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Family Verbenaceae
Purple wreath
Petraea volubilis Linn.
SANDPAPER VINE
Lan hua teng

Scientific names Common names
Petrea amazonica Moldenke Petrea (Tag.)
Petrea arborea Kunth Purple wreath (Engl.)
Petrea arborescens Archer ex Moldenke [Invalid] Queen's wreath (Engl.)
Petrea aspera Turcz. Sandpaper vine (Engl.)
Petrea atrocoerulea Moldenke Sweet patria (Engl.)
Petrea colombiana Moldenke  
Petrea erecta Lodd. [Invalid]  
Petrea fragrantissima Rusby  
Petrea kohautiana C.Presl  
Petrea mexicana Willd. ex Cham.  
Petrea nitidula Moldenke  
Petrea ovataa M.Martens & Galeotti  
Petrea racemosa Nees  
Petrea retusa C.Presl  
Petrea riparia Moldenke  
Petrea rivularis Moldenke  
Petrea serrata C.Presl  
Petrea stapeliae Paxton  
Petrea subserrata Barcena  
Petrea subserrata Cham.  
Petrea swallenii Moldenke  
Petrea vincentina Turcz.  
Petrea volubilis Linn.  
Petrea volubilis L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Nilmanilatai.
CHINESE: Lan hua teng.
HINDI: Nilmanilata.
TAMIL: Kudirai valuppu.

Gen info
Genus is named in honor of Robert James Petre, 8th Baron Petre of Ingatestone Hall in Essex, an English patron of botany. Sandpaper name derives from the rough-textured leaves.

Botany
Sandpaper vine is a slender, woody climber. Leaves are leathery, stiff and crisp, opposite, oblong-ovate, up to 6 to 12 centimeters long, the upper surface dull green and the lower surface bright emerald green, and with entire or slightly sinuate margins. Both surfaces are harsh and rough-textured like sandpaper. Flowers are violet, purple, or bluish, and 5-lobed, in long, terminal racemes. Sepals are showy, spreading, and star-shaped. Corolla is spreading, 5-lobed, violet, smaller than the calyx. Fruit is small, 1- to 2-seeded, embedded in the short calyx tube.

Distribution
- Introduced to the Philippines probably after the Second World War.
- Native to tropical America.

Constituents
- Preliminary phytochemical screening yielded volatile oil, polyphenols and/or tannins, sterols and/or triterpenes, flavonoid aglycones, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, and iridoid glycoside. It was free from anthraquinone glycosides, alkaloid, saponins, resins, and oxidase enzyme. Phenylethanoids verbascoside, eukovoside and cistanoside D were isolated and identified by co- chromatographic and specteoscopic methods. (see study below)
(7)

Properties
- Abortifacient, antidiabetic.
- Studies have shown antidiabetic, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, anticancer properties.

Parts used
Leaves.

Uses

Folkloric
- No reported folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
- In Bangladesh, used for diabetes.
- Flowers used in South American folk medicine.
- In Jamaica, reported use as abortifacient.
- In the West Indies, leaves used for diarrhea and as abortifacient. (9)


