- Passiflora, known as passion flowers or passion vines, is a genus of about 550 species of flowering plants in the family Passifloraceae. Most are tendril-bearing vines' some shrubs or trees. They can be woody or herbaceous. Flowers are usually showy with a distinctive corona, and are pentamerous, ripening into an indehiscent fruit with numerous seeds. (41)
- Scientific and common names are rife in reference to Christian theology. The 'passion' in passion comes from Latin 'passio', meaning 'suffering', referring to the passion of Jesus Christ in Christian theology. Various flower parts are symbolic elements of Jesus' last days and crucifixion.
Species epithet, foetida, derives from Latin, meaning "stinking", referring to the strong aroma emitted by damaged foliage.
- In the Philippines, the fruit of Passiflora foetida is called "Marya-marya" (Little Mary) and Santo Papa
due to its resemblance to the Pope's mitre. (44)
Pasionaryang-mabaho is a herbaceous vine with slender and rounded
stems, covered with prominent villous hairs. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate,
6 to 9 centimeters long, shallowly 3-lobed, often sinuate and ciliate, with pointed
tip and heart-shaped base. Flower is solitary, white or pinkish, 3 centimeters
in diameter, subtended by a prominent involucre of 3 bracts. Fruit is
dry, inflated, ovoid, orange, 3 to 5 centimeters long. All parts of the plant have a
- Introduced to the Philippines from tropical America.
- In waste places at low altitudes, esp.
in the Laguna, Rizal and Quezon provinces.
- Native to the U.S.A., Mexico, Caribbean, Central and South America.
- Widely introduced to tropical regions around the world.
- Now pantropic.
- In some areas, considered an invasive species.
- Before maturity, the leaves and green fruit contain a cyanogenetic glucoside, and in excess can be dangerous
- Study yields maltol, phytosterols, cyanogenic glycoside, flavonoids and their glycosides.
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded sterols, polyterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponosides. (7)
- Screening for nutritive value yielded crude protein (25.83 to 26.05%), crude fiber (9.55 to 9.61%), crude fat (2.87 to 2.98%), ash (28.55 to 28.84%), carbohydrate (40.46 to 40.69%), and moisture (1.79 to 1.96%).
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of leaves yielded saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloid, anthraquinones, steroid, and flavonoid.
- P. foetida has yielded several active constituents like hydrocyanic acid, groups of flavonoids, harman alkaloids, passifloricins, α-pyrones, and vitexin.
- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, phenols, steroids, cardioglycosides, saponins and terpenoids. GC-MS analysis yielded 27 bioactive compounds in seed ethanolic extract
of Passiflora foetida. (see study below) (30)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract
yielded saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloids, anthraquinones steroids, and flavonoid. (32)
- Study for essential oil yielded 76 constituents with hexahydrofarnesyl acetone (14.2%) as dominant compound. Other constituents in sizable amounts are ß-eudesmol (6.5%), germacrene D, caryophyllene oxide, and ß-cedrene. (36)
- Analysis of fruit pulp yielded: total carbohydrates 1.6 mg/g,
fat 8.3 mg/g, soluble protein 60 mg/g, reducing sugar 0.041 mg/g, ascorbic acid 5.77 mg/g, flavonoid 9.066 mg/g, phenolic compound 24.1 mg/g, cholesterol 1.4 mg/g, alkaloid 32.96 mg/g, amino acid 36 mg/g, calorific value 0.360 calorie/g, calcium 1923 mg/kg, magnesium 1749 mg/kg, phosphorus 0.35 mg/g. (40)
- Leaves and roots are emmenagogue.
- Flowers are pectoral.
- Studies have shown antibacterial, hepatoprotective, estrogenic, antioxidant, anti-osteoporotic, antidiabetic, antiproliferative, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, antiepileptic, antiulcer, nootropic, antihypertensive, anthelmintic, antidermatophytic properties.
Leaves, fruits, and flowers.
- The sweetish pulp is edible
- Young leaves and plant tips are also edible.
- Infusion of leaves and roots used for hysteria.
- Plant used for itchy conditions.
- Decoction of fruit used for asthma and biliousness.
- Decoction of leaves and roots used as emmenagogue.
- Fruit used as emetic.
- Leaves applied to the head for headaches and giddiness.
- In India, traditionally used for diarrhea,
throat and ear infections, liver disorders, tumors, itches, fever and skin diseases and for wound dressing.
- In Malaysia, used for treatment of asthma.
