Romero is a small, erect. flowering
woody undershrub, about 1 meter high, with densely arranged branches
and leaves. Leaves are linear, about 1 to 3 centimeters long, with strong revolute edges,
the lower portion covered with gray hairs. Flowers are bluish, less than 1 centimeter long, borne on racemes 1 to 3 centimeters long.
- Introduced from Europe.
- Commonly sold in markets.
- Cultivated in gardens for medicinal purposes.
- Antispasmodic, abortifacient, emmenagogue,
stimulant, bitter tonic, astringent, carminative, diaphoretic, aromatic,
nervine, stomachic, febrifuge.
- Bitter and astringent leaves considered diuretic, dissolvent, and aperient.
- Oil is carminative and stimulant.
- Studies have suggested antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antinociceptive, antihyperglycemic, anti-obesity, radioprotective, anti-androgenic, antianxiety, antidermatophytic, hypolipidemic, renoprotective, anti-implantation, hepatoprotective, memory improvement properties.
- Volatile oil, 1.2 - 2%
- alpha-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene, rosemarin.
- The most important constituents are caffeic acid and its derivatives such as rosmarinic acid.
- Rosmarin oil contains d-pinene, cineol, borneol, camphene and camphor.
- Study of essential oil yielded 29 chemical compounds. Main constituents were 1,8 cineole (43.77%), camphor (12.53%), and α-pinene (11.51%). (see study below) (24)
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 37 compounds. Major constituents were dimenthol (38.83%), campholene aldehyde (16.02%), α-pinene (11.05%), borneol (10%), camphene (5.31%), and terpenyl acetate (4.92%). (see study below) (27)
- Study of leaf essential oil yielded 23 compounds representing 63.81% of total oil. Major components were a-pinene (18.25%), camphor (6.02%), 1,8-cineole (5.25%), camphene (5.02%), ß-pinene (4.58%), bornylacetate (4.35%), limonene (3.56%), borneol (3.10%), α-terpineol (2.89%), and cymene (2.02%). (29)
- Study of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil quantified 9 major terpenoid constituents. The major constituents were
1,8-cineole (52% of the oil by weight), α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphor. (see study below) (33)
- GC and GC-MS analysis of essential oil yielded 36 components representing 95.33-97.03% of total oil composition. Main components were
1,8-cineole (22.61% - 23.85%), camphor (24.40% - 25.85%), α-pinene (10.74% - 12.59%), verbenone (4.90% - 5.77%), camphene (5.46% - 6.16%), β-pinene (3.28% - 4.02%), limonene (2.86% - 3.39%) and S-myrcene (1.89% - 1.95%).
(see study below) (34)
- Study of crude extract of leaves
yielded terpenoids, tannins, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, reducing sugars and saponins. (see study below) (44)
- Essential oil obtained by hydro-distillation yielded 62 constituents representing 98.06 of total oil content. Oxygenated monoterpenes were the dominant components. Constituents greater than 5% were camphor (18.9%), verbenone (11.3%), a-pinene (9.6%),
and ß-caryophyllene (5.1%). (see study below) (51)
As condiment in flavoring
and preserving meat.
- Steam of strong decoction of herb inhaled for coughs.
- Decoction of herb used as diuretic..
- Gas pains: Take decoction of herb as needed.
- For rheumatism, affected area soaked in decoction of herb.
- Conjunctivitis: Infusion of leaves used as an eyewash, 4 to 5 times
- Vapor baths, using 30 to 40 gms of leaves in boiling, water, used for rheumatism,
- Juice of leaves applied to areas of thinning hair and dandruff; also,
as rosemary vinegar.
- Rosemary tea also used as conditioning hair rinse,
- Infusion of leaves as tea for dyspepsia, flatulence.
- Decoction of leaves as mouthwash for gums disease, halitosis, sore throat.
- Decoction of herb used in aromatic baths.
- Infusion with oil for massages.
- Daily use of rosemary tea believed to prevent cataracts.
- For Hair wash: Steep 25
g of rosemary in 2 pints of cider vinegar for two weeks, shaking occasionally;
strain. In hair washing, put 1-2 tsp in the final rinse.
