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Family Cucurbitaceae
Patola
Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb.
SPONGE GOURD

Guang dong si gua

Scientific names  Common names 
Cucumis acutangulus  Linn. Patola (Tag.) 
Cucumis lineatus  Bosc. Patula-baibing (Sul.) 
Cucumis megacarpus  G.Don Saykua (Bis.) 
Cucumis operculatus  Roxb. ex Wight & Am. Bath sponge (Engl.)
Curcubita acutangula (L.) Blume Angled luffa  (Engl.)
Luffa acutangula (L.) Ridge gourd (Engl.)
Luffa amara Roxb. Ridged luffa (Engl.)
Luffa drastica Mart. Chinese okra (Engl.)
Luffa fluminensis Roem. Sponge gourd (Engl.)
Luffa foertida  Cav. Towel gourd (Engl.)
Luffa forskalii  Schweinf. ex Hams  
Luffa gossa Ham  
Momordica tubiflora  Wall.  
Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
BENGALI: Jinghey
CHINESE: Guang dong si gua, Kak kuey, Leng jiao si gua, Si gua, Yue si gua, Sin qua.
DANISH: Kantagurk
FRENCH: Courge anguleuse de Chine, Papangay, Papengaye
HINDI: Hireballi, Jhinga torooee, Jhingil torai, Kali, Torai, Turai
INDONESIA: Hoyong, Ketola, Ketola sagi, Oyong.
JAPANESE: Shokuyou hechima
KHMER: Ronôông Chrung
LAOTIAN: Looy
PORTUGESE: Bucha de purga, Lufa riscada
SINHALESE: Dara veta kola, vata kolu, veta kola, Wetakolu
SPANISH: Calabaza de Aristas
TAMIL: Peerkan kai, Pekan aki
THAI: Buap, Buap liam, Manoi liam
VIETNAMESE: Murop kai

Botany
Patola, a vegetable, is a coarse, annual, herbaceous vine. Leaves are subrounded-ovate, 10 to 20 centimeters long, shallowly five-lobed, and heart-shaped at the base. Female flowers are pedicelled, occurring singly in the axils of the leaves. Male flowers are yellow, 2 centimeters long, borne in axillary racemes. Calyx lobes are lanceolate and pointed. Fruit is oblong-oblanceolate, 20 to 25 centimeters long, about 5 centimeters in diameter, green, and characterized by 10 prominent, longitudinal sharp angles. Seeds are numerous and close-packed.

Distribution
- Cultivated for its edible fruit, but not established.
- In cultivation in the Old World Tropics.


Constituents
- Fruit contains a bitter principle, luffeine.
- Seed contains a fixed oil of glycerides of palmitic, stearic, and myristic acids.

- Study isolated seven oleanane-type triterpene saponins, acutosides A-G. Acutoside A was identified as oleanolic acid 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-β-D-glucopyranoside. Acutosides B, D, E, F and G have a common prosapogenin structure, acutoside A, and only differ in the structures of the ester-linked sugar moieties. (5)
- Nutrition assessment of fruits of L. acutangula var. amara (gm/100 g fruit powder) yielded high moisture 94.6%, crude fiber 42.94%, carbohydrates 3.86, fat content 0.1, and energy 18.18 Kcal/100g. Vitamin constituents per 100 gm were: vitamin A 0.0001 µg, thiamine (B1) 0.7692 mg, riboflavin (B2) 0.2061mg, niacin (B3) 3.1282 mg, and vitamin C 0.083mg. Mineral constituents (mg/100gm) yielded Cu 0.9, Fe 34.1, Mg 27.38, Mn 2.34, Ca 99.78, and Zn 9.52. (27)
- Phytochemical screening of ethanol extract of fruit yielded alkaloids, saponins, carotenoids, and terpenoids with the absence of flavonoids, tannins, and anthraquinones. GC-MS analysis yielded six compounds: 2,3-dihydro,3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-(4H)-pyran-4-one; 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-2-hexadecen-1-ol; (3β, 20R)-cholest-5-en-3-ol; n-hexadecanoic acid; 9, 12, 15-octadecatrienoic acid methyl ester and citronellyl tiglate.  (33)

Properties
- Fruit is considered demulcent, diuretic, nutritive.
- Seeds considered purgative and emetic.

