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Family Poaceae / Graminaceae
Paragis
Eleusine indica (Linn.) Gaertn.
WIRE GRASS, DOG'S TAIL

Long zhao ji

Scientific names  Common names 
Agropyron geminatum Schult. & Schult.f.  Ba-gañgan (Bik.)  
Chloris repens Steud. [Invalid] Bakis-bakisan (Tag.) 
Cynodon indicus (L.) Raspil.  Barañgan (Bik.) 
Cynosurus indicus (L.)  Bikad-bikad (Sul.) 
Cynosurus pectinatus Lam. Bila-bila (P. Bis.) 
Eleusine distans  Moench [Illegitimate] Bugtusan (Bis) 
Eleusine distans  Link Dinapaiuk (If.) 
Eleusine glabra Schumach Gagabutan (Tag.)
Eleusine gonantha Schrank Hayapaw (Pamp.)
Eleusine gouinii E.Fourn. Kabit-kabit (Tag.) 
Eleusine inaequalis E.Fourn. Palad (C. Bis.) 
Eleusine indica (Linn.) Gaertn. Palagtiki (Bis.) 
Eleusine japonica Steud. Paragis (Tag.) 
Eleusine macrosperma Stokes Parañgis (Ilk.) 
Eleusine marginata Lindl. Parañgis-sabuñgan (Pamp.) 
Eleusine polydactyla Steud. Sabung-sabuñgan (Tag., Pamp.) 
Eleusine rigidifolia E.Fourn. Sambali (Tag.) 
Eleusine scabra E.Fourn. Crow foot (Engl.)
Eleusine textilis Welw. [Invalid] Dog's tail, wire grass (Engl.) 
Juncus loureiroana Schult. & Schult.f.  Crab grass (Engl.)
Leptochloa pectinata (Lam.) Kunth Fowl-foot grass (Engl.)
Paspalum dissectum Kniph. [Illegitimate] Goose grass (Engl.)
Poa spicata Willd. ex Steud. [Invalid] Wire grass (Engl.) 
Triticum germinatum Spreng Yard grass (Engl.) 
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. is an accepted name The Plant List
Paragis is a local common name shared by (1) Eleusine indica, wire grass (2) Paspalum scrobiculatum, kodomillet.

Other vernacular names
ARABIC: Kalassindra (Chad).
BANGLADESH: Binna challa, Chapra, Gaicha, Malangakuri.
CHINESE: Long zhao ji, Niu jin cao, Xi shuari cao.
FRENCH: Pied de poule de l'Inde.
GUJARATI: Bajari.
INDIA: Jangali marua, Jhingari, Nandimukha, Nandiaa; Mahaar, Naachni; Thippa Ragi.
INDONESIA: Rumput belulang.
ITALIAN: Panico indiano.
JAPANESE: Ohi shiba, Ohi jawa.
KANNADA: Ragi.
LAOS: Nya phak kole.
MALAWI: Chinsangwi, Chigombe, Kanggodza, Chipikamongu.
MALAY: Rumput kekuasa.
MALAYSIA: Rumput sambau.
MARATHI: Nachani.
MYANMAR: Sin-ngo-let-kyar, Sin-ngo-myet.
NEPALESE: Kode vanso.
ORIYA: Mandiaa.
PORTUGUESE: Pata de galinha, Capim de caradouro.
PUNJABI: Bajra.
RUSSIAN: Elevzina indiiskaia.
SHONA: Makha.
SPANISH: Grama de caballo, Hierba dulce, Natajo dulce, Pata de gallina, Pata de ganso, Yerba dulce.
TAMIL: Kelvaraku , Kevuru.
THAILAND: Yaa teen-ka
TELUGU: Ragi.
VIETNAMESE: Mantrau, Nuggcan.

