Rimas is a large tree with milky sap, growing
to 15 meters tall. Leaves are alternate, large, coriaceous, ovate to oblong,
up to 50 centimeters long, deeply pinnate, and acuminate. Stipules
are large and deciduous. Fruit
is globose to ellipsoid, up to 12 to 20 centimeters in wide, 12 to 16 centimeters long, the rind green, yellowish-green or pale yellow. seedless, with the surface marked with polygonal faces.
- Common plant in and around towns in the Philippines.
- Usually cultivated for its edible fruits.
Occasionally planted as an ornamental in parks and gardens.
- Occurs from the Malay Peninsula to Malaysia.
- Study has yielded papayotin, enzyme
- Nutritional composition of 100 g edible portion of seeds yield:
Water 47.7% (cooked), 61.9% (fresh), protein 8.1g (c), 7.9 g (f); carbohydrate 38.2 g (c), 26.6 (f); fat 4.9 g (c), 2.5 g (f); calcium 46.6 mg (c), 48.3 mg (f); phosphorus 186 mg (c), 189 mg (f); iron 2.3 mg (c,f); niacin 2.1 mg (c), 1.8 mg (f); thiamine 0.33 to 1.3; vitamin C 1.9 to 22.6. (8)
- Breadfruit nutritive value per 100 g yielded: (Principle) energy 103 Kcal, carbohydrate 27.12 g, protein 1.07 g, total fat 0.20 g, cholesterol 0, dietary fiber 4.9 g; (Vitamins) folates 14 µg, niacin 0.90 mg, pyridoxine 0.100 mg, riboflavin 0.30 mg, thiamin 0.11 mg, vitamin A 0 IU, vitamin C 29 mg, vitamin E 0.16 mg, vitamin K 0.5 µg; (Electrolytes) sodium 2 mg, potassium 490 mg; (Minerals)
calcium 17 mg, copper 0.084 mg, iron 0.54 mg, magnesium 25, manganese 0.060 mg, phosphorus 30 mg, selenium 0.6 µg, zinc 0.12 mg; (Phytonutrients) carotene-ß 0 ug, crypto-xanthin-ß 0 mg, lutein-zeaxanthin 22 µg. (24)
- Phytochemical analysis yielded tannins, phenolics, glycosides, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, and anthraquinones in cold and hot leaf extracts. (10)
- Starch isolated from breadfruit yielded and moisture 10.83%, crude protein 0.53%, fat 0.39%, amylose 22.52%, amylopectin 77.48%, and ash 1.77% contents. (See study below) (15)
- Study of dichlormethane extract of leaves yielded ß-sitosterol (1), unsaturated triglycerides (2), squalene (3), polyprenol (4), lutein (5), and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA). (20)
- Twigs yielded terpenoids, saponins, phenolic group, flavonoids, glycoside, steroids and tannins. Screening was negative for alkaloids. (see study below)
- Methanolic extract of fruits yielded flavonoids, phenols, steroids, and glycosides. (see study below) (29)
- GC-MS analysis of leaves yielded 12 compounds, i.e., 2H-1,4-Benzodiazepin-2-one, 7-chloro-1,3- dihydro-5-phenyl-1-(trimethylsilyl)-3-[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]; Cyclodecasiloxane, eicosamethyl-; 2,15-Heptadecadiene, 9-(ethoxymethyl); Pentadecanoic acid, 14-methyl-,methyl ester; 10-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; Ethanol, 2-(9-Octadecenyloxy)-, (Z)-; 16-Octadecenoic acid, methyl ester; Docosanedioic acid, dimethyl ester; Stigmast-5-en-3-ol, oleate; a-Sitosterol trimethylsilyl ether; Ergosteryl acetate and 4,6,8(14)-Cholestatriene. (see study below) (34)
- Study of heartwood of A. altilis yielded flavonoids, i.e., artocarpin, artocarbene, artocarpesin, cycloartocarpin, chlorophorin, dihydromorin, norartocarpin, noartocapanone, and 4-prenyloxy-resveratrol. (see study below) (36)
- Mineral composition of of A. altilis pulp flours (unfermented and fermented, mg/100g) yielded K 673.5-348.64, Na 69-52, Fe 3.91-1.56, Mg 90.63-92-71, P 140-134, Ca 60.83-52.50, K:Na 9.76-6.71, Ca:P 0.45-0.39, respectively. (37)
- GC-MS analysis of methanolic extract of leaves yielded 18 bioactive compounds. Major chemical constituents were Butanal, 3-methyl; 2- Methylbutyraldehyde; 2-Methyl-3-propyloxirane; 2-Furancarbox-aldehyde 5-methyl-; Propylphosphonic dichloride; 5-Hydroxymethylfurfural; 3,3-Dimethylbutan-2-yl methylphosphonofluoridate; N- PENTADECANE; 2,6-dimethoxy-4-vinyl phenol; Quinic acid; 5,6-Dimethoxy-2-methyl-1-indanone; and n- Hexadecanoic acid. (41)
Bark, leaves, fruit.