- For dandruff, massage rosemary vinegar thoroughly into scalp, 20 mins
- As hair restorer, romero is macerated in alcohol and rubbed on twice daily. The hair lotion is suppose to stimulate the hair bulbs to renewed activity and prevents baldness.
- Postpartum bath: Boil a head of petals in a quart of water). (Related
- Used as antispasmodic in renal colic and dysmenorrhea.
- Decoction of leaves used as carminative and as an abortive.
- Infusion of leaves used for gastralgia, dyspepsia, flatulence and palpitations.
- Leaves used as febrifuge.
- In Mexico, a 2% infusion of leaves or its essence (6 drops every 24 hours) is considered stomachic.
- Volatile oil used as stimulant in liniments.
- Rituals: Used to ward off evil.
- Cosmetics: Rosemary essential oil and some components are used in make-ups.
- Memory enhancing: Hoping to aid memory, Greek students twined rosemary in their hair when studying for exams. (Parkinson 1567-1650) (44)
• Antioxidant: A study of the extracts of 8 Rosemary clones
indicated the antioxidant capacity of volatile oils and plant extracts
were closely related to the total phenol content. (1)
• Phytochemicals / Rosmarinic Acid: Studies yield rosmarinic acid, ursolic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, carnosolic acid, rosmanol, carnosol, diterpenes, among others. Rosmarinic acid is well absorbed from the GI tract and skin. It increases the production of prostaglandin E2 and reduces the production of leukotrine B4 in human polymorphonuclear leucocytes and inhibits the complement system and presents therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma, spasmogenic disorders, peptic ulcer, inflammatory diseases, cataract, cancer and poor sperm motility.
• Anti-Inflammatory / Antinociceptive / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of rosemary essential oil on experimental models of nociception and inflammation in animals. Results showed significant inhibition of carrageenan-induced edema. The EO also showed significant antinociceptive effect in the acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing, (3)
Antinociceptive: Study showed the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis possess antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activity and supports the use of the plant in folk medicine. (6)
• Hyperglycemic / Volatile Oil: A study showed
the volatile oil of RO has hyperglycemic and insulin release inhibitory
effects in rabbit. (4)
Study concluded that RO extracts showed antidiabetogenic effect probably
from its potent antioxidant properties.
• Radioprotective / Leaves:
Study of the modulatory influence of Rosemary leaves extract in Swiss albino mice dosed with 3 Gy gamma radiation showed increase in lipid peroxidation and regaining of hematologic parameters. Results suggest the possible radioprotective ability of the rosemary extract. (7)
• Smooth Muscle Relaxant Effect: The effects of volatile oil of Rosmarinus officinalis leaves showed a direct smooth muscle relaxant effect in vitro testing of isolated aortic segments of rabbits. The inhibition of the contractions were dose-dependent and reversible. (8)
• Antibacterial: Study on the antibacterial activity of three selected plants (Rosmarinus officinalis, Origanum majorana and Trigonella foenum-graecum) against beta lactamase-producing E coli and K pneumonia showed all three exhibited relatively low MICs and could be considered strong antibacterials. (9)
• Effect on Morphine Withdrawal Syndrome / Aerial Parts: Study showed the aqueous and ethanol extracts of aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis could diminish morphine withdrawal syndrome in mice. (10)
• Rosemary Scent / Cognitive Benefits / Alzheimer's Disease: Study suggests the aroma of rosemary may boost cognitive performance. The study assessed cognitive performance and mood in 20 volunteers exposed to 1,8-cineole. Participants performed serial subtraction and visual information processing tasks in cubicles diffused with aroma of rosemary. Results suggested serum levels of 18-cineole correlated with performance outcomes (correct responses and reaction times). The relationship between cineole and mood was "less pronounced." Results presented implications for Alzheimer's disease. 1,8-cineole is a simple monoterpene-type compound found in many essential oils. The compound can inhibit acetylcholinesterase, a key enzyme in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. Study concludes the compounds absorbed from rosemary aroma affect cognition and subjective state independently through different neurochemical pathways. (11)
