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Family Verbenaceae / Lamiaceae
Pelegrina
Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb.
FRAGRANT GLORY BOWER

Chong ban xiu mo li

Scientific names Common names
Agricolaea fragrans (Vent.) Schrank Higantong (Bis.)
Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb. Pelegrina (Bik., Tag.)
Clerodendrum fragrans Willd. Peregrino (Span.)
Clerodendrum lasiocephalum C.B.Clarke Sabuka (Ig.)
Clerodendrum macradenium Miq. Chinese glory bower (Engl.)
Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer Fragrant glory bower (Engl.)
Clerodendrum roseum Poit. Stickbush (Engl.)
Cryptanthus chinensis Osbeck  
Ovieda fragrans (Vent.) Hitchc.  
Volkameria fragrans Vent.  
Volkameria japonic Jacq.  
Clerodendrum fragrans Willd. is a synonym of Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb. The Plant List
Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb. is an accepted name. The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Chong ban xiu mo li, Chou mo li, Chou mu dan.
HAWAIIAN: Pikake hohono, Pikake pilau, Pikake wauke.
INDIA: Chwkhwima.
POHNPEIAN: Rohsen onoluhlu.
SAMOAN: Losa fiti, Losa Honolulu.
SPANISH: Mil flores, Pelegrino.
THAI: Naang yaem, Ping son, Suan yai.
VIETNAMESE: Vay trang, Mo trang, Ban trang.

Taxon info
Clerodendrum is a genus of flowering plants in the Lamiaceae family. It is a member of the subfamily Ajugoideae, one of four subfamilies transferred from Verbenaceae to Lamiaceae based on morphological and molecular phylogenetics.

Clerodendrum L. is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world, with more the 500 species identified, with ethnomedical use in many indigenous systems (Indian, Korean, Japanese, Thai, Chinese) for a variety of disease: syphilis, typhoid, cancer, jaundice and hypertension.

Botany
Pelegrina is an erect, branched, somewhat hairy shrub, 1 to 2 meters in height. Leaves are broadly ovate, up to 25 centimeters long, pointed at the tip and blunt at the base. The inflorescences (cymes) are short-stalked and terminal, 6 to 12 centimeters in diameter, densely crowded with flowers. Flowers are fragrant, in stalks 1 to 2 centimeters long. The calyx-tube is rather slender below and enlarged above, with five to six lanceolate lobes which are reddish-purple and about 1.5 centimeters long. Corolla is white, 3 to 3.5 centimeters in diameter and 1 to 1.5 centimeters long in the tube.

Distribution
- Cultivated in and near towns throughout the Philippines.
- Occasionally, an escape plant.

- Native of southeastern Asia, from southern China and northern Vietnam.
- Now pantropic.

Constituents
- Yields (24S)-ethylcholestra-5, 22,25-triene-3ß-ol.
- Petroleum ether extracts yielded steroids - clerosterol and deucosterol.
- Yields phenolic compounds acetoside, leucosceptoside A, isoacteoside, methyl and ethyl esters of caffeic acid, jinoside.
- Leaves yield flavonoids, kaempferol.

- Aerial parts yielded a new iridoid diglucoside, 5-O-ß-glycopyranosyl-harpagide with three known iridoid glucosides and six known cyclohexylethanoids.
- Study isolated two minor sterols: 24β-methylcholesta-5,22E,25-trien-3β-ol and 24α-ethyl-5α-cholest-22E-en-3β-ol. (8)
- Study of leaves for volatile oils by GC-MS analysis yielded 31 compounds. Five main compounds were 1-octen-3-ol (49.50%), (E)-3-hexen-1-ol(13.39%), linalool (9.41%), cyclohexanol (3.37%), 3-octanol (1.69%), n-valeridc acid-cis-3-hexenyl ester (1.42%), 1-hexanol (1.38%),furfural (1.37%) and α-terpineol (1.17%),accounting for 81.53% of the total volatile oils. (15)
- Fractions of a methanol extract of air-dried leaves yielded verbascoside, isoverbascoside, decaffeoylverbascoside, hispidulin, lupeol and icariside B5, together with cornoside and rengyolne. (see study below) (16)
- Study isolated verbascoside, isoverbascoside, decaffeoylverbascoside, hispidulin, lupeol, and icarisde BS from the leaves of C. chinense for the first time, along with cornoside and rengyoloone. (see study below) (17)
- Study for secondary metabolites yielded three new compounds i.e., the steroid (22<i>E</i>, 24<i>S</i>)-stigmasta-4, 22, 25-trien-3-one (1), the flavone glycoside 7, 8, 4'-trihydroxyflavone-6-<i>O</i>- beta -D-glucuronopyranoside (2) and the epimeric <i>neo</i>-clerodane 14, 15-dihydro-15 xi -hydroxyclerodendrin A (3). (20)

Properties
- Considered diuretic, febrifuge.
- Studies have suggested anti-leukemic, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, analgesic, antidiabetic, antitrypanosomal, antiplasmodial, mosquitocidal properties.