Edibility / Nutritional
- Crop considered a carbohydrate food source.
- Fruit can be fried, boiled, candied or cooked as a vegetable.
- High in starch, it is also high in Vitamin B, with fair amounts of B
- In the Caribbean, prepared boiled, steam or roasted, used with salt-cured meats, coconut milk, and dasheen leaves, in the creation of regional dishes. (8)
- In the Philippines, eaten boiled, sliced with coconut and sugar as a sweet, or as candied breadfruit. (8)
- In West Africa, seeds from ripe fruits and boiled or roasted with salt, sometimes made into a puree.
• Decoction of the bark used
as vulnerary (wound healing). In the Visayas, decoction of the bark
used in dysentery.
• Used as emollient.
• In the Caribbean,
leaves are used to relieve pain and inflammation.
• In Jamaican folk
medicine, leaf decoction used for hypertension.
• Latex is massaged into skin to treat broken bones and sprains; bandaged on the spine to relieve sciatica, hip or leg pain. Used to treat skin ailments and thrush. Diluted latex used internally for diarrhea, stomach aches and dysentery. Latex and juice from crushed leaves used for ear infections. Bark used to treat headaches in several Pacific Islands. (8)
• In the West Indies decoction of yellowing leaf is used to treat hypertension. Tea is also used to control diabetes. (8)
• Leaf juice used as ear-drops. Powder of roasted leaves used as remedy for enlarged spleen.
• In the Caribbean and Pacific, all parts of the plant are used medicinally. In the West Indies, decoction of yellowing leaf drunk to lower blood pressure and treat asthma. Latex used to treat skin ailments and fungal diseases like thrush. Sap from crushed stems or leaves use to treat ear infections or sore eyes. Root is used as purgative. Macerated roots used as poultice for skin ailments. Bark used to treat headache. (32)
- In Martinique, leaf decoction drunk to treat hypertension, liver disease and diabetes. Milk of the fruit ingested for diabetes and applied externally for back pain. (32)
• Insect repellent: Male inflorescences are dried and used as mosquito repellent. Latex is mixed with coconut oil for trapping houseflies in Kosrae. (8)
• Caulk: Gum used to caulk canoes to make them watertight. and to prepare wooden surfaces for painting. (8)
• Phytochemical: (1)
Study concluded that the starch of Artocarpus altilis showed a high
degree of purity. Physiochemical and rheological characteristics suggest
the starch could be useful in products that require long heating process,
with an excellent digestibility that might be advantageous for medical
and food use. (2) Study showed percent recoveries of amino acid, fatty
acid and carbohydrate content showed 72.5%, 68.2% and 81.4%. The starch content is 15.52 g/100 g fresh weight.
• Cytoprotective: Study yielded cytoprotective components - ß-sitosterol and six
flavonoids with good potential for medicinal applications.
• Phenolic Compounds / Cytotoxicity:
Study isolated isoprenylated flavonoids - morusin,
artonin E, cycloartobiloxanthone and artonol B - that showed high toxicity
against Artemia salina. Result of cytotoxicity test showed the presence
of an isoprenyl moiety in the C-3 position in the flavone skeleton,
an important factor for its activity.
