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Family Passifloraceae
Pasionariang-mabaho
Prutas-Baguio
Passiflora foetida Linn.

STINKING PASSION FLOWER
Tian xian guo

Scientific names  Common names 
Decaloba obscura (Lindl.) M.Roem. Lurunggut (Bik.)
Dysosmia ciliata M.Roem. Masaflora (Bik.)
Dysosmia foetida (L.) M.Roem. Tauñgon (C. Bis.)
Dysosmia ciliata M.Roem. Lurunggut (Bik.)
Dysosmia foetida (L.) M.Roem. Pasionaria que hiede (Span.)
Dysosmia gossypifolia M.Roem. Pasionariang-mabaho (Tag.)
Dysosmia hibiscifolia M.Roem. Pasyonaryang-mabaho (Tag.)
Dysosmia nigelliflora M.Roem. Prutas-Baguio (Tag.)
Dysosmia polyadena M.Roem. Love-in-a-mist (Engl.)
Granadilla foetida (L.) Gaertn. Pop-pop bush (Engl.)
Passiflora balansae Chodat Red fruit passion flower (Engl.)
Passiflora baranquiniana Lem. Running pop (Engl.)
Passiflora foetida Linn. Stinking passion flower (Engl.)
Passiflora nigelliflora Hook. Wild maracuja (Engl.)
Passiflora polyadena Vell. Wild water lemon (Engl.)
Passiflora variegata Mill.  
Passiflora vesicaria L.  
Tripsilina foetida (L.) Raf.  
Passiflora foetida L. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CAMBODIAN: Sav mao prey.
CHINESE: Long zhu guo, Ye xian guo, Long zhu cao, Long yan guo, Tian xian guo.
FRENCH: Marie-Gougeat.
GERMAN: Übelriechende Passionsblume, Rotfruchtige.
GUAM: Kinahulo atadeo.
HAITIAN: Toque molle.
INDIA: Banchathail, Mukkopeera.
INDONESIAN: Buah tikus, Ceplukan blunsun, Katceprek, Katjeprek, Permot, Rambaton blunsun.
JAPANESE: Kusa-tokeiso.
MALAYSIAN: Pokok lang bulu, Timun dendang.
NETHERLANDS: Marie-goujeat.
PORTUGUESE: Maraca jusinho, Maracuja catinga, Maracuja de cobra, Maracuja fedorento
SAMOAN: Pasio vao.
SPANISH: Corona de Cristo, Flor de la pasion, Granadilla de culebra, Pasiflora hedionda, Pocoto.
SRI LANKAN: Delbattu, Kodimanthulai, Madahalu, Udahalu.
THAI: Ka thok rok.
VIETNAM: Chum bao.

Botany
Pasionaring-mabaho is a herbaceous vine with slender and rounded stems, covered with prominent villous hairs. Leaves are ovate to oblong-ovate, 6 to 9 centimeters long, shallowly 3-lobed, often sinuate and ciliate, with pointed tip and heart-shaped base. Flower is solitary, white or pinkish, 3 centimeters in diameter, subtended by a prominent involucre of 3 bracts. Fruit is dry, inflated, ovoid, orange, 3 to 5 centimeters long. All parts of the plant have a disagreeable odor.

Distribution
- In waste places at low altitudes, esp. in the Laguna, Rizal and Quezon provinces.
- Introduced from tropical America.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Before maturity, the leaves and green fruit contain a cyanogenetic glucoside, and in excess can be dangerous to stock.
- Study yields maltol, phytosterols, cyanogenic glycoside, flavonoids and their glycosides.
- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded sterols, polyterpenes, flavonoids, alkaloids, and saponosides. (7)
- Screening for nutritive value yielded crude protein (25.83 to 26.05%), crude fiber (9.55 to 9.61%), crude fat (2.87 to 2.98%), ash (28.55 to 28.84%), carbohydrate (40.46 to 40.69%), and moisture (1.79 to 1.96%). (20)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of leaves yielded saponins, tannins, cardiac glycosides, alkaloid, anthraquinones, steroid, and flavonoid. (20)
- P. foetida has yielded several active constituents like hydrocyanic acid, groups of flavonoids, harman alkaloids, passifloricins, α-pyrones, and vitexin.
- Phytochemical screening yielded the presence of alkaloids, flavanoids, tannins, phenols, steroids, cardioglycosides, saponins and terpenoids. GC-MS analysis yielded 27 bioactive compounds in seed ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida. (see study below) (30)

Properties
- Leaves and roots are emmenagogue.
- Flowers are pectoral.
- Considered antibacterial.