• Anti-Proliferative / Antioxidant: Study evaluated the anti-proliferative property of R. officinalis on several human cancer cell lines and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties in vitro in a mouse RAW 264.7 macrophage/monocyte cell line. Results showed the crude ethanolic extract to have differential anti-proliferative effects on human leukemia and breast carcinoma cells. RO also showed substantial antioxidant activity. (14)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Cancer / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis and three of its main components 1,8-cineole, α-pinene, and β-pinene for in vitro antibacterial activities and toxicology properties. The essential oil possessed similar antibacterial activities to α-pinene, and a little bit better than β-pinene, while 1,8-cineole possessed the lowest antibacterial activities. The essential oil also exhibited strongest cytotoxicity towards three human cancer cells. (15)
• Lipid Benefits and Hypoglycemic Effects: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic and lipid effects of RO in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with rosemary for four weeks. Results showed a decrease in sugar, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL with an increase in HDL cholesterol. (16)
• Effects on Renal Ischemia and Reperfusion: Study evaluated the effect of intake of oral rosemary extract (gavage) on hemodynamic changes and tissue damages caused by I/R (ischemia / reperfusion. Results showed a significant reduction in plasma creatinine, BUN, absolute excretion of sodium, and an increase in absolute potassium excretion. Histopathological exam revealed a significant decrease in vascular congestion, Bowman's capsule space and oxidative stress. (17)
• Male Antifertility Potential: Study evaluated the antifertility potential of an ethanolic extract of R. officinalis in male albino rats. Results showed microscopic changes in the testis, compression of most of the seminiferous tubules, with irregular basement membrane and devoid of spermatogenic cells. Study revealed morphological evidence of dose dependent antifertility potential. (18)
• Antihypotensive / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of essential oil on primary hypotension. Results showed a clinically significant antihypotensive effect. (19)
• Renoprotective / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the protective role of rosemary on CCl4-induced renal damage. Exposure to CCl4 is known to induce the formation of reactive oxygen species. Results showed a renoprotective effect which was attributed to its antioxidant activity. (20)
• Androgenic Effect / Male Contraceptive Potential: Study evaluated the hormonal and cellular effects of Rosmarinus officinalis extract on testes of adult male Wistar rats. Results showed RO may have some hormonal and cellular effects on the testes which may contribute to the spermatogenesis process in rat. RO may have androgenic effect and a potential as an herbal male contraceptive. (21)
• Antimicrobial / Antioxidant / Leaves: Study of rosemary leaf extracts confirmed antioxidant (DPPH and total phenolic content), antibacterial, and antifungal (S. aureus, B. cereus, E. coli, P. aeruginosa and Candida albicans) activities. (23)
• Hepatoprotective / Essential Oil: Study of rosemary essential oil in rats with carbon tetrachloride induced acute liver damage showed prevention of CCl4-induced increase of lipid peroxidation in liver homogenates. Pretreatment also significantly reversed the activities of antioxidant enzymes catalase, peroxidase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase. (see constituents above) (24)
• Anti-Implantation Effects: Study evaluated the embryotoxic effects of rosemary plant on two different periods of Wistar rat pregnancy. Results suggest an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation. (25)
• Anti-Acne / Inhibition of Propionibacterium acnes-Induced Inflammation: Study investigated the inhibitory effect of rosemary extract on P. acnes-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Results showed significant suppression of secretion and mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. In an in vivo mouse model. concomitant intradermal injection of the ethanolic extract attenuated P. acnes-induced ear swelling and granulomatous inflammation. (26)
• Antibacterial / Essential Oil: Study of essential oil showed antibacterial activity against Enterobacter, Acinetobacter baumannii and Staphylococcus aureus. Activity was attributed to main essential oil components. (27)
