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Family Lauraceae
Puso-puso
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob.

INDIAN LAUREL
Chan gao mu jiang zi

Scientific names  Common names 
Camellia integrifolia Choisy Balanganan (P. Bis.) 
Cylicodaphne sebifera Blume [Illegtitimate] Balongai (Tag.) 
Decapenta involucrata Raf. Batikuling (Tag.) 
Dodecadenia robusta Zoll. & Moritzi Butus (Tag.) 
Laurus crucifolia Noronha Unresolved Dalauen-negro (Ibn.) 
Litsea chinensis Lam. Dungul (Ibn.) 
Litsea citrifolia Juss. Unresolved Ingas (Tag.) 
Litsea glabrata Juss. Unresolved Lauat (Bik.) 
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob. Lormangog (P. Bis.) 
Litsea laevis Juss. Unresolved Mapipi (Bik.) 
Litsea laurifolia (Jacq.) Marang (Tag.) 
Litsea sebifera Pers. [Illegtitimate] Olos-olos (Pang.) 
Sebifera glutinosa Lour. Parasablut (Ilk.) 
Tetranthera apetala Roxb. Porikit (Tag.) 
Tetranthera laurifolia Jacq. Pungo (Tagb.) 
Tetranthera sebifera Spreng [Illegtitimate] Puso-puso (Ibn., Tag., Pamp., P. Bis.) 
Tomex sebifera Willd. [Illegtitimate] Sab-lot (Ibn., Ilk.) 
Tomex tetranthera Willd. Unresolved Sapuan (Ig.) 
  Siblot (Ibn.) 
  Tagutugan (Bik.) 
  Tayapok (Mbo.) 
  Tilam (TYag.) 
  Tubhus (Iv.) 
  Indian laurel (Engl.)
  Pond spice (Engl.)
Puso-puso is a common name shared by Telosma procumbens (latok) and Litsea glutinosa (Indian laurel).
Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B.Rob. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Chan gao mu jiang zi.
FRENCH: Avocat marron, bois d'oiseau.
HINDI: Maidalakdi, Ranamba, Maida lakadee.
INDIA: Kalimendi, Chandna.
SANSKRIT: Medasaka.
SIKKIM HIMALAYA: Suppatnyok, Kawala.
TAMIL: Muchaippeyetti, Uralli, Elumburukki.
TELUGU: Kanugu nalike, Meda, Nara-nalike.
THAI: Mhee men.

Botany
Puso-puso is a small tree reaching a height of 10 to 15 meters. Younger parts are usually more or less softly hairy. Leaves are elliptical to oblong-elliptical, 9 to 20 centimeters long, broadly pointed at the base and tapering to a fine, pointed tip. Flowers are small and yellowish, crowded in umbels in the axis of the upper leaves. Fruits are rounded, about 8 millimeters in diameter.

Distribution
- In secondary forests at low and medium altitudes throughout the Philippines.
- Also occurs in India to southern China, through Malaya to tropical Australia.

Constituents
• Seeds contain a slightly aromatic, tallow-like oil (49%); 85% of which is laurostearin; the rest, olein.
• Study yielded volatile oil constituents from the leaf and fruit. The major constituent from the leaf was phytol (22.42%), caryophyllene (21.48%), thujopsene (12.17%), and ß-myrcene (5%); from the fruit oil, lauric acid (44.84%),
3-octen-5-yne, 2,7-dimethyl (28.72%), α-cubebene (6.84%) and caryophyllene 95.04%). Phytol, the main component of the leaf is totally absent from the fruit; and lauric acid, found in the fruit oil, is absent from the leaf oil. (1)
• Study isolated a water-soluble arabinoxylan (d-xylose and l-arabinose) from the mucilaginous bark.
• Study extracted mucilage polysaccharides from the leaves, 12.0%.
• Study yielded a new abscisic derivative, litseaglutinan A and a new arylnaphthalene-type lignan, together with nine known lignans. (14)
• Study of butanol extract of leaves and twigs yielded two new aporphine alkaloids, namely litseglutine A and B, along with two known aporphine alkaloids, boldine and laurolitsine. (22)
• Study of methanol extract from the heartwood yielded four new butenolides, (3R,4S,5S)-2-hexadecyl-3-hydroxy-4-methylbutanolide, litsealactone C, and litsealactone D, litsealactone G, and a new benzoic acid derivative named eusmoside C. (17)
• Study of isolated a water soluble arabinoxylan (D-xylose and L-arabinose in molar ration 1.0:3.4) from the mucilaginous bark of L. glutinosa. (23)
• GC/MS analysis of methanolic extract of bark powder showed the presence of oleic acid, tricosene, crucic acid, tetradecanoic acid, pyrrolidinone, piperidine, eicosanoic acid. Alkaloid fraction was rich in eicosane, piperizine, pyridine, thio-coumarin, tetrahydroisoquinoline. (28)
Study of leaves and twigs yielded a new megastigmane diglycoside (6S, 7E, 9R)-6, 9-dihydroxy-4, 7-megastigmadien-3-one-9-O-[α-L-arabinofuranosyl-(l→6)]-β-D-glucopyranoside(1) along with glycosides (6S, 7E, 9R)-roseoside (2), (7'R, 8'R)- 3, 5'-dimethoxy-9, 9'-dihydroxy-4, 7'-epoxylignan 4'-β-D-glucopyranoside (3), (7'R, 8'S)-dihydrodehydrodiconifenyl alcohol 9'-O-β-D-xylopyranoside (4) and pinoresinol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5). (31)
• Study of aerial parts yielded two crystalline substances identified as a-phenylcinnamic acid and p-cumarric acid. (32)