- In Argentina, used to treat epilepsy.
- In Africa, used gas, colds, and pregnancy
to keep the baby active.
- In French Guiana, decoction of leaf and
bark mixed with the same of Annona glabra as anthelmintic for flatworms
and nematodes. Decoction of fresh whole plant drunk as children's anthelmintic, for intestinal nematodes and flatworms. Decoction of dried plant used for colds and chest colds. In NW guyana, used for treatment of tuberculosis, worms, coughs and colds. (6)
- In Brazil, used as lotion or poultice for erysipelas and skin diseases with inflammation. (7)
- In Vietnam, dry leaves used in making tea to help induce sleep.
- Soap: Because of high saponin content, used as substitute for soap in the manufacture of soap-free detergents.
• Antibacterial / Leaves:
Study of PF showed the
leaf extracts to have remarkable activity against all four tested bacterial pathogens
(Pseudomonas putida, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella flexneri, and Streptococcus pyogenes) compared to the fruit extracts. Study supports the traditional use of
the herbal extracts against a variety of diseases – diarrhea, fever, skin diseases, ear and throat infections. (1)
• Antibacterial / Roots: Study for in vitro antibacterial activity of roots of P foetida showed the methanol extract to have significant activity against K pneumonia, P aeruginosa and E coli with levofloxacin, amikacin and sparfloxacin as standard antibiotics. (4)
• Antiproliferative: One of nine
selected Thai medicinal plants tested, the aerial parts of Passiflora
foetida showed antiproliferative activity against SLBR3 human breast
adenocarcinoma cell line. (2)
• Hepatoprotective: The ethanolic extract of fruits of Passiflora foetida significantly reduced the biomarkers of hepatic injury (SGOT, SGPT, alkaline phosphatase, GGTP). Results indicate the fruits of Pf possess hepatoprotective activity, a property that may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids. (3)
• Estrogenic Effects / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated oral acute toxicity and potential estrogenic activity of various extracts of Passiflora foetida leaves in female Wistar rats. Oral LD50 of three extracts were greater than 5000 mg/kg with no observed behavioral abnormality. Results showed an estrogenic effect with disruption followed by blockage of estrous cycle at the estrous phase, with uterotrophic activity and increase of 17ß estradiol-induced uterotrophic effect. (7)
• Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: An ethanolic extract of leaves showed highly significant analgesic activity and highly significant anti-inflammatory effect. (8)
• Neuroprotective Against Cerebral Ischemia: Study evaluated an alcoholic extract for neuroprotective effect against brain damage and impairment in cerebral ischemia induced by MCA occlusion in male Wistar rats. Results showed decreased brain infarct volume in both cortical and subcortical structures, together with enhancement of neurological score and improved sensory response to both mechanical and temperature stimuli. (9)
• Harmaline / Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Effect: Harmaline, a beta carboline alkaloid was extracted from Passiflora leaf material. Harmaline was found to have monoamine oxidase inhibitory effect, useful for antidepressant activity. Study presents an economic, rapid, and effective separation method of harmaline from Passiflora. (10)
• Antiepileptic / Analgesic / Leaves: Study evaluated a leaf extract for antiepileptic and analgesic activity. A methanol extract of leaves showed dose-dependent anti-epileptic activity in Maximum electricshock induced and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. Extract showed good analgesic activity with peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms. (11)
• Antidepressant / Leaves: Study evaluated methanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida for possible CNS effect in mice using behavioral tests. The extract at doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg administered intraperitoneally was able to decrease immobility time in a dose dependent manner in both tail suspension and forced swim tests with effects comparable to standard drugs fluoxetine (20 mg/kg) and imipramine (15 mg/kg). In vivo results suggest antidepressant effects with potential for use in treatment of depressive disorders. (12)
• Antimicrobial: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf, root, and fruits of P. foetida against various pathogenic microorganisms. Results showed both extracts to have broad spectrum activity and very effective activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. (13) Disc diffusion study yielded secondary metabolites that showed potent inhibitory activity against multidrug resistant pathogenic microorganisms like S. aureus. (see constituents above) (32)
• Antihypertensive: Study evaluated various extracts of P. foetida for antihypertensive activity. An ethyl acetate extract showed significant anti-hypertensive activity, which may be due to activation of NO-dependent vasodilation and also due to the presence of flavonoids in the EA extract. (14)
• Memory Enhancement: Study evaluated the effect of P. foetida on spatial memory both in normal and cognitive deficit conditions. Results showed the Passiflora foetida extract is a potential cognitive enhancer in both normal and cognitive deficit conditions. However, the underlying mechanism and active ingredients have yet to be determined. (15)