• Inhibitory Against Food-Borne Pathogens / Essential Oil: Study showed the essential oil of R. officinalis with high antibacterial activity could be a potential source for inhibitory substances against some food-borne pathogens and has the potential for use in food or food-processing systems. (28)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effects of R. officinalis essential oil dietary administration in carrageenan paw edema and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis. Findings showed suppression of the extent of paw edema and protective effects on colonic mucosa and significantly decreased macroscopic scores for colonic inflammation. Results showed rosemary essential oil is able to influence several variables of murine experimental inflammatory models. (30)
• Effect on Glucose Level and Lipid Profile in Humans: Study evaluated the effects of Rosemary leaves powder on glucose level and lipid profile in human. Rosmarinus officinalis improved not only hyperglycemia but also dyslipidemia in a dose-dependent manner and decreased lipid peroxidation by increasing antioxidant levels and suggests a potential to reduce the risks of cardiovascular disease. (31)
• Treatment of Opium Withdrawal Syndrome / Clinical Trial: Study evaluated the efficiency of an herbal product as adjunct therapy for alleviation of withdrawal syndrome in opium abuse in a clinical trial of 81 patients. The case group was treated with methadone and powdered dried leaves while the control group was treated with methadone and placebo. Results showed less severe withdrawal syndrome (bone pain, perspiration, and insomnia) in the case group compared to the control group. Study suggests rosemary has potential as an optional extra drug for treatment of opium withdrawal syndrome. (32)
• Insecticidal / Oil: Rosemary oil has insecticidal properties and is an active ingredient in a number of commercial insecticides. Study explored the relationship between chemical composition and insecticidal activity of 10 commercial samples of rosemary oil. Results suggest that the toxicity of rosemary oil, at least to lepidopteran larvae, is due to the combined and possibly synergistic effects of several constituents, with no individual compound making a dominating contribution. (see constituents above) (33)
• No Seasonal Variation in Essential Oil Composition: Study in the hilly region of north India showed there were no drastic changes in the essential oil content and composition of rosemary due to season. Results suggests the crop may be harvested in any season to get good quality oil. (see constituents above) (34)
• Drug Interactions: Rosemary can affect the activity of various medications: anticoagulants (aspirin, coumadin, clopidogrel), ace inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril), diuretics (may increase the effect of diuretics like furosemide and hydrochlorothiazide) and lithium (may increase lithium to toxic levels). (36)
Skin Protective and Antiageing Effects / Combination of Rosemary and Grapefruit: Study evaluated the efficacy of a combination of rosemary (R. officinalis) and grapefruit (C. paradisi) in decreasing the individual susceptibility to UVR exposure and in improving skin wrinkling and elasticity. Results showed the long-term oral intake of Nutroxsun® can be considered a complementary nutrition strategy therapy to avoid the negative effects of sun exposure. The effects may be due to inhibition of UVR-induced ROS and inflammatory markers (lipoperoxides and cytokines), as well as their direct action on intracellular signaling pathways. (37)
• Carnosol / Anti-Inflammatory and Antinociceptive: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties of R. officinalis extract and its major constituent, carnosol, in male NMRI mice.
Results conclude that ROL extract and carnosol suppressed pain and inflammation induced by formalin through inhibition of COX1 and COX2 enzymes activity. (38)
• Dentrifice / Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of a dentrifrice containing an alcoholic extract of rosemary on oral bacteria. The toothpaste containing rosemary extract exhibited an ability to inhibit the growth of S. mutans, S. oralis and L. rhamnosus suggest an antimicrobial activity similar to commercially available toothpastes for inhibition of S. mutans and S. oralis. (39)
• Skin Tolerance Activity / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the yield and chemical properties of rosemary and white poplar essential oil. Skin test tolerance of EO was conducted by measurement of primary irritation index. The EO of both plants are of acceptable quality. The EO of Rosmarinus officinalis is non-irritating to the skin while the EO of Populus albais is slightly irritating. (40)
• Embryotoxic Effects / Anti-Implantation Effect: Study evaluated if rosemary plant induces abortion and/or interfere with the normal development of the concepts, doses of 26 mg of 30% (w/v). Results suggest rosemary extract may have an anti-implantation effect without interfering with the normal development of the concept after implantation. (42)