• Negative Inotropic Effect:
Leaf extract study exerted a weak, negative chronotropic and inotropic
effect in vivo in the rat. The mechanism of action of the inotropic
agent was not cholinergic and may involve decoupling of excitation and
• Antihypertensive: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for possible antihypertensive mechanisms and effect on the cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzyme activities on Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed negative chronotropic and hypotensive effects through α-adrenoreceptor and Ca+- channel antagonism. Drug adversity are unlikely if the extract if consumed with other medications reliant on CYP3A4 and CYP2D6 metabolism.(9)
• ACE-Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the effect of A. altilis leaf extracts on angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. An ethanol extract showed potent ACE-inhibitory activity, supporting its use in folk medicine for the treatment of hypertension. (10)
• New Prenylated Aurone / Radical Scavenging Activity: Study isolated a new prenylated aurone, artocarpaurone, together with 8 known compounds. Artocarpaurone showed moderate nitric oxide radical scavenging activity, white two prenylated chalcones showed radical moderate scavenging activity in the DPPH assay. (11)
• Anti-Cancer / Breast Cancer (T47D) Cells: Study evaluated Sukun wood extract in human T47D breast cancer cells. Results showed the extract decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent manner, inducing apoptosis and sub-G1 phase formation in breast cancer cells, suggesting a potential as an anti-cancer agent. (12)
• Antitubercular / Antimalarial / Anticancer: Study of root extracts yielded nine prenylated flavones: Cycloartocarpin, artocarpin, and chaplashin from root stems, and morusin, cudraflavone B, cycloartobiloxanthone, artonin E, cudraflavone C and artobiloxanthone from the root barks. The isolated compounds exhibited antitubercular and antiplasmodial activities, with moderate cytotoxicity against KB (human oral epidermoid carcinoma) and BC (human breast cancer) cell lines. (13)
• Toxicity Studies / Leaf and Bark: Study evaluated the acute toxicity of A. altilis leaf and bark extracts, administering various doses of extracts up to 2000 mg/kbw for 14 days. No mortality or toxic reactions were seen, with no histopathological changes. Results suggest the safety of the extracts in therapeutic uses. (14)
• Functional and Pasting Properties of Breadfruit Starch: Study showed breadfruit starch has an array of functional, pasting and proximate properties that can facilitate use in many areas where properties of other starches are acceptable. (15)
• Pulp Flour as Affected by Fermentation: Study showed the functional properties (bulk density, least gelation concentration and peak viscosity) of A. altilis pulp flour can be enhanced through fermentation and hence their incorporation into food systems. (16)
• Antihyperglycemic Activity / Leaves, Bark, and Fruits: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic potential of leaves, bark, and fruit parts in invivo and invitro testing of glucose adsorption, glucose diffusion retardation index, inhibition of enteric enzymes, α-amylase, α-glucosidase and sucrase, and effect of samples on glucose uptake using a yeast cell model. Results suggest a hypoglycemic effect possibly through effects on glucose adsorption, inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes, and facilitation of glucose diffusion through cell membrane. (18)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study investigated the anti-inflammatory activities of A. altilis leaf extract using a carrageenan-induced paw edema mice model. The extract significantly reduced paw edema. In vitro enzymatic assays showed the AAE has lower IC50 against COX-2 compared to COX-1, suggesting a higher selectivity for COX-2. Also, there was dose-dependent reduction of COX-2 expression in hind paws. (19)
• Antioxidant / Twigs: Study investigated the phytochemical constituents and antioxidant activity of twigs of Artocarpus altilis. A dichlormethane extract showed remarkable antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 0.015 mg/ml compared with standard butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). (see constituents above)