• Antiulcer / Antioxidant / Whole Plant: Study evaluated the effects of ethanolic extract of P. foetida whole plant on gastric ulcer on ethanol- and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models in rats using measures of antioxidant parameters and histological changes in gastric tissue of ulcer rats. P. foetida treatment significantly (p<0.001) increased gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirn-induced ulcer rats, with significant (p<0.001) reduction in lipid peroxidation and increase in reduced glutathione levels. Results confirmed antiulcer and antioxidant activities. (16)
• Vitexin / Leaves: Vitexin has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-thyroid, anti-arteriosclerotic, antihypertensive, and antihepatotoxic properties. Study reports on a a simple, rapid, precise accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of vitexin from the extract of P. foetida leaves. The contents of vitexin in P. foetida leaf extracts were within the range of 0.03%-0.310%. (21)
• Chronic Toxicity Study: Study evaluated the safety of an ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida containing 0.84% vitexin in Wistar rats given doses of 16, 160, 800, and 1600 mg/kg/day for six months. Results showed the ethanolic extract in the given doses did not induce any harmful effects in the rats. Although fatty infiltration in the adrenal cortex was noted, it is possibly physiological rather than pathological change. (22)
• Anti-Dyslipidemia / Leaves: Study evaluated ethanol extracts of P. foetida leaves for anti-dyslipidemia effect in dextrose-induced diabetic Wistar rats. A 500 mg/kb body weight of ethanol extract showed significant effect with lowering of the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL together with an HDL boosting effect. The effect may be attributed to glucose utilization and depressed mobilization of fat. (23)
• Anthelmintic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant anthelmintic activity compared to standard albendazole at 10 mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, among others. (24)
• Harmaline / Leaves: Study of a hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora foetida leaves identified harmaline, a betacarboline alkaloid. Harmaline is found to have monoamine oxidase inhibitory effect and useful for antidepressant activity. Study reports on a simple, rapid, economic, and effective method for the separation of harmaline from Passiflora. (25)
• Antibacterial / Passiflora foetida Activated Carbon: Study evaluated activated carbon prepared from Passiflora foetida for bacterial efficacy against 12 different microorganisms. Results showed effective antibacterial activity with effective and high zones of inhibition against almost all the microorganisms tested. Activity was considerably more against Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1457) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 10309). (26)
• Antidermatophytic / Leaves: Study evaluated the in-vitro antifungal activity of leaf and fruit extracts of P. foetida against three fungi viz., Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and yeast fungus Candida albicans. An ethanolic leaf extract showed better antifungal activity against T. rubrum, followed by T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans. (27)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antidiabetic: Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of P. foetida aerial parts and silver nanoparticles on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes of dextrose induced diabetic rats. Results suggest that P. foetida extracts and silver nanoparticles maintained glucose homeostasis and has potential in the management of diabetes mellitus. (28)
• Protective to Thyroid Function in Met-Amphetamine Receiving Rats: Study evaluate the effects of passiflora extract on serum T3 and T4 levels in Shisheh receiving male Wistar rats. Serum T3 and T4 significantly increased in rats receiving amphetamine. Passiflora extract showed protective effects on thyroid function in met-amphetamine receiving animals. (29)
• α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity / Roots and Seeds: Study evaluated Passiflora foetida for potential bioactive compounds and α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. Maximum α-amylase inhibitory activity was seen with 100 µg/ml of aqueous and ethanolic extract of root with inhibition of 80.3% and 83.3% respectively. In α-glucosidase inhibitory activity, the aqueous extract of seed showed maximum inhibition of 72.3% followed by ethanolic root extract with 65.7%. Results suggest α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity and supports its use in the management of diabetes. (see constituents above) (30)
• Analgesic / Antidiarrheal / Cytotoxic: Study evaluated the ethanol extract of P. foetida by three experimental models: analgesic by acetic acid-induced writhing inhibition in mice; diarrheal by castor oil-induced diarrhea in mice, and cytotoxic activity by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Results showed 68.75% and 30% inhibition of writhe at doses of 500 and 250 mg/kbw, respectively. There was increased mean latent period to diarrheal onset and decreased mean number of stools. There was cytotoxic activity in BSL assay and median lethal concentration of 80 µg/mL. (31)