• Anti-Neuropathic / Terpenoid: Study evaluated the neuroprotective properties of R. officinalis. Results showed a hexane-ultrasound rosemary extract is able to reduce neuropathic hypersensitivity and protect the nervous tissues. Effect is mainly related to the terpenoid fraction by mechanisms involving nAChRs (nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine). (43)
• Cytotoxicity / Toxicity Study: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity using dichlormethane extract was 168 µg/ml. Median lethal dose of an aqueous extract in albino Wistar rats was estimated to be >5000 mg/kbw. (44)
• Antioxidant / Rosmarinic Acid: Study evaluated the antioxidant activities of three pure compounds viz. carnosic acid, rosmarinic acid, and sesamol and two plants extracts (rosemary extract and blackseed essential oil) by DPPH and ABTS radical-scavenging assays and ferric thiocyanate test. The rosemary extract showed higher antioxidant activity than the blackseed essential oil. rosemary was also found to have a higher phenolic content. (45)
• Protective Effect on Astrocytes: Study evaluated the protective activity of Rosmarinus officinalis aerial parts on astrocytes culture submitted to oxidative damage induced by H2O2. Results showed a protective effect via antioxidant activity which may involved mechanisms others than a direct effect on ROS production or modulation of glutathione activity. (46)
Short-Term Effect on Cognitive Function in the Elderly: A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blinded, repeated-measures crossover study investigated the possible acute effects of dried rosemary leaf powder on cognitive performance. (47)
• In Vivo and In Vitro Inhibition of Leukocyte migration by Essential Oil: Study evaluated the effect of REA (rosemary essential oil) on leucocyte migration through in vivo leukocyte migration and in vitro chemotaxis assay. Main EO components were camphor 27.59%, 1-8-cineole 15.74%, a-pinene (16.58%) and ß-myrcene 20.01%. All doses of REO tested significant inhibited leucocyte chemotaxis by cassein. The effect of REO on leucocyte migration highlights an important anti-inflammatory mechanism of Ro. (48)
• Low Intestinal Permeability / Polyphenol and Terpenoids: Rosemary polyphenols and terpenoids have attracted interest because of potential health benefits. Study evaluated the permeation properties of bioactive compounds (flavonoids, diterpenes, triterpenes and phenylpropanoids) in Caco-2 cell monolayer model. Results suggested most compounds are scarcely absorbed, and passive diffusion is likely to be the primary mechanism of absorption. Use of liposomes to vehiculize the extract reduced the permeability of most compounds. Most compounds can be classified as classes III and IV (low permeability). (49)
• Effect on Immune Response and Lipid Profile: Study evaluated the hypolipidemic activity of rosemary leaves and immunomodulatory activity of an aqueous extract on BALB/c mice. There was a significant decrease Pp<0.001) in plasma total cholesterol, LDL, and TG with a significant increase in HDL. Humoral immunity against membrane proteins of sheep erythrocytes showed a significant increase in IgM response. Only a 100 mg/kg rosemary induced significant increase in Con A-induced T-cell proliferation, whereas lower doses had no significant effect. Results suggest further studies to determine the active constituents responsible for the hypolipidemic effect and the stimulatory effect on some parameters of immune response. (50)
• Antibacterial Activity Against Oral Pathogens / Essential Oil: Essential oil yielded 62 constituents. The antimicrobial activity of the oil as well as its major constituents were tested against Streptococcus mutans, S. mitis, S. sanguinis, S. salivarius, S sobrinus and Enterococcus faecalis, considered potentially responsible for the formation of dental caries in humans. The EO exhibited low activity against the selected microorganisms. S. mitis was the most susceptible, E. faecalis, the most resistant. Pure compounds were more active than the essential oil. (see constituents above) (51)
• Polyphenolic Content / Antioxidant Activity: Study evaluated various extracts of R. officinalis from dry and fresh herbs for antioxidant properties. A hydroalcoholic extract yielded the highest concentration of total polyphenols (0.601 mg/ml rosmarinic acid), total flavonoids (0.270 mg/ml luteoline) and romarinic acid (0.350 mg/ml). High polyphenolic content was confirmed by high values of antioxidant activity in various assays, i.e., DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, CUPRAC, and SNP. Results suggest the importance of using fresh plants to obtain good quality extracts. (52)