Parts used
Leaves, fruits, and flowers.

Uses
Edibility
The sweetish pulp is edible when ripe.
Folkloric
- Infusion of leaves and roots used for hysteria.
- Plant used for itchy conditions.
- Decoction of fruit used for asthma and biliousness.
- Decoction of leaves and roots used as emmenagogue.
- Fruit used as emetic.
- Leaves applied to the head for headaches and giddiness.
- In India, traditionally used for diarrhea, throat and ear infections, liver disorders, tumors, itches, fever and skin diseases and for wound dressing.
- In Malaysia, used for treatment of asthma.
- In Argentina, used to treat epilepsy.
- In Africa, used gas, colds, and pregnancy to keep the baby active.
- In French Guiana, decoction of leaf and bark mixed with the same of Annona glabra as anthelmintic for flatworms and nematodes. Decoction of fresh whole plant drunk as children's anthelmintic, for intestinal nematodes and flatworms. Decoction of dried plant used for colds and chest colds. In NW guyana, used for treatment of tuberculosis, worms, coughs and colds. (6)

- In Brazil, used as lotion or poultice for erysipelas and skin diseases with inflammation. (7)

Studies
Antibacterial:
Study of PF showed the leaf extracts to have remarkable activity against all bacterial pathogens compared to the fruit extracts. Study supports the traditional use of the herbal extracts against a variety of diseases – diarrhea, fever, skin diseases, ear and throat infections. (1)
Antibacterial / Roots: Study of invitro antibacterial activity of roots of P foetida showed the methanol extract to have significant activity against K pneumonia, P aeruginosa and E coli with levofloxacin, amikacin and sparfloxacin as standard antibiotics. (4)
Antiproliferative:
One of nine selected Thai medicinal plants tested, the aerial parts of Passiflora foetida showed antiproliferative activity against SLBR3 human breast adenocarcinoma cell line. (2)
Hepatoprotective:
The ethanolic extract of fruits of Passiflora foetida significantly reduced the biomarkers of hepatic injury (SGOT, SGPT, Alk Phos, GGTP). Results indicate the fruits of Pf possess hepatoprotective activity, a property that may be attributed to the presence of flavonoids. (3)
Estrogenic Effects / Toxicity Study: Study evaluated oral acute toxicity and potential estrogenic activity of various extracts of Passiflora foetida leaves in female Wistar rats. Oral LD50 of three extracts were greater than 5000 mg/kg with no observed behavioral abnormality. Results showed an estrogenic effect with disruption followed by blockage of estrous cycle at the estrous phase, with uterotrophic activity and increase of 17ß estradiol-induced uterotrophic effect. (7)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves:
An ethanolic extract of leaves showed highly significant analgesic activity and highly significant anti-inflammatory effect. (8)
Neuroprotective Against Cerebral Ischemia:
Study evaluated an alcoholic extract for neuroprotective effect against brain damage and impairment in cerebral ischemia induced by MCA occlusion in male Wistar rats. Results showed decreased brain infarct volume in both cortical and subcortical structures, together with enhancement of neurological score and improved sensory response to both mechanical and temperature stimuli. (9)
Harmaline / Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Effect:
Harmaline, a beta carboline alkaloid was extracted from Passiflora leaf material. Harmaline was found to have monoamine oxidase inhibitory effect, useful for antidepressant activity. Study presents an economic, rapid, and effective separation method of harmaline from Passiflora. (10)
Antiepileptic / Analgesic / Leaves:
Study evaluated a leaf extract for antiepileptic and analgesic activity. A methanol extract of leaves showed dose-dependent anti-epileptic activity in Maximum electricshock induced and pentylenetetrazole-induced convulsions. Extract showed good analgesic activity with peripheral and central nervous system mechanisms. (11)
Antidepressant / Leaves:
Study evaluated a methanolic extract of leaves for antidepressant activity in mice. Results showed dose-dependent decrease in immobility time in both tail suspension and forced swim tests, with effects comparable to fluoxetine and imipramine. Results showed antidepressant effects in vivo, with therapeutic interest for use in the treatment of patients with depressive disorders. (1
2)
Antimicrobial:
Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of leaf, root, and fruits of P. foetida against various pathogenic microorganisms. Results showed both extracts to have broad spectrum activity and very effective activity against both gram positive and gram negative organisms. (1
3)
Antihypertensive:
Study evaluated various extracts of P. foetida for antihypertensive activity. An ethyl acetate extract showed significant anti-hypertensive activity, which may be due to activation of NO-dependent vasodilation and also due to the presence of flavonoids in the EA extract.   (14)