• Antimicrobial / Twigs: Study evaluated the antimicrobial, MIC, and MBC/MFC activities of A. altilis twigs. Hexane and DCM extracts showed moderate antimicrobial activity (14.6±0.2mm) against Bacillus cereus. The least MIC of 250 µg/ml was seen with DCM extract against S. aureus and Candida albicans and C. neoformans. Results showed promising potential against bacterial and fungi. (22)
• Anti-Atherogenic / Anti-Hypercholesterolemic: Study evaluated the methanol extract of A. altilis on atherogenic indices and redox status of cellular systems of rats fed with dietary cholesterol. Treatment with AA significantly reduced the relative weight of organs and lipid parameters, with beneficial increases in serum and cardiac HDL-C levels in HC rats treated with AA. Results suggest protective effects against dietary cholesterol-induced hypercholesterolemia. (23)
• Hepatoprotective / CCl4-Toxicity / Leaves: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective effect of an ethanol extract of breadfruit leaf in carbon tetrachloride induced liver injury in Wistar rats by measures of SGPT and MDA levels. Extract treated groups showed lower MDA and SGPT levels. (25)
• Antidiabetic /
Effect on Carbohydrate Hydrolyzing Enzymes and Glucose Uptake: An ex vivo study evaluated the effects of leaves, bark, and fruit on glucose hydrolyzing enzymes α-amylase, α-glucosidase, sucrase, and effect on glucose uptake by yeast cells. Results showed a hypoglycemic effect which may be due to inhibition of carbohydrate metabolizing enzymes and facilitation of glucose diffusion through cell membrane. Study suggests a potential therapeutic agent in the management of type II diabetes. (27)
Inotropic Cardiac Effect / Leaves: Evaluation of ethyl acetate soluble extract of leaves of Artocarpus altilis exerted a weak, negative chronotropic effect )p<0.05) and significantly reduced LV pulse pressure (p<0.001) in vivo in rat. On RV myocardial strips, same extracts produced a significant negative inotropic effect (p<0.0001). Mechanism of inotropic action was not cholinergic, and may involve a decoupling of excitation and contraction. (28)
• Antioxidant / Antimicrobial / Fruits: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of fruits for anitoxidant and antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Salmonella spp, Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus niger and Candida albicans. The extract showed antioxidant characteristics by DPPH assay and showed maximum inhibition against one bacterial species i.e., Staphylococcus aureus. (see constituents above) (29)
• Modulatory Effects / Protection Against Cadmium-Induced Liver and Renal Dysfunction: Study evaluated the modulatory effects of a methanol extract of A. altilis on oxidant-antioxidant balance and lipid profile in liver and kidney of rats exposed to Cd. Total phenolic content and DPPH scavenging effects of AA were high and comparable with catechin. Histological findings showed necrosis and distortion of architecture of renal tissue and periportal infiltration in hepatocytes of Cd-intoxicated rats. Pretreatment with AA and quercetin (standard) restored antioxidant status, lipid profile and attenuated the lesions. (30)
• Anxiolytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the anxiolytic-like effects of A. altilis in mice. Results showed an anxiolytic-like effect using elevated plus maze, elevated zero maze, and light dark test models. The anxiolytic properties observed in the three animal models may be due to bioactive molecules which the plant has been shown to possess, for example, GABA (gamma amino butyric acid). Valium, a standard anxiolytic, is known to act via the the GABA pathway. (31)
• Increase Langerhans Islet Cells / Prevention of Insulin Resistance / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract of A. altilis for its influence on insulin resistance in rats with obesity induced by high-fat meals. Results showed A. altilis can increase the number of Langerhans islet cells in obese mice. Study suggests potential in the prevention of insulin resistance. (33)
• Antioxidant / GC-MS Composition / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant content (TAC). Antioxidant potency was measured by DPPH, FTC, FRAP, TBA, and ABTS assays. Free radical scavenging ability by DPPH showed an EC50 of 35 µg/ml. FTC and ABTS assays showed high percentage of inhibition, 89.19 and 97.58, respectively. (see constituents above) (34)
• Antimalarial Activity / Acute Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the acute toxicity (LD50), antiplasmodial, and liver histopathological effects of aqueous extract of breadfruit leaves. The mean lethal dose was 1414.2 mg/kg. Percentage suppression of parasite (Plasmodium berghei) was 76%, 80%, 96% and 82.5% for 500mg, 1000mg, 1500 mg/kg and 5 mg chloroquine, respectively. Study showed the aqueous extract of breadfruit leaves has antiplasmodial properties and is safe at lower doses. (35)