• Anticancer / Effect on Adenosine Deaminase Activity: Study investigated the aqueous extracts of R. officinalis, U. diocia, and soybean on adenosine deaminase (ADA) activity in cancerous and noncancerous gastric and colon tissues removed by by surgical operations. The rosemary extract inhibited ADA enzyme in cancerous (p<0.031) and noncancerous gastric tissues (p-0.948), but not in colon tissues. The ADA enzyme inhibition may play a part in the proposed anti-cancer activity. (53)
• Essential Oil as a Modulator of Bacterial Resistance / Leaves: Study evaluated the essential oil of leaves of Rosmarinus officinalis as a modulator of resistance bacterial drug on four strains of E. coli resistant amipicillin (AMP) and tetracycline (TET) and four Salmonella spp. strains resistant to nitrofurantoin (NIT). All strains showed susceptibility to the combined action of EO with antibiotics. Results suggest a potential for the used of rosemary EO in combination with antibiotics to combat pathogenic bacterial. (54)
• Protective Effect Against DNA Damage / Essential Oil: Study evaluated the efficiency of essential oil of RO to protect the DNA against free radical damages. GC-MS analysis of EO yielded camphor (22/35%), verbenone (23.48%), borneol (16.63% and eucalyptol (11.73%) as major components. The EO exhibited protection against DNA scission induced by OH- radicals generated from photolysis UV/H2O2. (55)
• Antifibrotic Effect in CCl4-Induced Liver Dysfunction / Leaves: Study evaluated the antifibrotic effect of Rosmarinus officinalis in carbon tetrachloride-induced liver dysfunction in rats. RO leaves powder supplementation prevented the rise of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and AOPP in plasma and liver tissues in CCl4 treated rats together with amelioration histological changes i.e., necrosis, periportal inflammation, iron deposition and fibrosis in the liver. (56)
• Antidepressant: Study evaluated the antidepressant effect of R. officinalis in male Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant reduction of immobility time and increased swimming time in the forced swimming test. The antidepressant effect was comparable to that of imipramine in mice. (57)
• Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing effects of 5% R. officinalis extract compared to povidone-iodine and isotonic saline in incisional cutaneous wounds in a rabbit model. Results demonstrated the antiseptic, antimicrobial, and epithelization effects of rosemary extract on wound healing. Rabbits treated with rosemary extract healed faster than similar wounds treated with povidone-iodine and isotonic saline solution. (58)
• Antibiofilm Activity: Study evaluated the effects of R. officinalis (rosemary) and Syzygium cumini (jambolan) glycolic extracts and 0.12% chlorhexidine in biofilms formed by strains of coagulase positive (CPS) and coagulase negative (CNS) Staphylococcus isolated from the oral cavity. R. officinalis promoted biofilm reductions from 12.1% to 78.7% in biofilms formed by strains of CPS, and 9.2% to 73.7% in biolfilms of CNS. (59)
• Rosemary Oil for Androgenetic Alopecia: Study investigated the clinical efficacy of rosemary oil in the treatment of androgenetic alopecia (AGA) and compared its effects with 2% minoxidil. Both groups experienced significant increase in hair count at the 6-month endpoint. Scalp itching was more frequent in the minoxidil group. Results provide evidence for rosemary oil in the treatment of AGA. (61)
• Promotion of Hair Growth / Leaves:Topical administration of R. officinalis leaf extract improved hair regrowth in a mice model that experienced hair regrowth interruption induced by testosterone treatment. Study investigated the antiandrogenic activity mechanism of RO-extract and focused on the inhibition of testosterone 5a-reductase. Results showed inhibitory activity. !2-Methoxycarnosic acid was identified as an active constituent of 5a-reduction inhibition. Study suggest the inhibition of binding of dihydrotestosterone to androgen receptors. Results suggest RO-ext as a promising crude drug for hair growth. (62)
• Diterpenes / Potential for Alzheimer's Disease: Among the most important group of compounds isolated from the plant are abietane-type phenolic diterpenes that account for antioxidant and various pharmacological activities. The diterpenes have been shown to inhibit neuronal cell death induced by a variety of in vivo and in vitro agents. The compounds display a vast range of pharmacological effects ranging from antioxidant, metal chelation, and anti-inflammatory properties. These are mechanisms involved in the potential therapeutic effect of compounds for Alzheimer's disease. Further effect of rosemary diterpenes in Aß formation, aggregation, and toxicity accounts for additional benefit in tackling AD. (63)