Memory Enhancement:
Study evaluated the effect of P. foetida on spatial memory both in normal and cognitive deficit conditions. Results showed the Passiflora foetida extract is a potential cognitive enhancer in both normal and cognitive deficit conditions. However, the underlying mechanism and active ingredients have yet to be determined. (1
5)
Antiulcer / Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the effects of an ethanolic extract of whole plant on ethanol and aspirin-induced gastric ulcer models. Results showed significant reduction of ulcer index and significantly increased gastric pH of both ethanol and aspirin-induced ulcer rats. There was significant reduction in lipid peroxidation and increased in reduced glutathione levels. (16)
Vitexin / Leaves:
Vitexin has been reported to have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-thyroid, anti-arteriosclerotic, antihypertensive, and antihepatotoxic properties. Study reports on a a simple, rapid, precise accurate high performance thin layer chromatography method for determination of vitexin from the extract of P. foetida leaves. The contents of vitexin in P. foetida leaf extracts were within the range of 0.03%-0.310%. (
21)
Chronic Toxicity Study:
Study evaluated the safety of an ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida containing 0.84% vitexin in Wistar rats given doses of 16, 160, 800, and 1600 mg/kg/day for six months. Results showed the ethanolic extract in the given doses did not induce any harmful effects in the rats. Although fatty infiltration in the adrenal cortex was noted, it is possibly physiological rather than pathological change. (
22)
Anti-Dyslipidemia / Leaves:
Study evaluated ethanol extracts of P. foetida leaves for anti-dyslipidemia effect in dextrose-induced diabetic Wistar rats. A 500 mg/kb body weight of ethanol extract showed significant effect with lowering of the total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL, and VLDL together with an HDL boosting effect. The effect may be attributed to glucose utilization and depressed mobilization of fat. (
23)
Anthelmintic / Leaves:
Study evaluated the in-vitro anthelmintic activity of ethanolic extract of leaves against Indian earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Results showed significant anthelmintic activity compared to standard albendazole at 10 mg/ml concentration. Phytochemical screening yielded alkaloids, cyanogenetic glycosides, tannins, phenolic compounds, flavonoids, among others. (
24)
Harmaline / Leaves:
Study of a hydroalcoholic extract of Passiflora foetida leaves identified harmaline, a betacarboline alkaloid. Harmaline is found to have monoamine oxidase inhibitory effect and useful for antidepressant activity. Study reports on a simple, rapid, economic, and effective method for the separation of harmaline from Passiflora. (
25)
Antibacterial / Passiflora foetida Activated Carbon:
Study evaluated activated carbon prepared from Passiflora foetida for bacterial efficacy against 12 different microorganisms. Results showed effective antibacterial activity with effective and high zones of inhibition against almost all the microorganisms tested. Activity was considerably more against Shigella flexneri (MTCC 1457) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MTCC 10309). (
26)
Antidermatophytic / Leaves:
Study evaluated the in-vitro antifungal activity of leaf and fruit extracts of P. foetida against three fungi viz., Trichophyton rubrum, T. mentagrophytes, and yeast fungus Candida albicans. An ethanolic leaf extract showed better antifungal activity against T. rubrum, followed by T. mentagrophytes and C. albicans. (
27)
Silver Nanoparticles / Antidiabetic:
Study evaluated an ethanolic extract of P. foetida aerial parts and silver nanoparticles on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes of dextrose induced diabetic rats. Results suggest that P. foetida extracts and silver nanoparticles maintained glucose homeostasis and has potential in the management of diabetes mellitus. (
28)
Protective to Thyroid Function in Met-Amphetamine Receiving Rats:
Study evaluate the effects of passiflora extract on serum T3 and T4 levels in Shisheh receiving male Wistar rats. Serum T3 and T4 significantly increased in rats receiving amphetamine. Passiflora extract showed protective effects on thyroid function in met-amphetamine receiving animals. (
29)
α-Glucosidase and α-Amylase Inhibitory Activity: Study evaluated the α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity of P. foetida. GC-MS analysis yielded 27 bioactive compound from the seed ethanolic extract. Results suggest the bioactive compounds exert α-amylase and α-glucosidase inhibitory activity with potential for use in the management of diabetes. (see constituents above) (
30)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Capsules and extracts in the cybermarket.