- Studies suggest antioxidant, antimicrobial, anticancer, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antidiabetic, hypolipidemic, hepatoprotective properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves, fruit.

Uses
Nutrition
· Edible; cooked or fried, used in soups and sauces.
• Occasionally, stem tops with young leaves and flower buds used as leafy vegetable.
• Young fruits of cultivars, eaten raw or pickled.
• Unripe fruit is a good source of calcium, iron and phosphorus.
Fruit considered a fair source of vitamin B.
Folkloric
• Decoction of leaves for amenorrhea.
• Poultice of leaves for hemorrhoids.
• Juice of fresh leaves for granular conjunctivitis in children. Also used to prevent the lids from adhering at night from excessive meibomian secretion.
• Juice of leaves also used externally for sores and various animal bites.
• Pulp of fruit used internally, like calocynth, to cause vomiting and purging.
• Powdered dried fruit made into snuff for use by those afflicted with jaundice.
• Seed oil used for dermatitis.
• In Russia, roots is used as a purge.
• In Iran and Iraq infused seeds used as purgative and emetic.
• In India, roots is used for dropsy and as laxative; leaf and fruit juice used to treat jaundice.
• In Java, leaf decoction used for uremia and amenorrhea.
• In Bangladesh, pounded leaves used for hemorrhoids, splenitis, leprosy. Juice of leaves used for conjunctivitis in children.
• In West Africa, leaf extract of ridged gourd applied to sores caused by guinea worms; leaf sap used as eyewash in conjunctivitis; fruits and seeds used in herbal preparations for treatment of venereal diseases.
In Mauritius, seeds eaten to expel intestinal worms; leaf juice applied to eczema.
• Seed used as insecticidal.

Others
Sponge/Brush: Fibrous nature of the mature fruit, devoid of pulp, dries into a matrix of stiff vascular bundles and used as a bath brush or sponge.
Pesticide: In China, has been used as a pesticide.
• Fibers sometimes used for making hats.


