Selaginella uncinata is a trailing herb with weak stems rooting at the nodes to a length of 60 centimeters long. Leaves are dimorphic, 4-ranked, bright blue-green; the strobili are four-angled and 2 centimeters long.
- Native to China.
- Recently introduced to the Philippines.
• Study of 60% ethanolic extract yielded seven 3′,8′′-linked bioflavonoids, including one new compound, (2′′S)-2′′, 3′′-dihydroamentoflavone-4′-methyl ether (1) and six known compounds: (2S)-2,3- dihydroamentoflavone-4′-methyl ether (2), (2S,2′′S)-2,3,2′′,3′′-tetrahydroamento- flavone-4′-methyl ether (3), (2S,2′′S)-tetrahydroamentoflavone (4), (2S)-2,3-dihydro- amentoflavone (5) and (2′′S)-2′′,3′′-dihydroamentoflavone (6) and amentoflavone (7).
• Study of 60% ethanolic extract yielded for steroidal saponins, including two new compounds, two new compounds, (3β, 7β, 12β, 25R)-spirost-5-ene-3, 7, 12-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (1), (2α, 3β, 12β, 25R)-spirost-5-ene-2, 3, 12-triol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (2) and two known compounds, (3β, 12β, 25R)-spirost-5-ene-3,12-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→4)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, (3), (1α, 3β, 25R)-spirost-5-ene-2-diol-3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[α-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1→4)]-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4). (see study below) (6)
• Study isolated a new flavonoid from a 75% ethanol extract of whole plant of S. uncinata. The flavanoid was called unciflavone G and the structure was elucidated as 8-[4-(carboxyl) phenoxyl]-5-4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone. (8)
• Study of dried whole plants yielded five compounds: two new chromone glycosides, uncinoside A and uncinoside B. The other three compounds were identified as 8-methyl eugenitol, amentoflavone and hinokiflavone. (see study below) (9)
• Studies have suggest antiviral, antitumor, and anti-anoxic properties.
• No recorded folkloric medicinal use in the Philippines.
• In China, used to treat acute infectious jaundiced hepatitis, cholecystitis, enteritis, edema, and rheumatic diseases.
• In China, vinum of whole plant used for arthritis. (10)
• Anti-Viral / Biflavonoids: Previous studies have yielded chromone glycosides (uncinoside A and B) which has shown good anti-tumor and anti-viral activity. This study isolated a new biflavonoids with five known compounds and one known phenolic acid. Preliminary study found the ethyl acetate extract exhibited good anti-HSV1 and Anti-COX B3 virus activity.
• Bioflavonoids / Anti-Anoxic Effect:
Study of ethanolic extract of S uncinata isolated four new and three known bioflavonoids. Compounds 4 and 5 showed potent anti-anoxic effect in the anoxic PC12 cell assay. (1)
• Benzoic Acid Flavonoid:
Study yielded a new flavonoid from the ethanol extract of S uncinata – 6-(5-carboxyl-2-methoxyphenyl)-apigenin, a first of a flavanoid with a benzoic substituent at C-6. (3)
• Biflavonoids / Protective Effect Against Anoxia: Hypoxia is a common environmental stress in high altitude which can influence signaling pathways and cell functions. This study yielded seven 3′,8′′-linked bioflavonoids. All seven compounds showed protective effect against anoxia in the anoxic PC12 cells assay, with compound 6 displaying particularly potent activity. (see constituents above) (5)
• Steroidal Saponins / Protective Effect Against Anoxia: Study of 60% ethanolic extract yielded four steroidal saponins. The four compounds showed potent protective effect against anoxia in anoxic PC12 cells assay, with compounds 1 and 2 the most active. (6)
• COX-2 Inhibition / Anti-Tumor / Colon Carcinoma Cell Line: Study evaluated the action of total flavones from Selaginella uncinata on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA expression in carcinoma of colon cell line HT-29, and explore the related molecular mechanism. Study suggests the mechanisms involved may be the inhibition of COX-2 protein expression in mRNA level by the total flavonoids, which may be one of the anti-tumor mechanisms of Selaginella uncinata. (7)
• Antiviral Chromone Glycosides / Uncinoside A and B: Study of dried whole plants isolated five compounds. Of these, uncinoside A and B showed potent antiviral activities against respiratory syncitial virus (RSV) with IC60 of 6.9 and 1.3 µg/ml, and moderate antiviral activity against parainfluenza type 3 virus (PIV3) with IC50 of 13.8 and 20.8 µg/ml, respectively. (see constituents above) (9)