacterium acnes–Induced Inflammatory Responses /
Tsung-Hsien Tsai, Lu-Te Chuang, Tsung-Jung Lien, Yau-Rong Liing, Wei-Yu Chen, and Po-Jung Tsai / J Med Food. 2013 Apr; 16(4): 324–333. / doi: 10.1089/jmf.2012.2577
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Extraction and study of the essential oil Rosmarinus Officinalis Cuellie in the Region of Taza, Morocco /
N. Chahboun, A. Esmail, N. Rhaiem, H. Abed, R. Amiyare, M. Barrahi, M.Berrabeh, H.Oudda, M.Ouhssine / Der Pharma Chemica, 2014, 6(3):367-372
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Study of effect Rosmarinus officinalis oil and nisin on the growth of Streptococcus iniae in lab conditions and fillets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). / Roomiani, Laleh / PhD Thesis 2012 / Islamic Azad University, Science and Research Branch, Tehran, 147pp.
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AROMATIC AND MEDICINAL PLANTS OF MOROCCO: CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ESSENTIAL OILS OF Rosmarinus officinalis AND Juniperus Phoenicea / E Derwich, Z Benziane, R Chabir / International Journal of Applied Biology and Pharmaceutical Technology, Volume: 2: Issue-1: Jan-Mar 2011
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Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Rosmarinus of cinalis Essential Oil in Mice / Štefan Juhás, Alexandra Bukovská, Štefan Čikoš, Soňa Czikková, Dušan Fabian, Juraj Koppel / ACTA VET. BRNO 2009, 78: 121–127; doi:10.2754/avb200978010121
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The Effects of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) Leaves Powder on Glucose Level, Lipid Profile and Lipid Perodoxation / Louay Labban, Usama El-Sayed Mustafa, Yasser Mahmoud Ibrahim / IJCM, Vol.5 No.6, March 2014 / DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.56044
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Beneficial Effects of Rosmarinus Officinalis for Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome during Addiction Treatment Programs: A Clinical Trial / Hassan Solhi, MD, Bahman Salehi, MD, Abbas Alimoradian, PhD, Shirin Pazouki, MD, Mohsen Taghizadeh, MD, Ali Mohammad Saleh, MD, and Amir Mohammad Kazemifar, MD / Addict Health. 2013 Summer-Autumn; 5(3-4): pp 90–94.
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Insecticidal Activities of Commercial Rosemary Oils (Rosmarinus officinalis.) Against Larvae of Pseudaletia unipuncta. and Trichoplusia ni. in Relation to Their Chemical Compositions / Murray B. Isman, Joanne A. Wilson & Rod Bradbury / Pharmaceutical Biology, 2008, Vol. 46, Nos. 1–2, pp. 82–87
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VOLATILE TERPENOID COMPOSITION OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS, "CIM-HARIYALI": VARIABILITY IN NORTH INDIA DURING ANNUAL GROWTH / R.S. VERMA*, L. RAHMAN, S. MISHRAc, R.K. VERMA, A. SINGH, A. CHAUHAN, A.K. YADAV / J. Chil. Chem. Soc. vol.57 no.2 Concepción 2012 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072012000200001
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Study on the Extraction Process for Carnosic Acid from Rosmarinus officinalis Linn. / WEI Jing; WANG Shang-wen; YU Hao-fei; ZHAO Rong-hua; WANG Kou; ZHANG Rong-ping / Journal of Kunming Medical University / Kunming Yike Daxue Xuebao, 2015, Vol. 36 Issue 1, p58-61
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Rosemary: Health benefits, precautions, and drug interactions / Medical News Today
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SKIN PHOTOPROTECTIVE AND ANTIAGEING EFFECTS OF A COMBINATION OF ROSEMARY (ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS) AND GRAPEFRUIT (CITRUS PARADISI) POLYPHENOLS / Vincenzo Nobile*, Angela Michelotti, Enza Cestone, Nuria Caturla, Julián Castillo, Obdulio Benavente-García, Almudena Pérez-Sánchez and Vicente Micol / Food & Nutrition Research, Vol 60, 2016 / http://dx.doi.org/10.3402/fnr.v60.31871
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Hydroalcoholic Extract of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and its Constituent Carnosol Inhibit Formalin-induced Pain and Inflammation in Mice. / F. Emami, H. Ali-Beig, S. Farahbakhsh, N. Mojabi, B. Rastegar-Moghadam, S. Arbabian, M. Kazemi, E. Tekieh, L. Golmanesh, M. Ranjbaran, C. Jalili, A. Noroozzadeh and H. Sahraei / Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences, 16: 309-316, 2013 / DOI: 10.3923/pjbs.2013.309.316