Uses
Folkloric
- The Malays use the plant externally as a poultice, for rheumatism and ague; or mixed with other substances, for skin ailments.
- In the Guianas, decoction of leaves used for scabies.

- In Thailand and Malaysia, leaves used for rheumatism and ague. Root used as diuretic.
- Roots and leaves used for asthma, rheumatism, and inflammatory conditions.
- Root decoction used for jaundice. Root decoction used externally as antiseptic. Decoction of leaves used for blenorrhea. Leaves used as diuretic and antiblenorrhagic. (16)
- In Surinam, leaf decoction used for scabies. (11)
- In China, dried roots cooked with pork as treatment to strengthen elderly people and to relieve pain and stiffness of muscles and joints. (21)

Studies
Phytochemicals:
Study yielded beta-sitosterol, clerosterol, daucosterol, caffeic acid, kaempferol, 5,4'-dihydroxy-kaempferol-7-O-beta-rutinoside, acteoside and leucoseceptoside A. (1)
Anti-Leukemic: Study showed promyelocytic cell line HL-60 could be induced to differentiate into morphologically and functionally mature monocytoid cells (up to 20%) after dose-dependent exposure to Clerodendron fragrans working in synergism with interferon-r. Results suggest a potential therapeutic value for the treatment of certain acute myelocytic leukemia. (3)
Anti-Inflammatory / Leaves: Study evaluated an aqueous extract of leaves for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan, formaldehyde, histamine and egg white induced rat paw edema and cotton pellet-induced granuloma models in rats. Results showed pronounced anti-inflammatory activity at doses investigated. (4)
Antibacterial Potential / Leaves: Study evaluating crude ethanolic leaves extracts for antibacterial activity showed effective growth inhibition of E. coli, S. aureus, and Klebsiella. (10)
Silver Nanoparticles / Mosquitocidal / Leaves: Study reports on the eco-friendly biosynthesis of silver nanoparticles using a leaf extract of C. chinense. It showed potential against larval populations of mosquito vectors, with negligible toxicity against non-target aquatic organisms. (14)
Analgesic / Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Leaves: Methanol extract of leaves of C. chinense and verbacoside showed significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory and antipyretic effects. (see constituents above) (15)
• Verbascoside / Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antipyretic / Leaves: A methanol extract and verbascoside isolated from the leaves showed significant analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic effects using carrageenan induced rat paw edema, yeast induced hyperthermia and electric current anxious stimulation models. (see constituents above) (17)
• Antimicrobial / Antiplasmodial / Anti-Trypanosomal / Stems and Flowers: Study screened chloroformic and methanolic extracts of four Clerodendrum species cultivated in Egypt for antimmicrobial activities. Chloroformic extract (CE) of flowers showed activity against Plasmodium falcifarum (IC50 < 10 µg/mL); CE extracts of stems, flower, and leaves showed activity against Trypanosoma cruzi (IC50 1.21, 1.12, and 3.39 µg/mL, respectively) with marginal cytotoxicity. Verbanoside, a phenyl propanoid glycoside from leaves of C. chinense showed marginal activity against T. cruzi. (18)
• Antidiabetic / Leaves: Study evaluated the antidiabetic activity of various extracts of C. philiippinum leaves in STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant reduction of blood glucose. A methanol extract showed maximum blood glucose lowering potential compared to other extracts. (19)

Availability
- Cultivated.

