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Family Tiliaceae / Malvaceae
Pasau
Corchorus olitorius L.
RED JUTE
Chang shuo huang ma

Scientific names  Common names 
Corchorus catharticus Blanco Pasau (Tag., Sbl.)  
Corchorus decemangularis Roxb. Pasau-na-haba (Tag.) 
Corchorus lobatus Wildem. Pasaw-na-haba (Tag.) 
Corchorus olitorius Linn. Saluyut (Ilk.)
Corchorus quinquelocularis Moench Saluyot (Ilk.) 
  Tagabang (Bis.)
  Taka (Mag.)
  Yaka (Mag.)
  Bush okra (Engl.)
  Jew's mallow (Engl.)
  Long-fruited jute (Engl.)
  Red jute (Engl.)
Pasau is a shared common name of: 1. Pasau-na-bilog, saluyot (Corchorus capsularis)  2. Pasau-na-hapai (Jussiaea linifolis) and 3. Pasau. saluyot (Corchorus olitorius).
Saluyot is a local common name shared by . Pasau-na-bilog, saluyot (Corchorus capsularis) and Pasau. saluyot (Corchorus olitorius).

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Lif khaysha, Mulûkhîyah (Egypt), Nalta, Nalita.
BENGALI: Deshi pat, Meetha pat, Tosha pat.
CHINESE: Chang shuo huang ma, Shan ma (Taiwan).
DANISH: Almindelig jute, Jute, Juteplante.
DUTCH: Jute, Juteplant.
ESTONIAN: Pikaviljaline Dzuut.
FRENCH: Chanvre du Bengale, Corète potagère, Corette potagère (Réunion), Lalo (Créole- Haiti), Lalou (Créole- Haiti), Mauve des Juifs, Mélochie.
GERMAN: Judenmalve, Langkapseljute, Langkapsel-Jute, Meluchie, Nalta-Jute.
GREEK: Korchoros, Korkoros.
HINDI: Janascha kashto,Jūtan, Mitha paat, Patsan, Paat, Patta, Tosha paat.
ITALIAN: Corcoro ortense, Corcoro siliquoso, Malva dei giardini, Spinaci degli Ebrei .
JAPANESE: Nagamitsunaso Taiwantsunaso Taiwan tsunaso.
PORTUGUESE: Juta, Juta-tossa.
RUSSIAN: Dzhut dlinnoplodnyi, Dzhut tossa, Krasnyj dzhut.
SPANISH: Yute, Yute de fruto alargado.
THAI: Fak yao, Krachao, Po krachao.
TURKISH: Kırmızı jüt, Muluhia.
VIETNAMESE: Rau đay.

Gen info
Corchorus is a genus plant of about 40-100 species in the family Malvaceae. Jute is confusingly applied to any plant of the genus Corchorus and to its fiber. The chief sources of the fiber are the two species of Corchorus plant: C olitorius and C capsularis. In the Philippines, three Corchorus species are recorded with medicinal uses: Pasau, Pasau na bilog, and pasau na hapa. Another pasau, Pasau-na-hapai, Jussiaea erecta belongs to the family Onagraceae.

Botany
Pasau-na-haba is an erect, branched, smooth or nearly smooth, half-woody shrub, 1 to 1.5 meters high. Leaves are ovate-lanceolate, 5 to 12 centimeters long, pointed at the tip, blunt at the base, bearing a pair of taillike projections, and toothed at the margins. Flowers are axillary, solitary, yellow, and about 6 millimeters long. Capsules are elongated, cylindric, about 3 to 3.5 centimeters long, with 10 ribs, 3 to 6 valves, with transverse partitions between seeds. Seeds are dark, bluish green, angular, about 2 millimeters long, and very bitter.

Distribution
- In and near settlements, on rice-paddy banks, in fallow paddies, etc., throughout the Philippines.
- Native of the Old World.
- Pantropic.

Constituents
• Japanese study isolated an acidic polysaccharide, Moroheiya.
• Leaf study has yielded anthocyanin.
• Leaf extracts yielded alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, flavonoids, cardiac glycosides.
(19)
• Seed extract yielded alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids, glycosides, saponin, cardiac glycosides, anthraquinones, steroids, and volatile oil.
(20)
• Six phenolic antioxidative compounds were identified, the most dominant was 5-caffeoylquinic acid.