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Dentifrice Containing Extract of Rosmarinus officinalis Linn.: An Antimicrobial Evaluation / Marcela Agne Alves Valones, Jane Sheila Higino, Paulo Roberto Eleutério Souza, Sérgio Crovella, Arnaldo de França Caldas Júnior, Alessandra de Albuquerque Tavares Carvalho / Brazilian Dental Journal (2016) 27(5): 497-501 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0103-6440201600672
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Study of Chemical Properties and Skin Tolerance Activity of Essential Oils Extracted from Rosmarinus officinalis and Populusalba / Belkhodja Hamza, Meddah Boumediene, and Tir Touil Aicha / Int J. Mol Biol Open Acess 2017, 2(3):00025
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New Study: Rosemary Aroma May Improve Prospective Memory /  Natali Anderson / Apr 12, 2013 / Sci•New
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Study of the embryotoxic effects of an extract of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.). / Lemoica P, Damasceno DC, Di-Stasi LC / Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research = Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Medicas e Biologicas, 01 Feb 1996, 29(2):223-227.
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Anti-neuropathic effects of Rosmarinus officinalis L. terpenoid fraction: relevance of nicotinic receptors
/ Lorenzo Di Cesare MannelliLaura MicheliMario Maresca.Giancarlo Cravotto, Maria Bellumori, mzrzia Innocenti, Nadi Mulinacci, and Calda Ghelardini / Scienftic Reports
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PHYTOCHEMICAL COMPOSITION , CYTOTOXICITY A ND TOXICOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ROS MARINUS OFFICINALIS, CATHARANTHUS ROSEUS AND MYRSINE AFRICANA CRUDE EXTRACTS / Z elipha N Kabubii / Thesis: 2015
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Antioxidant activities of rosemary (Rosmarinus Officinalis L.) extract, blackseed (Nigella sativa L.) essential oil, carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid and sesamol / Naciye Ekran, Guler Ayranci, Erol Ayranci / Food Chemistry Vol 110, Issue 1, September 2008 / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2008.01.058
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Preliminary Studies on the Protective Effect of Rosmarinus Officinalis on Astrocytes / Manal A Abuashwashi, Olga M Palomino* and M Pilar Gómez Serranillos / J of Pharmacol & Clin Res , Vol 1, Issue 2, March 2016
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Short-Term Study on the Effects of Rosemary on Cognitive Function in an Elderly Population / Andrew Pengelly, James Snow, Simon Y. Mills, Andrew Scholey, Keith Wesnes, and Leah Reeves Butler / J Med Food 14 (0) 2011 / DOI: 10.1089/jmf.2011.0005
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Rosmarinus officinalis L. Essential Oil Inhibits In Vivo and In Vitro Leukocyte Migration
/ Gessilda Alcantara Nogueira de Melo, Renata Grespan, Jefferson Pitelli Fonseca, Thiago Oliveira Farinha, Expedito Leite Silva, Adriano Lopes Romero, Ciomar A. Bersani-Amado, and Roberto Kenji Nakamura Cuman / Journal of Medicinal Food. August 2011, 14(9): 944-946. /  https://doi.org/10.1089/jmf.2010.0159
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Evaluation of the intestinal permeability of rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) extract polyphenols and terpenoids in Caco-2 cell monolayers / Almudena Pérez-Sánchez, Isabel Borrás-Linares, Enrique Barrajón-Catalán, David Arráez-Román, Isabel González-Álvarez, Elena Ibáñez, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Marival Bermejo, Vicente Micol  / PLOS/one / https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.01720632017
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The Effect of Rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis. L) Plant Extracts on the Immune Response and Lipid Profile in Mice / Fawzi Mohammad Al Sheyab, Nizar Abuharfeil, Lina Salloum, Reham Bani Hani, Dalal Saleh Awad / Josurnal of Biology and Life Science 2012, Vol. 3, No. 1 / doi:10.5296/jbls.v3i1.906