Studies
Antidiabetic / Leaves:
Study evaluated the antihyperglycemic potential of leaves of P. volubilis and stems of E. agalloch. The methanolic extracts of leaves of P. volubilis showed dose-dependent and significant reductions of serum glucose in mice. (1)
Biologic Activities / Secondary Metabolites: Biologic activities of total extract and different fractions evaluated in various bioassays showed significant activities in the applied test systems: antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, analgesic, antipyretic, and antibacterial. Purification of ethyl acetate extract yielded apigenin (1), quercetin (2), 4`, 6-dimethylscutellarien (3), hypogallic acid (3,4- dihydroxybenzoic acid) (4), trans-caffeic acid (5) vanillic acid (6) and acteoside (7). (4)
Acute Toxicity Study: Acute toxicity study showed an LD50 value of 8 g/kg indicating a large margin of safety for the total extract of Petrea volubilis. (4)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antioxidant / Antipyretic: In evaluation for anti-inflammatory activity, the most powerful reduction of paw edema induced by carrageenan was obtained with an n-butanol fraction and a total methanolic extract. The most pronounced antioxidant effect was seen with a methanolic extract at a dose of 1 g/kg. The most effective fraction to show antipyretic activity were n-butanol and the total methanolic extract. A total methanolic extract showed moderate analgesic activity, A total methanolic extract showed the most effective antibacterial effect among the tested fractions, attributed to its phenolic constituents. (4)
α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity / Anti-Diabetic: Study investigated the in vitro anti-diabetic activity of the methanolic extract of Petrea volubilis. Results showed a dose-dependent increase in inhibitory effect on alpha-amylase enzyme up to 81.57% with IC50 of 24.75 ± 0.294 µg/ml. Root sample analysis suggests 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, mono(2- ethylhexyl) ester may be responsible for the anti-hyperglycemic effect. (5)
• Antimicrobial / Phytochemical Screening: Preliminary phytochemical screening yielded volatile oil, polyphenols and/or tannins, sterols and/or triterpenes, flavonoid aglycones, carbohydrates and/or glycosides, and iridoid glycoside. A methanol extract showed greatest inhibition zone on Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Aspergillus niger, and Candida albicans. (see constituents above) (7)
• Antioxidant / Anticancer: In a study of selected Egyptian medicinal plants evaluating the phenolic contents and the interrelation of antioxidant, anticancer and antileishmanial effects, overall results suggest that the most suitable medicinal plant for use as anticancer and antioxidant is Petrea volubilis with its adequate mixture of total phenolic compounds (88.7 mg%) and flavonoids (50.80 mg%). (8)

Availability
- Wild-crafted.
- Seeds in the cybermaket.

Last Update December 2016

IMAGE SOURCE: Flora of USA and Canada / Petraea volubilis / Flowering habit at Lanai City, Lanai / Forest and Kim Starr - Plants of Hawaii / Creative Commons Attribution / alterVISTA
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE: Flowers / Petrea volubilis / Queen's Wreath / Fleur des Tropiques

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antihyperglycemic Activity Studies on Methanol Extract of Petrea Volubilis L. (Verbenaceae) Leaves and Excoecaria Agallocha L. (Euphorbiaceae) Stems / Mahabuba Rahman, Aziza Siddika, Bithika Bhadra, Shahnaz Rahman, Bipasha Agarwala, Majeedul H. Chowdhury, Mohammed Rahmatullah / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, C(C): CC-CC, 2010
(2)
A Review of Medicinal Plant Research at the University of the West Indies, Jamaica, 1948–2001 / SA Mitchell, MH Ahmad / West Indian Med J 2006; 55 (4): 243
(3)
Purple Wreath / Common names / Flowers of India
(4)
PHYTOCHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL STUDY OF PETREA VOLUBILIS L. (VERBENACEAE / )
M. F. Abdelwahab, A. Abdel-Lateff, M. A. Fouad*, S. Y. Desoukey and M. S. Kamel / Bull. Pharm. Sci., Assiut University, Vol. 34, Part 1, 2011, pp. 9-20.
(5)
In Vitro α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity and GC- MS Analysis of Petrea volubilis / Parul Sharma, Rekha Vijayvergia / International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Vol 4, Issue 4, April 2015
(6)
Petrea volubilis / Synonyms / The Plant List

(7)
Phytochemical and Microbiological studies of Petrea volubilies L / Gouda T. M. Dawoud and T. H. El-Morsy / Journal of American Science 2012;8(8) http://www.americanscience.org
(8)
Interrelation of antioxidant, anticancer and antilieshmania effects of some selected Egyptian plants and their phenolic constituents. / Abdel-Hady NM, Dawoud GT, El-Hela AA, Morsy TA. / J Egypt Soc Parasitol. 2011 Dec;41(3):785-800.
(9)
Medicinal Plants / Dominica Botanic Gardens



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