Last Update October 2016


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: Fruit / File:Passiflora foetida fruits.JPG / B. Navez / 16 May 2008 / GNU Free Documentation / / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCES: Flower / File:Passiflora foetida (1).jpg / Cayall / Jardin Botanico del Quindio / 10 March 2007 / Creative Commons Attribution / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Antibacterial properties of Passiflora foetida L. – a common exotic medicinal plant / C Mohanasundari et al / African Journal of Biotechnology Vol. 6 (23), pp. 2650-2653, 3 December, 2007
(2)
Antiproliferative activity of Thai medicinal plant extracts on human breast adenocarcinoma cell line / Primchamien Moongkarndi et al / Fitoterapia 75 (2004) 375–377

(3)
Effect of ethanol extract of fruits of Passiflora foetida Linn. on CCl4 induced hepatic injury in rats /
Ramasamy Anandan et al / Journal of Pharmacy Research Vol.2.Issue 3.March 2009 / ISSN: 0974-6943
(4)
Antibacterial activity of methanolic root extract of Passiflora foetida Linn / Emin Baby / Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, Jan 2010
(5)
Passiflora foetida L. (accepted name) / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(6)
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / Botany.si.edu
(7)
Oral acute toxicity and estrogenic effects of the extracts of Passiflora foetida Linn. (Passifloraceae) leaves in female Wistar albino rats / Bleu Gomé Michel*a, Kouakou Koffib, Zahoui Ouga Stanislasa, Touré Alassanec, Traoré Flaviena / Annals of Biological Research, 2012, 3 (9):4609-4616
(8)
Analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities of Passiflora foetida L. / Sasikala V, Saravanan S, Parimelazhagan T* / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2011)600-603 / doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(11)80155-7
(9)
Neuroprotective Effect against Cerebral Ischemia of Passiflora foetida / Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Natcha Sattroopinat, Terdthai Tong-Un, Supaporn Muchmapura, Panakporn Wannanond and Panee Sirisa-Ard / American Journal of Applied Sciences 9 (4): 600-604, 2012
(10)
Harmaline from Passiflora foetida / Krishnaveni A, Santh Rani Thaakur / Int. J. Pharm & Ind. Res, Vol 1, No 4, Oct-Dec 2011
(11)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING ANTIEPILEPTIC& ANALGESIC ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF PASSIFLORA FOETIDA / Pavan Kumar Reddy K., Bhagavan Raju M., Sreedevi P., Pranali Pandit Veena Rani I., Veena G. / Pharmacologyonline 3: 576-580 (2009)
(12)
ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT OF PASSIFLORA FOETIDA LEAVES IN MICE / SANTOSH P, VENUGOPL R, NILAKASH A S, KUNJBIHARI S, DR. MANGALA L / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 3, Issue 1, 2011
(13)
ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF PASSIFLORA FOETIDA L AGAINST VARIOUS CLINICAL AND PHYTOPATHOGENS / R Saravanan*, D Dhachinamoorthi, M Sanjith Nath and K Senthilkumar / Inventi Rapid: Ethnopharmacology, 2010/8/18
(14)
Study of Anti-Hypertension Activity of Aerial Parts of Passiflora foetida Linn.
/ Ranganatha N*, Dr.I.J.Kuppast, Veerashekar T / SOUSHRUTAM, An International Research Journal of Pharmacy and Plant science Volume 1(3), Mar/April 2013
(15)
PASSIFLORA FOETIDA ENHANCES MEMORY IN BOTH HEALTHY AND MEMORY IMPAIRMENT CONDITIONS / Natcha Sattroopinat, Jintanaporn Wattanathorn, Terdthai Tong-Un , Panee Sirisa-ard, Supaporn Mushimapura /
(16)
Antiulcer and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida L. / R Sathish, Alok Sahu, K Natarajan / Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 2011, Volume 43, No 3, pp 336-339
(17)
Sorting Passiflora names / Authorised by Prof. Snow Barlow / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.