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Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oil from Rosmarinus officinalis and its Major Components against Oral Pathogens / Wagner A. Bernardes, Rodrigo Lucarini, Marcos G. Tozatti, Lúzio G. Bocalon Flauzino, Maria G. M. Souza, Isabel C. C. Turatti, Márcio L. Andrade e Silva, Carlos H. G. Martins, Ademar A. da Silva Filho, Wilson R. Cunha* / Z. Naturforsch. 65 c, 588 – 593 (2010)
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The study of polyphenolic compounds profile of some Rosmarinus officinalis L. extracts. / Olah, Neli-Kinga; Osser, Gyongyi; Câmpean, Ramona Flavia; Furtuna, Flavia Roxana; Benedec, Daniela; Filip, Lorena; Raita, Oana; Hanganu, Daniela / Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences . Nov 2016 Supplement, Vol. 29, pp 2355-2361
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Aqueous extracts of Rosmarinus officinalis, Urtica diocia, and soybean exert different effects on adenosine deaminase activity in cancerous and noncancerous human gastric and colon tissues / Zahide Esra Durak, Hikmet Can Cubukcu, Suleyman Buber, Hilmi Kocaoglu, Iiker Durak / Journal of Health Research & Reviews (2016) Vol 3, Issue 1, pp 24-27
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Evaluation of the rosemary essential oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) as modulator of bacterial resistance / Daniele Silva Ribeiro, Daniela Benevides Melo, Alaíse Gil Guimarães, Eudes Silva Velozo / Semina: Ciencias Agrarias, Vol 33, No 2 (2012)
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CHEMICAL COMPOSITION AND DNA DAMAGE PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ESSENTIAL OIL OF ROSMARINUS OFFICINALIS AND POPULUS ALBA / Belkhodja Hamza*, Meddah Boumediene, Tir Touil Aicha, Şekeroğlu Nazim / International Journal of Phytopharmacology. 7(4), 2016, 196-201.
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Supplementation of Rosemary Leaves (Rosmarinus officinalis) Powder Attenuates Oxidative Stress, Inflammation and Fibrosis in Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) Treated Rats / Md Abu Taher Sagor, Hasan Mahmud Reza, Nabila Tabassum, Biswajit Sikder, Anayt Ulla, Nusrat Subhan, Md Hemayet Hossain, Md Ashraful Alam / Current Nutrition & Food Science, Vol 12, Issue 4 (2016) / DOI: 10.2174/1573401312666160816154610
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Antidepressant-Like Effect of Rosmarinus officinalis Extract in Male Mice / Entisar J Al Mukhtar, Selman M Selman, Zena Hasan Sahib, Hamid Naji / Medical Journal of Babylon, Vol 10, No 4 (2013)
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The Effects of Rosemary (Rosemarinus officinalis) Extract on Wound Healing in Rabbits* / Rahsan Yilmaz, Zafer Ozyildiz, Fusun Temma / F.Ü.Sağ.Bil.Vet.Derg. ARAŞTIRMA 2012; 26 (2): 105 - 109
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Antibiofilm activity in vitro of Rosmarinus officinalis and Syzygium cumini glycolic extracts on Staphylococcus spp. of dentistry interest / Fernanda FREIRE, Cristiane Aparecida PEREIRA, Luciane Dias OLIVEIRA, Juliana Campos JUNQUEIRA, Antonio Olavo Cardoso JORGE / Braz Dent Sci (2017) Apr/Jun; 20(2) / doi: 10.14295/bds.2017.v20i2.1430
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The Effectiveness of Botanical Extracts as Repellents Against Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes / AMNH
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Rosemary oil vs minoxidil 2% for the treatment of androgenetic alopecia: a randomized comparative trial. / Panahi Y, Taghizaden M, Marzony ET, Sahebkar A / Skinmed. 2015 Jan-Feb;13(1):15-21.
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Promotion of Hair Growth by Rosmarinus officinalisLeaf Extract / Kazuya Murata, Kazuma Noguchi, Masato Kondo, Mariko Onishi, Naoko Watanabe / Katsumasa Okamura, Hideaki Matsuda / Phytotherapy Reserach, Vol 27, Issue 2, February 2014, Pp 212-217 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.4712

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