Properties
• Leaves are considered antispasmodic, emollient, wound healing.
• Roots considered emmenagogue.
• Studies have shown antibacterial, hypotensive, antioxidant, mosquito larvicidal, analgesic, antioxidant, aphrodisiac, anti-inflammatory, thrombolytic properties.


Parts used
Roots, bark, leaves, seeds

Uses
Folkloric
- In Jolo, decoction of roots used as emmenagogue.
- In the Visayas, poultice of roots and leaves used for sprains and bruises.
- Decoction of bark used for intestinal catarrh.
- In Singapore, seeds are pounded and applied to boils.
- Poultice of freshly grounded bark used for wounds and bruises.
- In the Dutch Indies, leaves used as poultices.
In Bangladesh, leaves are used for diarrhea and dysentery, for excessive semen flow in young boys, poultices for wounds and bruises. Also, used for insomnia and neurosis. Oil from berries used for rheumatism.
• In India the bark is used as demulcent and as mild astringent in diarrhea and dysentery. Also, the paste of bark applied to wounds to facilitate wound healing.

• In Mauritius, in a concoction for intestinal parasitism, 3 leaves of LG is combined with 3 leaves of Psidium guajava and 6 pieces of Phymatodes scolopendria rhizomes. For dysentery, the combination of P scolkopendria and L glutinosa. source
• In India, leaves are used for nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Decoction of bark applied to sores, scabies and to aches and pains. Juice of crushed leaves applied to sore eyes. (3) Bark preparations also used for pain and arousing sexual capability; also used as anti-diarrheal.
• In Western Ghats, aromatic oil from seeds used for treatment of rheumatic pain.
• Healers of Sikkim Himalayas drink a decoction of bark and leaves for the treatment of dysentery.
Others
- Soap Making: Seed oil used by the Chinese in making of white soap.
- Wood: Used for light construction; firewood and charcoal.