• Artocarpin / Potential in Cosmeceuticals / Heartwood: Study evaluated the potential of A. altilis heartwood in cosmeceuticals, such as antioxidant, anti-inflammation, anti-tyrosinase, and anti-aging. Artocarpin, a prenylated polyphenol is a main compound in the diethylether extract from heartwood of A. altilis. The activities of artocarpin from the heartwood match the cosmeceutical requirements. Further studies are needed to provide evidence for cosmeceutical efficacy. (see constituents above) (36)
• Effect of Fermentation on Proximate and Mineral Composition / Pulp Flour: Fermentation resulted in a marginal increase in crude protein (from 3.90-4.43%) and ash (from 2.37-2.38%), and a marginal decrease in crude fiber (from 3.12-3.00%) and carbohydrate (from 79.23-76.71%) content. Fermentation caused significant decrease in calcium, iron, potassium, sodium, and phosphorus. The good carbohydrate and mineral content suggest potential use as a staple, to provide energy and mineral needs. (see constituents above) (37)
• Inhibition of STAT3 Activity in Prostate Cancer DU145 Cells: Artocarpus altilis extracts and partially purified fraction (PPF) have been shown to inhibit STAT3 activity and phosphorylation of STAT3 in a dose-dependent manner. Bioassay-guided isolation of the PPF identified a gernyl dihydrochaalcone, CG901. The PPF and CG901 downregulated expression of STAT3 target genes, induced apoptosis in DU145 prostate cancer cells via caspase-3 and PARP degradation and inhibited tumor growth in human prostate tumor (DU145) xenograft initiation model. Results suggest a potential lead molecule for anticancer and anti-inflammatory therapeutics. (38)
• Wound Healing: Study evaluated the wound healing efficacy of breadfruit starch hydrolysate in an in-vitro wound scratch assay. Results showed the hydrolysate improved wound healing of NIH 3T3 fibroblast cell with 77% wound closure improvement. Results suggest a beneficial role in wound healing applications. (39)
• Antinociceptive / Seeds: Study evaluated the anti-nociceptive effect of a methanolic extract of Artocarpus altilis seeds on albino Wistar rats using Eddy's hot plate technique as thermal model of pain. LD50 was determined as 2,800 mg/kg using Karber's method. Results showed the MEAA seeds showed significant (p<0.05) analgesic effect. Standard aspirin showed more potent analgesic effect. (40)
• Antimicrobial / Fruits: Study
evaluated different solvent fruit extracts of A. altilis for antimicrobial activity against various pathogenic bacteria like S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, S. mutans, and E. faecalis. The fruit extracts showed immense potential for antibacterial activities. Phytochemical screening of the fruit extracts yielded steroid, phenol, flavonoids in both methanol and ethyl acetate extracts, and phytosterols in the EAE. (42)
• Effect on Cervical Cancer Cells / Pulp: Study evaluated the effects of A. altilis pulp on cervical cancer cells (HeLa). Results showed concentration dependent inhibition of cervical cancer cell proliferation. (43)
/ Leaves and Fruits: Study evaluated the anthelmintic potency of A. altilis leaf and fruit extracts against earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Piperazine citrate was used as standard. Ethanol extract of leaves and fruits exhibited higher invitro anthelmintic activity in a dose-dependent manner. (44)
• Cathepsin K Inhibitors / Bud Covers: Study of bud covers isolated three known flavonoids, along with two new compounds, a dimeric dihydrochalcone, cycloaltilisin 6 (2) and a new prenylated flavone, cycloaltilisin 7 (3). Compounds 2 and 3 showed IC50s of 98 and 840 nM, respectively, in cathepsin inhibition. (45)
• 21-Day Safety Evaluation / Lipid Effects: Study evaluated the toxicological effects of oral administration of methanol extract of A. altilis in rats at doses from 100, 200, 500, 100, and 2000 mg/kbw for 21 days. The MEAA significantly decreased (p<0.05) serum total cholesterol and triglyceride and increased HDL-C. Histopathological exam of the liver, kidney, and aorta showed little alteration from control. Results suggest the MEAA could be safe when used for a long period of time for therapeutic purposes. (46)
- Tea, dried leaves, and products in the cybermarket.