• 100 g of leaves yield 43-58 calories, 80.4-84.1 g H2O,4.5-5.6 g protein, 0.3 g fat, 7.6-12.4 g total carbohydrate, 1.7-2.0 g fiber, 2.4 g ash, 266-366 mg Ca, 97-122 mg P, 7.2-7.7 mg Fe, 12 mg Na, 444 mg K, 6,410-7,850 µg beta-carotene, 0.13-0.15 mg thiamine, 0.26-0.53 mg riboflavin, 1.1-1.2 mg niacin, and 53-80 mg ascorbic acid. (15)
• Leaves yield a significant amount of mucilaginous polysaccharide. (see study below) (22)

Properties
Considered demulcent, diuretic, febrifuge, purgative, tonic.

Parts used
Whole plant, especially the. seeds and leaves.

Uses
Edibility / Nutritional
- Growing wild, extensively eaten as a green vegetable in the Philippines, especially by the Ilokanos.
- Cooked, it is mucilaginous and slimy, with a good flavor.

- Dried leaves used as soup thickener and for tea.
- Shoots are an excellent source of iron, calcium, phosphorus and vitamin C.
- An excellent source of vitamins A and C, fiber and minerals. A good source of vitamin B.
- Contains high levels of all amino acids except methionine.
- In many part of the world, the plant has become a vegetable source. In Bengal, in spring, shoots are pulled from the fields and eaten with rice as a vegetable.
Folkloric
- Seeds are used as purgative.
- In India infusion of leaves used as tonic and febrifuge.
- Leaves are demulcent, tonic, and diuretic; used for chronic cystitis, gonorrhea, and dysuria.
-Cold infusion of leaves used as bitter tonic, used by patients recovering from dysentery, to restore the appetite and improve strength.
- Powdered seeds with honey and ginger for diarrhea.
- Grains of the powder mixed with equal amounts of Curcuma longa used for acute dysentery.
- Infusion of seeds for fever and liver congestion.
- Hindus reduce the plant to ashes, mix it with honey, and use it for obstruction of the abdominal viscera.
- In South India, the dried plant is used as demulcent. Powder of leaves, 5 - 10 grains, mixed with powdered tumeric in equal parts, used for dysentery.
- In India, the tribal people of Bolangir use the plant as remedy against threatened miscarriage: equal quantities of tender leaves of C. olitorius and Carica papaya are cooked to boiling point, cooled, then used one tumbler 3x daily.
(29)
Others
Jute: A source of commercial jute but not as abundant as that from Pasau-na-bilog (Corchorus capsularis)

Studies
Moroheiya / Acidic Polysaccharide: Japanese study isolated an acidic polysaccharide, Moroheiya from dried leaf extract of CO which showed proliferative activity toward murine splenocyte. (1)
Antibacterial / Seeds: Study of methanol extracts of C olitorius seed and Cuscuta reflexa stem showed a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity.
(2)
Antibacterial / Leaves: Study of leaf extract showed high potency against E coli supporting its use for gastroenteritis.
Anticonvulsant: Study of the methanolic extracts of C reflexa stem and C olitorius seed showed marked protection against convulsions induced by chemoconvulsive agents in mice probably through alterations of the catecholamines and amino acids in mice brain.
Phenolic antioxidants: Six phenolic antioxidative compounds were identified from the leaves of CO. Results showed that 5-caffeoylquinic acid was a predominant phenolic antioxidant in CO leaves. (3)
Antinociceptive / Antiinflammatory: Extract study exhibited significant antinociceptive and antiinflammatory activities confirming its traditional claims in inflammatory and painful ailments. (4)