Studies
Antibacterial:
In a study of the antibacterial activity of some Indian medicinal plants, LG showed highest activity against S aureus and lowest with P aeruginosa. (2)
Hypotensive:
Study showed the essential oil to reduce blood pressure when given intravenously to rats. Effect was attributed to ligustilide, a main component.
Antioxidant:
Study of ethyl acetate and methanol stem extracts showed antioxidant activity. (3)
Phytochemicals:
Study of extract of leaves and twigs yielded two new aporphine alkaloids: litseglutine A and B, with two known aporphine alkaloids, boldine and laurolitsine. (4)
Antioxidant / Wound Healing / Anti-Inflammatory:
Phytochemical screening yielded flavone glycosides, reducing sugars, aminoacids and tannins. Results showed the extracts have significant antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and wound healing activity and supports the traditional use of the plant for some painful and inflammatory conditions. (6)
Larvicidal / Mosquito Control:
In a study, Litsea glutinosa delayed the molting of larvae into pupae resulting in the abnormal development of mosquitoes at later stage The results suggest a significant potential in vector control. (7)
Antimicrobial / Phytochemicals:
Various dried extracts yielded alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, tannins, and phenolic acids. The bark extracts showed antibacterial and antifungal activities against Staph aureus, P aeruginosa, Salmonella typhi, E coli, A fumigatus and C albicans. (10)
Leaf Oil Composition:
Steam distilled fresh leaves produced an oil in 0.15% yield. The essential oil yielded 78 compounds, 95.18% were terpenoids. The major components were (E)-b-ocimene, b-caryophyllene, and bicyclogermacrene.(11)
Glutin / Flavone Glycoside:
Study yielded a new 2'-oxygenated flavone glycoside, glutin, along with four known compounds. (12)
Analgesic / Bark:
Study evaluated an ethanol extract of the bark of L. glutinosa for analgesic potential. At a dose of 100 and 300 mg/kg, study showed a significant (p<0.05) increase in pain threshold in hotplate, as compared with the control group. (15)
Antinociceptive / Leaves:
A leaf extract was evaluated for antinociceptive activity by abdominal writhing and tail flick methods using mice. Results showed dose-dependent inhibition of nociception induced by acetic acid. Tail flick method showed significant results compared to acetyl salicylic acid. (18)
Antioxidant / Antinociceptive:
A methanolic leaf extract study in Swiss albino mice exhibited pronounced antioxidant property compared to ascorbic acid as standard and dose-dependent analgesic effect. (19)
Antibacterial / Stem Bark and Leaf: Various extracts of stem bark and leaf were screened for antibacterial activity. The ethanol extract exhibited significant antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus indicating a potentially potent drug for treatment of diarrhea and dysentery. Potent activity against K. pneumoniae suggests a suitable drug for respiratory disorders. (20)
• Antibacterial / Bark: Study evaluated the invitro antibacterial activity of ethanolic extract of bark against multidrug resistant bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli. The extract showed antibacterial activity when compared with gentamicin. Phytochemical analysis yielded alkaloids, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and tannins. (29)

Mucilage / Binding Property:
Mucilage isolated from powdered bark was evaluated for binding properties in tablets and granules, using paracetamol as model drug. Results showed the concentration of mucilage ranging from 6% to 8% may be a better option as binding agent of tablets as compared to starch (10%). (24)
Aphrodisiac / Possible Male Anti-Fertility Activity/ Bark:
Study evaluated LG bark extracts for aphrodisiac and infertility treatment activity on male albino rats. Results showed significant (p<0.05) aphrodisiac activity, together with significant increase in number of mounts (p<0.00e), number of ejaculation (p<0.001), ejaculation latency (p<0.001), intromission interval (p<0.001) and decreased latency of first mount (p<0.001). Results showed significant aphrodisiac and possible male anti-fertility activity with improved testicular performance. (25)
Antipyretic / Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Thrombolytic / Leaves:
Study of various hydrocarbon soluble extracts showed analgesic (acetic acid induced writhing test), ant-inflammatory (carrageenan paw edema), anti-pyretic, and thrombolytic (clot lysis) activities. (26)
• Biodiesel Potential / Fruit: Cetane number is the most important parameter of biodiesel. Cetane number of oil from Litsea glutinosa is 64.79 compared to Jatropha curcas with 57.1. Since it is not edible, it does not conflict with the issue of fuel versus food production. With its cetane number, it is ideal for ignition, and its fruit with 61.29% lipids can yield valuable quantities of biodiesel. The commercial production of fuel is dependent on the fruit, which seasonality limits. Litsea glutinosa has resisted transformation by Agrobacterium rhizogenes. (30)
• Hepatoprotective
/ CCl4 and Paracetamol Hepatotoxicity: Study evaluated the hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Litsea glutinosa on carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Oral ME of Litsea glutinosa (100-200 mg/kg) provided significant dose dependent protection against paracetamol and CCl4 hepatotoxicity and restored biochemical parameters to control levels. Activity was comparable to silymarin. (33)
• Mosquito Larvicidal / Leaves:
Study investigated the effect of Mhee Men crude extract as biologic control against Aedes aegypti larvae. A crude methanol extract yielded 32.30% saponins. Extract showed highest larval mortality after 48 hr exposure, with highest larval mortality at 15 mg/L (20.5$ ± 4.15) with LC50 and LC90 value of 34.90 and 62.30 g/L against Ae. aegypti larvae, respectively. (34)


Availability
Wild-crafted. 