• Cytotoxic / Apoptotic / HeLa Cancer Cell Line: Study evaluated the cytotoxic and apoptotic effect of methanol extract of P. foetida on HeLa cell line cultured. Results showed apoptosis and dose-dependent cytotoxic activity with inhibitory concentration of 21.55 µg/ml . Phytoanalysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, saponins, steroids, terpenoids, phenols, and cardiac glycosides. (33)
Hypoglycemic Potential: Study evaluated the hypoglycemic potential of methanolic extract of P. foetida in alloxan-induced diabetic albino mice. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose levels (p<0.001) along with significant lowering of kinetic parameters. (34)
• Antiproliferative / Human Cervica Cancer Cell Line / Antioxidative / Leaves: Study evaluated the antiproliferative and antioxidant activities of P. foetida leaves methanollic extract against MCF-7, MDA-MD-231, HeLa, and HepG2 cancer cell lines. The ME showed high antiproliferative activity against HeLa, high antiradical properties(EC50 1.37 ± 1.17 µg/ml) and moderate antioxidant reducing power (0.42 ±0.03 mM mFe), with 82.09 mg GAE/g of TPC and 205.59 mg QE/g of TFC values. Results showed antiproliferative effect on human cervicall cancer cells and moderate amount of antioxidant activity. (35)
• Nutritional Composition / Antioxidant / Fruit: Study evaluat3d the main nutrients and antioxidant properties of P. foetida fruit. Fruits were found rich in amino acids (1097 mg/100 g), minerals (595.75 mg/100g), and unsaturated fatty acids (74.18 g/100 g total fat). Study for phenolic content yielded 65 compounds including 39 free phenolics, 14 insoluble-glycoside-phenolics, and 22 insoluble-ester-phenolics. The non-extractable phenolics exhibited significant antioxidant activities by DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging assays. (37)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of leaf extract of P. foetida in a model of dextrose-induced experimental diabetes in rats. Results showed significant antidiabetic activity as evidenced by alterations in the measured biochemical parameters i.e., plasma insulin, creatinine, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum protein, and enzymes. (38)
• Anti-Osteoporotic Effect: Study evaluated the skeletal effects of butanolic fraction from P. foetida in an estrogen deficient ovariectomiy-induced bone loss mice model. Results showed an anti-osteoporotic effect likely through simulation of osteoblast function and inhibition of osteoclast function. (39)
• Anti-Inflammatory: Study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of methanolic extracts of P. foetida and involvement of nuclear factor-kkB (NF-kB) signaliing in the regulation of inflammation. The ME prevented production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and epression of inducible cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) in LPS-induced macrophage cells, and suppressed the phosphorylation of MAPKKs in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells. The ME also reduced the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibited NF-kB activation induced by LPS. Results showed the ME inhibited LPS-induced inflammatory and oxidative responses and may be a therapeutic option for treating inflammatory diseases. (42)
• Anti-Inflammatory / Flavonoids / Stem Bark:: Study
of soluble ethyl acetate fraction and chemical components of stem bark of P. foetida isolated ten flavonoids (1-10) by various chromatographic methods.
Luteolin (2) and chrysoeriol (3) showed most potent inhibition of nitric oxide (NO) production in macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, with half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 1.2 and 3.1 µM, respectively. The compounds suppressed LPS-induced NO synthase (iNOS) expression at the transcription level. The inflammatory benefits were attributed to the flavonoids. (43)
• Analgesic / Stems: Study evaluated the invivo analgesic activity of ethanol extract of stems of P. foetida. Phytochemical screening yielded carbohydrates, glycosides, flavonoids, and steroids. Acute toxicity study showed safety up to 2000 mg/kbw. Results showed statistically significant dose dependent anagesic activity by tail flick method in rats md acetic acid induced writhing in mice. (45)
• Free Radical Scavenging Activity / Leaves: Study evaluated the total phenol content, in vitro lipid peroxidation and radical scavenging activities of various extracts of P. foetida. The flavonoid and phenol content was high in the aqueous and ethanol extract of leaves. A 500 µg/ml concentration showed strong reducing power. Highest free radical scavenging activity was seen in the ethanolic extract of leaf. Activity was attributed to phenol and flavonoids. (46)
• Antimicrobial / Leaves: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of aqueous leaf extract of P. foetida against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus spp., and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are known to be resistant to various antibiotics. By measuring the diameter of inhibition zones, results showed P. foetida leaves possess antimicrobial activity. (47)
- Seeds, capsules and extracts in the cybermarket.