Cardiotonic / Hypertensive: The total alkaloid extract of C olitorius and the cardenolide mixture isolated from it showed cardiotonic, laxative, ecbolic and hypertensive properties. (10)
Antiinflammatory / Antipyretic: Study of an aqueous extract of C olitorius in rats showed significant anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory activities supporting its folkloric use in the treatment of inflammation and fever. (7)
Anti-Obesity / Polyphenolic Compounds: Study demonstrated an anti-obesity effect of polyphenolic compounds from molokheiya leaves. The effect was associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and enhancement of B-oxidation in the liver. Results suggest the consumption of molokheiya leaves may be beneficial for preventing diet-induced obesity. (8)
Arsenic-Induced Toxicity / Protective Effect: Study showed a protective effect of the aqueous extract of C olitorius leaves against arsenic-induced brain toxicity in experimental animals. Prior treatment showed dose-dependent increase in antioxidant markers. Histopath exam of the brain tissue supported the protective activity.
Antibacterial / Antifungal / Leaves: Study evaluated 3 extracts of leaves for antifungal and antibacterial activities. All three -- petroleum ether, ethyl acetate -- exhibited varies levels of antibacterial and antifungal activities. (11)
Blood Chemistry Effects: Study of aqueous extract of Corchorus olitorius showed both harmful and beneficial potentialities on the blood chemistry of male albino rats. Effect on human blood chemistry is unknown, but because of findings in the animal model, caution is recommended in its consumption by people with blood disorder. (12)
Synergism and Antagonism with Antibiotics: Study described the in-vitro interaction of an ethanol extract of leaf of Corchorus olitorius with five antibiotics on Methicillin sensitive and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The extract synergized the antibacterial potential of ciprofloxacin and ampicillin/cloxacillin mixture and antagonized gentamycin, streptomycin, and erythromycin on S. aureus. (13)
Antimicrobial: Study evaluated alcoholic extracts of leaves, aerial parts, and roots in powder form against various gram negative and gram positive pathogenic bacteria. Results showed varying degrees of inhibition which was concentration dependent. There were also significant differences among the alcoholic extracts of leaves, aerial parts and roots on the growth of some types of bacteria at level (p<0.05). (14)
Gastroprotective / Leaves: Study evaluated the gastroprotective effect of an ethanolic leaf extract of C. olitorius against ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in adult Sprague Dawley rats. Results showed a gastroprotective property comparable to reference control drug omeprazole. (16)
Topical Application / Leaves / Atopic Dermatitis: Study evaluated the effects of topical application of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract on atopic dermatitis in mice. Findings suggest CO has a therapeutic potential for AD due to its suppression of the plasma IgE level and degranulation of mast cells. (18)
Wound Healing / Leaves: Study evaluated a methanol extract of leaves of C. olitorius for antioxidant and wound healing activity. Results showed a high degree of antioxidant activity on FRAP and DPPH assays. Study also showed wound healing activity by excision model. (19)
Anti-Diabetic / Seed: Study evaluated an ethanolic seed extract of pulverized seeds for antidiabetic effect in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. Results showed significant reduction of blood sugar, with reduction in glycosylated hemoglobin and increase in insulin level. (20)
Induction of Apoptosis / Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Study of an ethanolic leaf extract showed potential against hepatocellular carcinoma through induction of apoptosis viq mitochondria-dependent pathway.
(21)
Skin Hydrating Effect / Atopic Dermatitis / Leaves: Study evaluated the hydration efficacy and skin barrier protection of C. olitorius extract in mice. Results suggest the COEW has the ability to maintain skin hydration, reduced transepidermal water loss, prevent disruption of skin barrier function, with potential as adjunct treatment for atopic dermatitis. (22)
Deleterious Reproductive Effects: Study evaluated the reproductive effects of aqueous extracts of C. olitorius on re reproductive parameters in male albino rats. Results showed deleterious effects on reproductive functions with a significant decrease in testosterone levels, sperm motility, sperm count, sperm viability, with an increase in percentage of abnormal cells. (24)
Bio-Adsorbent: Study evaluated the potential use of Corchorus olitorius L. Nano Carbon as adsorbent for removal of Rhodamine-B dye (dye contaminated waste water passed out from industries). Results suggest ACONC may be utilized as a low cost adsorbent for Rhodamine-B dye removal from aqueous solution. (25)
Anti-Nutrients: In a study of anti-nutrient composition of several plants, Corchorus olitorius yielded the highest level of phytate (0.06 ± 0.00%)—ideally, phytate should be 25 mg or less per 100 grams or about 0.03% of the phytate containing food. CO also showed the highest percentage concentration of tannin and the highest concentration of phenols. (26)
Cytotoxicity and Genotoxicity on Human Multiple Myeloma Cells: Study investigated the cytotoxic and genotoxic effects of leaf and seed extracts on multiple myeloma-derived ARH-77 cells. Results showed high cytotoxic potential of the seed extract and genotoxic potential of both seed and leaf extracts. (27)
Anticonvulsive / Brain Biogenic Amines / Seed: Methanolic extract of both C. reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius sed showed marked protection against convulsion induced by chemoconvulsive agents in mice. Results suggest significant increases in catecholamines and GABA systems, both considered to have significant roles with respect to CNS depressant and anticonvulsive properties of the processed extracts. (28)

Availability
Wild-crafted.
Tablets, supplements in the cybermarket.