Last Update December 2016


Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / Public Domain / File:Lauraceae sp Blanco2.360-original.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
AROMATIC PLANTS OF BANGLADESH : ESSENTIAL OILS OF LEAVES AND FRUITS OF LITSEA GLUTINOSA (LOUR.) C.B. ROBINSON / Jasim Uddin Chowdhury, MD et al / Bangladesh J. Bot. 37(1): 81-83, 2008 (June)
(2)
Antibacterial Activity of Some Indian Medicinal Plants
/ Ethnobotanical Leaflets 12: 227-230. 2008

(3)
Free Radical Scavenging Activity Screening of Medicinal Plants from Tripura, Northeast India / Rajendra Kshirsagar and Shakti Upadhyay / Natural Product Radiance • Vol 8 (2), 2009, pp 117-122
(4)
Two New Aporphine Alkaloids from Litsea glutinosa / Jing-Hua Yang et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta •
Volume 88 Issue 9, Pages 2523 - 2526 / DOI 10.1002/hlca.200590188
(5)
THE USE OF PLANTS IN TRADITIONAL HEALTH CARE PRACTICE OF THE SHAIJI COMMUNITY IN SOUTHWESTERN BANGLADESH
/ M Abdul Halim et al / Journal of Tropical Forest Science 19(3): 168–175 (2007)
(6)
Study of antioxdant, antiinflammatory and wound healing activity of extracts of Litsea glutinosa / P Devi, R Meera / P.Devi et al, /J. Pharm. Sci. & Res. Vol.2(2), 2010, 155-163
(7)
Larvicidal Activity of Some Indigenous Plants Against Brine Shrimp and Iv Instar Larvae of Culex Quinquefasciatis / Sunita Bhatnagar / Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Division, Regional Plant Resource Centre, Nayapalli, Bhubaneswar- 751 015.
(8)
Ethnomedicinal practices of Kol tribes in Similipal Biosphere Reserve, Orissa, India / S D Rout and H N Thatoi / Ethnobotanical Leaflets 13: 379-87. 2009.
(9)
Structural studies of an arabinoxylan isolated from Litsea glutinosa (Lauraceae) / HMTB Herath, N Savitri Kumar and KM Swarna Wimalasiri / Carbohydrate Research, Volume 198, Issue 2, 1 May 1990, Pages 343-351 / doi:10.1016/0008-6215(90)84304-D
(10)
EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF LITSEA GLUTINOSA / Poornima V Hosamath / International Journal of Pharmaceutical Applications ISSN 0976-2639., Vol 2, Issue 1, 2011, pp 105-114
(11)
Chemical composition of the leaf oil of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob. from Ha Tinh province / Nguyen Thi Hien, Tran Dinh Thang et al / VNU Journal of Science, Natural Sciences and Technology 26 (2010) 161-164
(12)
A New 2′-Oxygenated Flavone Glycoside from Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob.
/ Yun-Song Wang, Rong Huang, Hao Lu et al / Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry, Vol. 74 (2010) , No. 3 pp.652-654
(13)
In Vitro Glucose Entrapment and Alpha- Glucosidase Inhibition of Mucilaginous Substances from Selected Thai Medicinal Plants / Chanida PALANUVEJ, Sanya HOKPUTSA et al / Sci Pharm. 2009; 77; 837–849.
(14)
Litseaglutinan A and Lignans from Litsea glutinosa / Jian-Yu Pan, Si Zhang, Jun Wu et al / Helvetica Chimica Acta, Vol 93, Issue 5, pages 951–957, May 2010 / DOI: 10.1002/hlca.200900328
(15)
STUDY OF ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LITSEA GLUTINOSA (L.) ETHANOLIC EXTRACT ON SWISS ALBINO MICE / Pattari Lohitha, I S Muchandi et al / PSR, 2010; Vol. 1(9):93-97
(16)
Sablot (Litsea glutinosa) Lour. Rob.: Bringing it Back to the Landscape / Alfredo R. Rabena / Philiippine Association of Institutions for Research, Inc., Vol 1 No 1, 2007
(17)
Butanolides from Methanolic Extract of Litsea glutinosa / Nisha Agrawal, Deepika Pareek, Sonal Dobhal, Mahesh C. Sharma, Yogesh C. Joshi, Mahabeer P. Dobhal / Chemistry & Biodiversity, Volume 10, Issue 3, pages 394–400, March 2013 / DOI: 10.1002/cbdv.201100300
(18)
ANTINOCICEPTIVE PROPERTY OF LEAVES EXTRACT OF LITSEA GLUTINOSA/ PRADEEPA K, KRISHNA V*, VENKATESH, SANTOSH KUMAR S R, GIRISH KUMAR K / Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research Vol 6, Suppl 1, 2013