Studies
Trypsin Inhibitors: Study isolated two trypsin inhibitors, LA-1 and LA-2, both consisting of 28-29 amino acid residues, respectively. Both strongly inhibit trypsin by forming enzyme-inhibitor complexes. (4)
Constituents:
Study isolated seven oleanane-type triterpene saponins, acutosides A-G. ( see constituents above) (5)
Antioxidants :
An antioxidant-guided assay yielded eight compounds. Results showed consumption of sponge gourds can supply some antioxidant constituents to the human body. (6)
Antimicrobial / Water Disinfectant :
Study showed the some antimicrobial potential of seeds and fruits of Lc as a disinfectant of drinking water. However, the disinfection performance was less that would be required to be considered reliable. (7)
Antimicrobial / Fruit:
A fruit extract of Luffa acutangula was found to have more potent antibacterial and antifungal activity than leaf extract. Staph aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa species showed higher sensitivity to the leaf and fruit extracts.
(10)
Hepatoprotective / CCl4 and Rifampicin Induced Toxicity :
Study evaluated a hydroalcoholic extract for hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) and rifampicin- induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Results showed significant hepatoprotection. Results suggest the contribution of endogenous antioxidants and inhibition of lipid peroxidation of membrane to its hepatoprotective property. (11)
Antidiabetic / Antihyperlipidemic:
Study evaluating methanolic and aqueous fruit extracts of L. acutangula fruits showed antihyperlipidemic and antidiabetic activity, with the methanol extract superior to the water extract.
(12)
Cardioprotective / Nephroprotective / Doxorubicin Induced Toxicity:
Study evaluated the protective effect of a hydroalcoholic extract of L. acutangula o doxorubicin induced cardio- and nephrotoxicity in mice. The protective activity was attributed to its antioxidant property with resulting membrane stabilization. (13)
Anticancer / Apoptosis / Leaf Extracts:
Study evaluated leaf extracts of Luffa acutangula and Lippia nodiflora for in vitro anticancer effect against human lung cancer cell line (NCI-H460). Results showed high antiproliferative activity against the cell line tested. (14)
Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer:
Study evaluated various extracts of L. acutangula for gastroprotective effect on type 2 diabetic rats. A methanolic extract produced significantly increase mucosal glycoprotein and antioxidant enzyme levels in gastric mucosa of diabetic rats. The ulcer healing effect was better than glibenclamide and the water extract.
(15)
Attenuation of Oxidative Damage in Human Erythrocyte:
Study evaluated the ability of L. acutangula to attenuate t-BPH induced oxidative damage in human erythrocyte. A methanolic extract exhibited higher antioxidant activity compared to other extracts. Results showed the aqueous fraction of fruit possess a beneficial role in mitigating t-BPH induced oxidative stress in erythrocyte. (16)
Apoptosis Inducing Activity in Leukemia Cells:
Study showed partially purified methanolic extract, F-3, dose dependently induced apoptosis in leukemia cell line HL-60, probably mediated by an intrinsic pathway. (17)
Gastroprotective / Anti-Ulcer:
Study on L. acutangula Roxb. var. amara ethanolic seed extract showed potent antioxidant activity by DPPH assay, significant anti-inflammatory activity (diclofenac as standard) and significant analgesic activity.
(18)
Antiproliferative / Antiangiogenic / Fruit Extracts:
Study evaluated L. acutangula fruit for its potential as anti-cancer agent. Results showed significant antiproliferative activity on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line (A-549). (19)
Antioxygenic Activity on Peroxidation Models:
Ridge gourd pulp and peel powders and various fractions were evaluated for antioxygenic activity. Peel powder and its extracts showed slightly higher antioxygenic activity than gourd pulp powder and its extracts, probably because of higher phenolic and flavonoid contents. (
20)
Anthelmintic:
Study showed moderate anthelmintic activity against adult earthworm Pheretima posthuma. Anthelmintic activity increased with concentration. (
22)
In Vitro Cytotoxicity / Human Neuronal Glioblastoma and Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines:
In vitro studies evaluated the cytotoxic potential of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of L. acutangula against human neuronal glioblastoma cells and human lung cancer cells. Results showed significant concentration dependent decrease of cell viability in both MTT and SRB assay. In brine shrimp lethality bioassay, the aqueous extract showed more potent cytotoxicity than the ethanolic extract. (
23)
Antioxidant:
Study evaluated the antioxidant activity of various extracts of Luffa acutangula fruit and its derived fractions. Phytochemical screening yielded phenolic and flavonoid compounds in all fractions except the n-hexane fraction. The highest antioxidant activity was shown by the n-hexane fraction. and the highest total phenolics/flavonoids contents were seen with the ethyl acetate extract. Results suggest the fruit as a potential rich source of natural antioxidant for use in food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical products. (
24)
• Silver Nanoparticles / Antimicrobial:
Study reports on the green synthesis of silver nanoparticles by aqueous extract of Luffa acutangula. Antimicrobial activities of the AgNPs were investigated against Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (25)
• Manganese Peroxidase / Fruit Juice:
Study evaluated the enzymatic properties of the manganese peroxidase present in L. acutangula fruit juice. Results report the second manganese peroxidase reported from a plant source. The enzymatic properties are similar to the manganese peroxidase from Musa paradisiaca stem juice and other fungal manganese peroxidases. (26)
• Immunomodulatory / Free Radical Scavenging / Pericarp:
Bioactive ethanolic extracts of pericarp showed potent in vitro antioxidant activity by various assays. Immunomodulatory activity was evidenced by increased phagocytic index (0.028 ± 0.002) and increased % neutrophil adhesion (24.63 ± 0.87%). Isolated phenolic acid constituents i.e., gallic acid and p-hydroxybenzoic acid could be responsible for the potent antioxidant and immunomodulatory activity. (28)
• Abortifacient:
Study evaluated the abortifacient effect of L. acutangula in 11 pregnant Wistar rats. Results showed ingestion of L. acutangula during pregnancy may inhibit normal development in exposed rat pups as suggested by reduced fetal weight and occurrence of a single cleft palate.
(29)
• Antihyperglycemic / Antinociceptive / Fruits:
Study evaluated a methanolic extract of L. acutangula fruits for antihyperglycemic and antinociceptive potentials in Swiss albino mice. Results showed significant and dose-dependent reduction of blood sugar concentrations. In an acetic acid-induced gastric pain model in mice, the extract significant dose-dependent reduction in number of abdominal constrictions. (30)
• CNS Depressant Activity / Fruits:
Study of ethanol extracts of L. acutangula var. amara fruits exhibited dose-dependent CNS depressant activity. (31)
• Removal of Acid Yellow / Seed Hull:
Study reports on the removal of acid yellow 24 (AY24) dye from aqueous solution using the low cost activated carbon of L. acutangula seed hull. Results showed L. acutangula seed hull is a potential adsorbent for the removal of AY24 through a chemical adsorption process rather than phytosorption. The high adsorption capacity suggests an alternative to commercially activated carbon for the removal of various anionic dyes. (32)

Availability
Cultivated.
Common market vegetable.
Seeds and sponges in the cybermarket.

© Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.


Last Update November 2015

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Allozymic, Morphological, and Phenological Diversity in Cultivated Luffa acutangula (Cucurbitaceae) from China, Laos, and Nepal, and Allozyme Divergence between L. acutangula and L. aegyptiaca
Economic Botany 59(2):154-165. 2005 /doi: 10.1663/0013-0001(2005)059[0154:AMAPDI]2.0.CO;2
(2)
Study of Nutritive Value and Medicinal Uses of Cultivated Luffa acutangula

(3)
Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb. / M O Soladoye and A A Adebisi / Protabase Record Display
(4)
Trypsin inhibitors from ridged gourd (Luffa acutangula Linn.) seeds: Purification, properties, and amino acid sequences / Umesh Haldar et al / Journal of Protein Chemistry • Volume 15, Number 2 / February, 1996 •
DOI 10.1007/BF01887398

(5)
Studies on the constituents of Luffa acutangula Roxb. I. Structures of acutosides A--G, oleanane-type triterpene saponins isolated from the herb
/ Nagao T, Tanaka R, Iwase Y, Hanazono H, Okabe H / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1991 Mar;39(3):599-606
(6)
Antioxidant Constituents in the Fruits of Luffa cylindrica (L.) Roem / Qizhen Du et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 2006, 54 (12), pp 4186–4190 / DOI: 10.1021/jf0604790
(7)
Disinfection of waterborne coliform bacteria using Luffa cylindrica fruit and seed extracts / Ameer Shaheed et al / Environmental Technology, Volume 30, Issue 13 December 2009 , pages 1435 - 1440 / DOI: 10.1080/09593330903193485
(8)
Sorting Luffa names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher, / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(10)
ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY AND PHARMACOGNOSTIC STUDY OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA (L) ROXB VAR AMARA ON SOME DEUTEROMYCETES FUNGI / Dandge V. S, . Rothe S.P* and A. S. Pethe / International Journal of Science Innovations and Discoveries, Volume 2, Issue 1, January-February 2012
(11)
Hepatoprotective activity of Luffa acutangula against CCl4 and rifampicin induced liver toxicity in rats: A biochemical and histopathological evaluation / Vishal B Jdhav et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 48, August 2010, pp 822-829.
(12)
ANTIDIABETIC AND ANTIHYPERLIPIDEMIC ACTIVITY OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA FRUIT EXTRACTS IN STREPTOZOTOCIN INDUCED NIDDM RATS / B.P.PIMPLE, *P.V.KADAM ANDM.J.PATIL / Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 4, Suppl 2, 2011, 156-163
(13)
Ameliorative effect of Luffa acutangula Roxb on doxorubicin induced cardiac and nephrotoxicity in mice / Vishal Jadhav et al / Indian Journal of Experimental Biology, Vol 51, Feb 2013, pp 149-156