• Analgesic / Essential Oil: Study evaluated and compared the analgesic activity of essential oil of Rosmarinus officinalis and Thymus vulgaris in Wistar rats. The analgesic effect of Rosemary oil was statistically significant at four test doses of 100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kbw. The analgesic effect was not comparable to aspirin even at higher concentration but was significantly more compared to control group. (64)
• Nephroprotective / Naphthalene Induced Toxicity: Naphthalene (NS) is a common environmental contaminant and abundant in tobacco smoke. Study evaluated the nephtotoxocoty of NA and evaluated the possible protective role of rosemary extract in adult male albino rat. NA showed harmful effects on rat kidney as evidenced by up regulation of positive immunoreaction for iNOS in the proximal and distal convoluted tubules. Rosemary extract treatment significantly reversed these effects induced by NA. The effect may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effect. (66)
• Antibacterial / Anti-Algal / Essential Oil: Essential oil of rosemary showed remarkable potency against four of the most notorious bacteria ( E. coli, P. aeruginosa, K. pneumonia, and S. aureus) and exhibited allelopathic impact against Chlorella vulgaris, a contaminant factor for the cyanobacterial isolates. (67)
• Protective Effect / Mitigation of Lipid Peroxidation and DNA-Damage from Arsenic Exposure: Study showed R. officinalis extract exerted no mutagenic effects and showed antimutagenic potential. reducing the DNA damage and lipid peroxidation resulting from As exposure. (68)
• Review / R. officinalis as Therapeutic and Prophylactic Agent: This review reports on the benefits of R. officinalis and how the plant product may treat health problems or control physiological disorders equivalent to or superior to the available medications. It describes the pharmacological effects of phytocompounds. It also suggests the potential for new treatment forms and pharmacological strategies for worldwide benefit. (69)
• Diuretic Effect: Study evaluated the diuretic effect of R. officinalis and C. erythraea, both reputed for treatment of urinary ailments. Daily oral administration of aqueous extracts of the two herbs at dose of 10 mg/kg of 8 or 16% extract in distilled water significantly enhanced diuresis in rats compared to control. For R. officinalis at dose of 8% peak urinary excretion of sodium, potassium, and chloride was reached after 6 days of treatment (p<0.001). Most effective dose for water and electrolyte excretion was 8% for both plants. (70)
• Insecticidal / Nanoencapsulated Essential Oil: Study investigated the insecticidal activity of Rosmarinus officinalis essential oil for the effective management of red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, a stored product pest beetle. Nanoprecipitation method was used to prepare rosemary oil-loaded nanocapsules. Results suggested the nanoencapsulated essential oils from R. officinalis can be use for effective of T. castaneum. The technique produced pesticides with controlled-release properties, reducing the concentration of applied doses and number of applications. (71)
• Antioxidant / Essential Oil / Aerial Parts: GC-MS analysis of aerial parts for essential oil yielded 15 components. Major constituents were 1,8-cineole (35.32%), trans-caryophyllene (14.47%), borneol (9.37%), camphor (8.97%), α-pinene (7.9%) and α-thujone (6.42%).
The EO was screened for in vitro antioxidant activities using DPPH, ß-carotene bleaching and reducing power. DPPH assay showed an IC50 inhibitory concentration of 110.20 µg/ml while the ß-carotene bleaching tests showed an IC50 of 20.00 µg/ml. Results suggest the EO can serve as an antioxidant agent in food and cosmetics and also serve an important function in prevention and treatment of various human diseases. (72)
In the news
• Rosemary Aroma May Improve Prospective Memory: Study conducted by Dr. Jemma McCready and Dr. Mark Moss from the University of Northumbria, England, suggests the aroma of rosemary oil may improve prospective memory in adults. The EO may enhance the ability to remember events and remember complete tasks at particular times in the future. The EO was diffused in a testing room by placing four drops on an aroma stream fan diffuser. Participants in the rosemary-scented room performed better on the prospective memory tasks than participants in the room with no scent. Blood analysis showed significantly greater amounts of 1,8-cineole in the plasma of those in the rosemary scented room, suggesting the influence of aroma was mediated pharmacologically. (41)
Rosemary oil in the cybermarket.