Updated October 2018 / June 2016

IMAGE SOURCE / FLOWERS / File:Clerodendrum philippinum multiplex2.JPG / Meneerke Bloem / 21 December 2009 / GNU Free Documentation License / click on image to go to source page / Wikimedia Commons
OTHER IMAGE SOURCE / / File:Clerodendrum chinense Blanco1.222.png / Flora de Filipinas / Franciso Manuel Blanco (OSA), 1880-1883 / Modifications by Carol Spears / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Studies on chemical constituents in leafs of Clerodendron fragrans / Gao LM, Wei XM, He YQ. / Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 2003 Oct;28(10):948-51.
(2)
Flavonoid with antioxidant effects extracted recently from leaves of Clerodendron fragrans / Tap Chi Duoc Hoc, 2000, 3, 10-12. / Hoang, T. H.; Ha, V. H.; Nguyen, H. K.; Pyne, S. G.
(3)
In Vitro Induction of Differentiation in HL-60 Leukemic Cell Line by Clerodendron Fragrans / Po-min Chen et al / The American Journal of Chinese Medicine • Volume: 16, Issues: 3-4 (1988) pp. 139-144 / DOI: 10.1142/S0192415X88000200
(4)
Clerodendrum and Healthcare: An Overview / B V Patel et al / Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology • 1(1), 142-150
(5)
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana)
(6)
Clerodendrum and Healthcare: An Overview - Part II / Phytochemistry and Biotechnology / Neeta Shrivastava, Tejas Patel / Medicinal and Aromatic Plant Science and Biotechnology 1(2), 209-223
(7)
A New Iridoid Diglycoside from Clerodendron chinense / Tripetch Kanchanapoom et al / Journal of Asian Natural Products Research, Vol 7, No 5, June 2005, Pp 269-272.
(8)
24β-methylcholesta-5,22E,25-trien-3β-ol and 24α-ethyl-5α-cholest-22E-en-3β-ol from Clerodendrum fragrans
/ Toshihiro Akihisab, Parthasarathi Ghosha, Swapnadip Thakura et al / Phytochemistry, Volume 27, Issue 1, 1988, Pages 241–244
(9)
Studies on Anti-inflammatory Activity of Crude Aqueous Extract of Clerodendron fragrans in Experimental Animals / Srinivasana, Krishna P. Bhatta, Shanmugam S. Kumara, Anbu, Ja, Rajarajan A.Tb, K.K. Pillaic, S.K. Sharmad, and James B. Perianayagamd /International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Letters (Vol.2, No. 2)
(10)
Antibacterial Potential of Crude Leaf Extract of Clerodendrum philippinum Schauer / B. Venkatanarasimman, T. Rajeswari, B. Padmapriya / International Journal of Pharmaceutical & Biological Archives 2012; 3(2):307-310
(11)
Medicinal Plants of the Guianas (Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana) / botany.si.edu
(12)
Clerodendrum chinense / Common names / PIER
(13)
Clerodendrum chinense / Synonyms / The Plant List
(14)
Clerodendrum chinense–mediated biofabrication of silver nanoparticles: Mosquitocidal potential and acute toxicity against non-target aquatic organisms / Marimuthu Govindarajan, Mohan Rajeswary, S.L. Hoti, Giovanni Benelli / Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 19(1) · November 2015 /
DOI: 10.1016/j.aspen.2015.11.009
(15)
The Volatile Oil Constituents from Leaves of Clerodendrum chinense in East Guangdong / YANG Yong-li,GUO Shou-jun,GUO Jin-gang / Journal of Tropical and Subtropical Botany, 2009-04
(16)
Clerodendrum philippinum / Pl@ntUse
(17)
Chemical and biological investigation of some Clerodendrum species cultivated in Egypt / Haytham M Wahba, Sameh F AbouZid, Amany A Sleem, Sandra Apers, Luc Pieters and Abdelaaty A Shahat / Journal of Pharmaceutical Biology, 2011; 49(1) / https://doi.org/10.3109/13880209.2010.494674
(18)
Antimicrobial activity of some Clerodendrum species from Egypt / Sameh F AbouZid, Haytham M Wahba, Ali Elshamy, Paul Cos, Louis Maes, Sandra Apers et al / Natural Products Research, 2013; 27(11) / https://doi.org/10.1080/14786419.2012.686905
(19)
ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITY OF CLERODENDRUM PHILIPPINUM SCHAUER LEAVES IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED DIABETIC RATS / MIHIR K. KAR, TRUPTI R. SWAIN, SAGAR K. MISHRA / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 2015; Vol 7, Issue 9: pp 386-389
(20)
Secondary metabolites from Clerodendrum chinense / / Natural Product Communications, 2008; 11: pp 1787-1792 / Accession033318695
(21)
Clerodendrum chinense / T K Lim / Edible and Non-Edible Medicinal Plants, Volume 11

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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