Botany
Paragis is an annual, erect, tufted, glabrous grass, 10 centimeters to 1 meter in height. Leaves are 10 to 30 centimeters long, sometimes involute when dry, 3 to 7 millimeters wide, distichous, rather flaccid, with flattened sheaths. Spikes are 3 to 6, all in a terminal whorl, or one or two lower down, 2.5 to 10 centimeters long, 3 to 5 millimeters thick. Spikelets are very numerous, crowded, 3- to 5-flowered, 3 to 4 millimeters long, the first glume 1-nerved and small, the second, 3-nerved, and the third and succeeding ones ovate, acute.

Distribution
- An abundant weed in waste places and along river banks, roads, and settled areas throughout the Philippines.
- Strictly xerophytic.
- Also found throughout warm countries.

Constituents
- Ash of leaves contain SiO, 16-47%; CaO, 10-13%; and chlorine, 6-7%.
- Study showed the dry matter content to be 35.8%, crude protein 12.4%.
- Methanol extract yielded flavonoids +++, tannins +, alkaloids ++, cardiac glycosides ++, anthracene glycosides ++, anthraquinones +.
- Elemental analysis (dry weight basis expressed as ppm) yielded: calcium
21240±213, potassium 25050±223, magnesium 4049±28, phosphorus 2375±84, B 24.74±1.19, copper 55.12±2.14, iron 455.0±5.10, manganese 163.8±2.64, molybdenium 13.49±1.32, and zinc 80.23±2.17. Calorific value cal/g was 3753±223, ash % 11±0.22. (see study below) (21)
- Study of aqueous extract for total phenolic content yielded 14.9±0.002 mg/g gallic acid equivalent per gram of extract. (see study below) (11)


Properties
- Plant considered diuretic, antihelminthic, diaphoretic, febrifuge.
- Studies have shown anti-inflammatory, antiplasmodial, antidiabetic, phytoremediative, pancreatic lipase inhibitory, antioxidant, antileishmanial, antioxidant, cytotoxic properties.


Parts used
Whole plant, leaves, roots, leaf juice.

Uses
Edibility / Culinary
- Roots and seeds are edible.
- Roots eaten raw, young seedling raw or cooked.
- Grain is a famine food in India and parts of Africa.

Folkloric
- Decoction of fresh leaves used as antihelminthic.
- Decoction of the fresh plant used as a diuretic and for dysentery.
- Whole plant mixed with gogo used for dandruff; also prevents hair loss.
- Decoction or fresh juice of leaves prescribed after childbirth.
- Decoction of roots used for fever.
- Poultice of leaves applied to sprains and lumbago.
- Decoction of whole plant (roots to flowers) taken for hemoptysis.
- Used for hypertension.
- Bakwiri people of West tropical Africa use infusion of whole plant for hemoptysis.
- Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga burn dried leaves and stems as repellent against hematophagous insects. (
24)
- In Singhalese Materia Medica, reported as useful for sprains and dislocation.
- In Malaysia, decoction of roots used for asthma.
- In coastal Guyana, decoction of plant used to relieve pains from abdominal muscle strain; applied to wounds to stop the bleeding. Decoction of grass used as tonic and to relieve bladder disorders.
- In Malaya, leaf juice given after childbirth to help expel the placenta.
- In Sumatra, used as anthelmintic.
- In Cambodia, used for fevers and liver complaints.
- In Venezuela, seed decoction given to infants suffering from black jaundice.
- In Nigeria, leaves used for diabetes and malaria.
- In Colombia, decoction of plant for diarrhea, dysentery and convulsions.
- In Cameroonian folk medicine, used for diarrhea, dysentery, epilepsy, and intestinal occlusion. (
18) Also used in the treatment of infertility in females. (24)
- In Sri Lanka, for muscle sprains, roots or the entire plant mixed with scraped coconut and a piece of Curcuma domestica is pounded well and heated till cooked, then packed over sprained muscles and bandaged.
- In Myanmar, leaves used for treatment of hypertension. (26)
- In Bangladesh, roots used in a mixture of herbal plants for the treatment of prolapsed uterus. (32)
Others
- Weaving: Stems used for making mats, baskets, hats.
- Paper: Plant suitable for paper making.
- Ritual: In Bontoc, used in mangmang rituals.
Malays hold the grain in their hand in spirit-summoning rituals.
- Fodder: Grass, when young, is eaten by cattle.
- Veterinary: In West Bengal, India, used as antipyretic for herbivores. (29)