Last Update April 2015


Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange
OTHER I MAGE SOURCE / File:Corchorus olitorius-original.jpg / Illustration of Corchorus olitorius / 1828 / William Jackson Hooker (1785-1865) / Public Domain / Wikimedia Commons

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Characterization of an acidic polysaccharide isolated from the leaves of Corchorus olitorius / Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry ISSN 0916-8451 / 1995, vol. 59, no3, pp. 378-381
(2)
Antibacterial activity of Cuscuta reflexa stem and Corchorus olitorius seed / Fitoterapia / Volume 77, Issues 7-8, December 2006, Pages 589-591 / doi:10.1016/j.fitote.2006.06.015
(3)
Phenolic Antioxidants from the Leaves of Corchorus olitorius L. / Keiko Azuma, Masayoshi Nakayama et al / J. Agric. Food Chem., 1999, 47 (10), pp 3963–3966 / DOI: 10.1021/jf990347p
(4)
Antinociceptive and Anti-inflammatory Properties of Corchorus capsularis Leaves Chloroform Extract in Experimental Animal Models / YAKUGAKU ZASSHI / Vol. 127 (2007) , No. 2 359-365 / ONLINE ISSN : 1347-5231
(5)
Studies on Brain Biogenic Amines in Methanoli Extracts of C reflexa and Corchrus olitorius Seed-Treated Mice / Malaya Gupta, Upal Kanti Mazumder et al / Acta Poloniac Pharm- Drug Research, Vol 60, No 3, pp 207-210, 2003
(6)
Cardiac Glycosides / 3G Pharmacy / Bolaños, A, Buena C et al /