(14)
Luffa acutangula and Lippia nodiflora leaf extract induces growth inhibitory effect through induction of apoptosis on human lung cancer cell line / Biomedicine and Preventive Nutrition, Volume 2, No 4, pp 287-293 (octobre 2012) / Doi : 10.1016/j.bionut.2012.03.002
(15)
Protective effect of Luffa acutangula extracts on gastric ulceration in NIDDM rats: Role of gastric mucosal glycoproteins and antioxidants / B. P. Pimple*, P. V. Kadam, M. J. Patil / Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine (2012)610-615 / doi: 10.1016/S1995-7645(12)60126-6
(16)
The Protective role of Luffa acutangula fruit Methanolic Fraction against t-BHP Induced Oxidative damage in Human Erythrocytes / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy, 14 January, 2011, Vol 5, No. 1
(17)
APOPTOSIS INDUCING ACTIVITY OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA FRUIT IN LEUKEMIA CELLS (HL-60
) / B. Purushotham Reddy*, A. Raghuram Reddy, B. Srinivas Reddy , S Venkata Mohan, P.N Sarma / IJPRD/2010/PUB/ARTI/VOV-2/ISSUE-10/DEC/015
(18)
Evaluation of Antioxidant, Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Potential of Luffa acutangula Roxb. Var. amara / Naresh Singh Gill, Rashmi Arora and Shiv Ranjan Kumar / Research Journal of Phytochemistry 5(4): 201-208, 2011 / DOI: 10.3923/rjphyto.2011.201.208
(19)
Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of partially purified Luffa acutangula fruit extracts on human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cell line / Boreddy Purushotham Reddy, R Kannaiah Goud, S Venkata Mohan* and P N Sarma / Current Trends in Biotechnology and Pharmacy
(20)
In Vitr Antioxygenic Activity of Ridge Gourd (Luffa acutangula) Pulp, Peel and Their Extracts on Peroxidation Models / Ananthan Padmashree, Gopal Kumar Sharma, Anil Dutt Semwal, Amarinder Singh Bawa /
AJPS, Vol.3 No.10, October 2012 / DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2012.310171
(21)
Luffa acutangula / Synonyms / The Plant List
(22)
In-vitro Evaluation of Cytotoxic and Anthelmintic Activity of Luffa acutangula, Luffa aegyptiaca and Momordica cochinchinensis / Md. Mosiqur Rahman*, Ashik Ahmed, Saibal Saha Sunny, Md. Samiul Huq Atanu, Abdullah Faruque and Md. Sohel Rana / British Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 4(2): 267-277, 2014
(23)
In vitro Cytotoxic Activity of Luffa acutangula on Human Neuronal Glioblastoma and Human Lung Adenocarcinoma Cell Lines / Nipun Dashora*, L.S. Chauhan, Neeraj Kumar / Scholars Academic Journal of Pharmacy (SAJP), 2014; 3(5): 401-405
(24)
Antioxidant activity, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb fruit / Venty Suryanti*, Soerya Dewi Marliyana and Tika Wulandari / Journal of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Research, 2015, 7(1):220-226
(25)
Green synthesis and physico-chemical study of silver nanoparticles extracted from a natural source Luffa acutangula / Taruna, Jyotsna Kausha, Jasdev Bhatti, Pankaj Kumar / Journal of Molecular Liquids
, Vol 224, Part A, Dec 2016, Pp 991-998. / https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2016.10.065
(26)
Manganese Peroxidase from Luffa acutangula Fruit Juice / N Rai, M Yadav, H S Yadav / DOI: 10.2174/2212711904666170117143442
(27)
NutritionalAssessmentofFruitsofLuffa acutangula var. amara / Jadhav Santosh Jaysingrao, Chavan Niranjana Sunil / International Journal of Science and Research (IJSR), Vol 3, Issue 10, October 2014
(28)
FREE RADICAL SCAVENGING, IMMUNOMODULATORY ACTIVITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF LUFFA ACUTANGULA VAR. AMARA (CUCURBITACEAE) PERICARP / KALASKAR MOHAN G., SURANA SANJAY J. / J. Chil. Chem. Soc., Vol 59, No1 Concepción mar. 2014 / http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-97072014000100012 
(29)
Evaluation of the abortifacient effect of Luffa acutangula Roxb. in rats. / Poisoning by plants, mycotoxins, and related toxins: Chapter 41 (Page no: 270)
(30)
Antihyperglycemic and Antinociceptive Activity of Methanolic Extract of Luffa acutangula Fruits / Azibunnaher Juma, Mst. Rabeya Pervin, Md. Shamim Al Azad, Md. Rashedul Islam, Sk. Mizanur Rahman, Md. Zahirul Kabir, Inin Taznin, A.B.M. Anwarul Bashar, Mohammed Rahmatullah / Advances in Natural and Applied Sciences, 7(5) December 2013, Pages: 435-441
(31)
CNS Depressant Activity of Ethanol Extract of Luffa acutangula var. acutangula var. amara C.B.Clarke Fruits in Mice / A V Misar, A S Updahye and A M Mujumdar / Indian Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jul-Aug 2004
(32)
Removal of Acid Yellow by Agricultural Waste / Porselvi E., Krishnamoorthy P.* / J. Mater. Environ. Sci. 5 (2) (2014) 408-415
(33)
Chemical Constituents of Luffa acutangula (L.) Roxb Fruit /  and  / IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Vol 193, Conference 1

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