(19)
In vitro antioxidant and antinociceptive potentialities of methanolic extract of Litsea glutinosa / NN Rumzhum, MM Rahman, AA Sharukh, SA Chowdhury, MN Pervin / Bangladesh Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research > Vol 47, No 4 (2012)
(20)
Antibacterial screening of the stem bark and leaf extracts of Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C.B. Rob – an ethnomedicinally important tree of the Western Ghats / K. Pradeepa, V. Krishna, Venkatesh, K. Girish Kumar, B.V.Thirumalesh and K.J. Naveen Kumar / Pharmacognosy Journal / DOI: 10.5530/pj.2011.21.13
(21)
Indian Laurel / Common names / Flowers of India
(22)
Two New Aporphine Alkaloids from Litsea glutinosa
/ Jing-Hua Yang, Liang Li, Yun-Song Wang, Jing-Feng Zhao, Hong-Bin Zhang, and Shi-De Luo* / Helvetica Chimica Acta ± Vol. 88 (2005)
(23)
Structural studies of an arabinoxylan isolated from Litsea glutinosa (Lauraceae) / H.M.T.B. Herath, N.Savitri Kumar, K.M.Swarna Wimalasiri / Carbohydrate Research, Volume 198, Issue 2, 1 May 1990, Pages 343–351
(24)
Evaluation of binding property of mucilage from Litsea glutinosa wall / Sunil K. Mishra, A. Kumar, and A. Talukdar / Pharmacognosy Res. 2010 Sep-Oct; 2(5): 289–292. / doi: 10.4103/0974-8490.72325
(25)
Evaluation of Litsea glutinosa bark on Immobilization Stress Induced Sexual Behavior and Fertility of Male Rats. / Pattari Lohitha., I.S. Muchandi., Yogesh.H.S., Shambhu. C.K., V.M.Chandrashekar* / Pharmacologyonline 1: 188-199 (2009)
(26)
In vivo analgesic, antipyretic, and anti-inflammatory potential in Swiss albino mice and in vitro thrombolytic activity of hydroalcoholic extract from Litsea glutinosa leaves / Rumpa Bhowmick, Md Shahid Sarwar, Syed Masudur Rahman Dewan, Abhijit Das, Binayok Das, Mir Muhammad Nasir Uddin, Md Siddiqul Islam, Mohammad Safiqul Islam / Biological Research, October 2014, 47:56
(27)
Litsea glutinosa / Synonyms / The Plant List
(28)
Extraction and Phytochemical Evaluation of Litsea Glutinosa Bark Methanolic Extract / Pragna H. Parikh and Ayaz Y. Rangrez / Journal of Applied Pharmaceutical Science 02 (05); 2012: 71-78 / DOI: 10.7324/JAPS.2012.2635
(29)
Phytochemical Screening and Evaluation of In vitro Anti bacterial Activity of Litsea Glutinosa (L) bark Ethanolic Extract. / Pattari Lohitha*, Shivsagar. K, V.N.M.K. Hari Charan, U.Prashanthi Priya, S.Vanitha Sagar, K.Ramanjaneyulu., V.H.K. Verma / Pharmacologyonline 1: 618-623 (2010) Newsletter
(30)
Characterisation of biodiesel from Litsea glutinosa / Perumal, Alicia Ann / Theses and dissertations (Applied Sciences) / DOI:http://hdl.handle.net/10321/1119
(31)
A new megastigmane diglycoside from Litsea glutinosa (Lour.) C. B. Rob. / Yun-Song WangI; Zhen LiaoII; Yan LiIII; Rong HuangI; Hong-Bing ZhangI; Jing-Hua YangI / Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society / J. Braz. Chem. Soc. vol.22 no.11 São Paulo Nov. 2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-50532011001100030
(32)
Studies on the Chemical Constituents of Litsea glutinosea / Wen Jie, Zhou Faxing / Journal of Chinese Medicinal Materials, 1997-04
(33)
Hepatoprotective activity of methanol extract of Litsea glutinosa against hepatotoxin induced toxicity / Nilanjan Ghosh, Rituparna Chaki, Mahadeb Pal, Subhash Mandal / Pharm Exp Med (2016) 16: 139. / doi:10.1007/s13596-016-0221-2
(34)
Use of Crude Extract from Mhee Men (Litsea glutinosa) Leaves to Control Aedes aegypti Larvae / Ingkachotivanich P, Tangpau T, Chanbang Y, Chuttong, B and Sommano, S / OV02121
(35)
Medicinal plants used against gastrointestinal tract disorders by the traditional healers of Sikkim Himalayas / Ranabir Chanda, JP Mohanty, NR Bhuyan, PK Kar & LK Nath / Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge, 6(4), Oct 2007, pp 606-610

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