(7)
The Anti-inflammatory and Antipyretic Activities of Corchorus olitorius in Rats / Z A Zakaria, M R Sulaiman et al / J. Pharmacol. Toxicol., 1: 139-146.
(8)
Antiobesity effect of polyphenolic compounds from molokheiya (Corchorus olitorius L.) leaves in LDL receptor-deficient mice / Li Wang, Masayiuki Yamasaki et al / EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF NUTRITION
DOI: 10.1007/s00394-010-0122-y
(9)
Sorting Corchorus names / Porcher Michel H. et al. 1995 - 2020 / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE
(10)
Pharmacological study of Corchorus olitorius L., seeds with special reference to its cardiovascular activity /
A. Sharaf, S. A. R. Negm / Qualitas Plantarum et Materiae Vegetabiles, 9-XII-1969, Volume 17, Issue 4, pp 305-312
(11)
Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Corchorus olitorius L. (Molokhia) Extracts / Semra İLHAN* Filiz SAVAROĞLU Ferdağ ÇOLAK / International Journal of Natural and Engineering Sciences 1 (3): 59-61, 2007
(12)
Effect of Corchorus Olitorius Extract On Haematological and Plasma Biochemical Parameters in Male Albino Rats / K.O. Oyedeji And A.F. Bolarinwa / IOSR Journal of Dental and Medical Sciences, Volume 3, Issue 5 (Jan.- Feb. 2013), PP 68-71
(13)
THE IN-VITRO EFFECT OF CORCHORUS OLITORIUS (LINN.) ON THE ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF FIVE ANTIBIOTICS. / Ashidi Joseph Senu, Efuntoye Moses Olusola, Odunbaku Omobola Afolashade and Biliaminu Sekinat Ajoke / Global Research Journal of Microbiology Vol.2(2) pp.113 –117 December 2012.
(14)
The inhibitory effect of alcoholic extracts from the leaves, aerial parts and roots of Corchorus olitorius L. (Molukhiya), on some pathogenic bacterial species / S. M. Hayyawi / Al-Anbar J. Vet. Sci., Vol.: 5 No. (2), 2012 ISSN: 1999-6527
(15)
Corchorus olitorius L. / James A. Duke. 1983. Handbook of Energy Crops. unpublished.
(16)
Gastroprotective effects of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract against ethanol-induced gastric mucosal hemorrhagic lesions in rats. / Al Batran R, Al-Bayaty F, Abdulla MA, Al-Obaidi MM, Hajrezaei M, Hassandarvish P, Fouad M, Golbabapour S, Talaee S. / J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013 Aug;28(8):1321-9. doi: 10.1111/jgh.12229.
(17)
Biochemistry, Medicinal and Food values of Jute (Corchorus capsularis L. and C. olitorius L.) leaf: A Review
/
Md. Mahbubul Islam / International Journal of Enhanced Research in Science Technology & Engineering, Vol. 2 Issue 11, November-2013, pp: (35-44)
(18)
Topical application of Corchorus olitorius leaf extract ameliorates atopic dermatitis in NC/Nga mice / Satoshi Yokoyama*, Keiichi Hiramoto, Takahiko Fujikawa, Hiroya Kondo, Nobuyuki Konishi, Shu Sudo, Makoto Iwashima and Kazuya Ooi / Dermatology Aspects / DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.7243/2053-5309-2-3
(19)
Antioxidant and wound healing studies on the extracts of Corchorus olitorius leaf / Barku VYA*, Boye A and Quansah N / World Essays Journal / 1 (3): 67-73, 2013
(20)
Anti diabetic Activity Of Ethanolic Seed Extract Of Corchorus olitorius / Maxwell Osaronowen Egua*, Emmanuel Udo Etuk, Shaibu Oricha Belloc, and Sanusi Wara Hassand / International Journal of Sciences: Basic and Applied Research (IJSBAR) (2013) Volume 12, No 1, pp 8-21
(21)
Induction of Apoptosis by Ethanolic Extract of Corchorus olitorius Leaf in Human Hepatocellular Carcinoma (HepG2) Cells via a Mitochondria-Dependent Pathway / Chia-Jung Li, Shang-Yu Huang, Meng-Yu Wu, Yu-Ching Chen, Shih-Fang Tsang, Jong-Ho Chyuan and Hsue-Yin Hsu* / Molecules 2012, 17, 9348-9360 / doi:10.3390/molecules17089348
(22)
Skin Hydrating Effects of Corchorus olitorius Extract in a Mouse Model of Atopic Dermatitis / Satoshi Yokoyama, Keiichi Hiramoto, Takahiko Fujikawa, Hiroya Kondo, Nobuyuki Konishi, Shu Sudo, Makoto Iwashima, Kazuya Ooi / JCDSA, Vol.4 No.1, February 2014 / DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2014.41001 897
(23)
The inhibitory effect of alcoholic extracts from the leaves, aerial parts and roots of Corchorus olitorius L. (Molukhiya), on some pathogenic bacterial species / S. M. Hayyawi / Al-Anbar J. Vet. Sci., Vol.: 5 No. (2), 2012
(24)
EFFECT OF CORCHORUS OLITORIUS EXTRACT ON REPRODUCTIVE FUNCTIONS IN MALE ALBINO RATS / K.O. OYEDEJI, A.F. BOLARINWA, AKINBODE A.A / International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, Vol 5, Issue 3, 2013
(25)
EQUILIBRIUM, KINETIC AND THERMODYNAMIC STUDY ON RHODAMINE-B REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTION USING ACTIVATED CORCHORUS OLITORIUS-L LEAVES / S Subasri*, S Arivoli*, V Marimuthu and N Mani / International Journal of Plant, Animal and Environmental Sciences, Volume 5, Issue1, Jan-Mar 2015
(26)
Determination of the Anti-nutrient Composition of Ocimum gratissimum, Corchorus olitorius, Murraya koenigii Spreng and Cucurbita maxima / J.C. Ifemeje, C. Egbuna, J.O. Eziokwudiaso, and F.C. Ezebuo / International Journal of Innovation and Scientific Research, Vol. 3 No. 2 Jun. 2014, pp. 127-133
(27)
Corchorus olitorius (jute) extract induced cytotoxicity and genotoxicity on human multiple myeloma cells (ARH-77) / Özlem Darcansoy İşeri, Erkan Yurtcu, Feride Iffet Sahin, and Mehmet Haberal / Pharmaceutical Biology, June 2013, Vol. 51, No. 6, pp 766-770 / doi:10.3109/13880209.2013.765897
(28)
Studies on Brain Biogenic Amines in Methanol Extract of Cuscuta reflexa and Corchorus olitorius Linn Seed Treated Mice / Malaya Gupta, Upal Kanti Mazumder, Dilipkumar Pal, Shiladitya Bhattacharya, and Sumit Chakrabarty / Acta Poliniac Phamaceutica-Drug Research, Vol. 60, No 3, 00 207-210, 2003
(29)
Preliminary Phytochemical Analysis and Conservation of Herbs used by the Tribal people of Bolangir (Orissa), India as a Remedy against Threatened Miscarriage / Sarada Prasad Mohapatra* / Research in Pharmacy, 1(1): 33-40, 2011



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