(18)
Passiflora foetida / Synonyms / The Plant List
(19)
Passiflora foetida / Local common names / Invasive Species Compendium
(20)
Proximate And Spectroscopic Analysis Of Passiflora Foetida / L. Odewo, S.A, Agbeja, A.O, Olaifa,K.A, Ojo, A.P, Ogundana S.A. / INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SCIENTIFIC & TECHNOLOGY RESEARCH VOLUME 3, ISSUE 9, SEPTEMBER 2014 ISSN 2277-8616
(21)
Quantitative determination of vitexin in Passiflora foetida Linn. leaves using HPTLC / Aussavashai Shuayprom, Donruedee Sanguansermsri, Phanchana Sanguansermsri, Ian Hamilton Fraser, Nalin Wongkattiya / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine, Volume 6, Issue 3, March 2016, Pages 216–220
(22)
Chronic toxicity of Passiflora foetida L. extract / Chivapat S*, Bunjob M, Shuaoprom A, Bansidhi J, Chavalittumrong P, Rangsripipat A, Sincharoenpokai P / International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products Vol. 4 (2), pp. 24-31, June-July 2011
(23)
Anti-Dyslipidemia Effect of Ethanol Extract of Passiflora foetida on Dextrose Induced Diabetic Rats / Ravi Babu Birudu, M. Jagadish Naik*, Janardhan M / UK Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biosciences (UKJPB) 2013-2014 / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20510/ukjpb/4/i1/87840
(24)
Phytochemical evaluation and anthelmintic activity of ethanolic leaves extract of Passiflora foetida Linn./ N.M.A. Rasheed, Tarannum Fatima & M.A. Waheed / IAJPR. 2013; 3(7): 5304-5413
(25)
Harmaline from Passiflora foetida / Krishnaveni A, Santh Rani Thoakur / Int. J. Pharm. & Ind. Res, Vol 1, Issue 4, Oct-Dec 2011
(26)
In vitro Evaluation of Antibacterial Efficacy using Passiflora foetida Activated Carbon / *Dheeban Shankar P, Basker S, Karthik K and Karthik S / Research in Pharmacy 6: 01-08, 2016 / DOI: 10.19071/rip.2016.v6.2986
(27)
ANTI-DERMATOPHYTIC ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA FOETIDA L: AN EXOTIC PLANT / D. Natarajan, C. Mohanasundari, K Srinivasan / International Journal of Phytopharmacy Research, Vol 2, Issue 2 (2011)
(28)
Ethanolic extract of Passiflora foetida and silver nanoparticles on carbohydrate metabolic enzymes of dextrose induced diabetic rats. / Ravi Babu Birudu, M.Jagadish Naik*, Janardhan M / J. Biochem Biopharm Biomed. Sci. 1 (2015) 12-19
(29)
The Protective Effects of Passiflora Extract on Thyroid Function in Shisheh (Met-Amphetamine) Receiving Rats / Ahmadi R, Amini N, Fereydouni S* / Proceeding of 2015 International Conference on Biological and Environmental Sciences / http://dx.doi.org/10.17758/UR.U1015261 107
(30)
PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING, GC-MS ANALYSIS AND ENZYME INHIBITORY ACTIVITY OF PASSIFLORA FOETIDA L. / Joseph Asir Paulraj, Hemmalakshmi Subharamanian, Priyanga Suriyamoorthy and Devaki Kanakasabapathi* / IAJPR. 2014; 4(8): 3526-3534

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