Studies
Inhibition of Airway Inflammatory Processes:
C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation: Study may justify the popular use of EI against airway inflammatory disorders. (3)
Apoptotic Induction Activity:
Study of grass extracts of D. aegyptium and Eleusine indica showed selective inhibitory growth inhibition effect on human lung cancer and cervical cancer (HeLa) cells.
The activity was probably mediated through induction of apoptosis. (5)
Antiplasmodial / Antidiabetic:
Study evaluated an ethanolic leaf extract of E. indica as antidiabetic and malarial remedy. Results showed significant (p<0.01-0.001) schizonticidal activity during early and established infections with significant mean survival time. Treatment of alloxan-induced diabetic rats a leaf extract caused significant reduction in fasting blood glucose levels in acute and prolonged treatment study. (6)
Nutritional Potential / Fodder:
Study showed the dry matter content to be 35.8%, crude protein 12.4%. Forage was found to be fairly palatable when fed to goats, with no adverse effect. E. indica presents a potential alternative for the problem of green roughage scarcity. (
10)
Hepatoprotective/ Antioxidant:
Study evaluated an aqueous extract of E. indica against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced hepatic injury in rats. Results showed hepatoprotective effects which may be attributable to its antioxidant and free radical scavenging property. The extract reduced the stable DPPH level in a dose-dependent manner. (see constituents above) (
11) Study concluded E. indica and T. latifolia could be used as hepatoprotective agents with the potential for treatment or prevention of degenerative diseases where oxidative stress is implicated. (16)
Antibacterial/ Antioxidant:
Study evaluated various extracts of Eleucine indica for antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-cancer effects. A MeTH extract showed the highest total phenolic contents and scavenging activity on DPPH assay. An ethyl acetate extract showed broad spectrum antibacterial activity against all tested bacteria except B. subtilis, while a hexane extract showed remarkable activity against methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus and P. aeruginosa. Study failed to show cytotoxicity against tested cancer cell lines. (
13)
Fodder / Nutrition Analysis:
Study showed a dry matter content of 35.8% and crude protein content of 12.4%. The forage was found fairly palatable with no adverse effects when fed to goats and suggests a potential source for green roughage during periods of scarcity. (
14)
EDTA-Assisted Heavy Metal Phytoremediation:
Study showed the possibility of using the grass E. indica for phytoremediation especially phytostabilization of Cu, Cr and possible phytoextraction of Pb.     (
15)
Pancreatic Lipase Inhibitory Activity / Obesity Treatment Potential:
Study evaluated the lipase inhibitory activities of methanolic extracts of thirty two selected medicinal plants in Malaysia for potential use in the treatment of obesity. Eleusine indica showed the highest pancreatic lipase inhibitory activity of 31.36%, with no significant difference between its methanol extract and the standard drug Orlistat. (
17)
Antiplasmodial / Antidiabetic / Leaves:
Study an ethanolic leaf extract of Eleusine indica for antiplasmodial activity in Plasmodium berghei infected mice and antidiabetic activity in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Results showed significant (p<0.01-0.001) schizonticidal activity during early and established infection, comparable to standard drug chloroquine. Leaf extract showed significant (p<0.01) reduction in FBS of alloxan-induced diabetic rats. (
20)
Mineral Analysis:
In a study of 10 grasses for mineral analysis, Eragrostis amabilis and Eleusine indica showed large amounts of major and minor elements which suggest potential for cultivation to fulfill mineral deficiency in livestock feeding. (see constituents above) (
21)
Remediation of Crude Oil Polluted Soil:
Study evaluated the potential of two weed plants (Eleusine indica and Panicum maximum) and a crop plant (Pennisetum glaucum) in remediation of crude oil contaminated soil. Of the three, P. glaucum showed greatest potential to remediate. E. indica had greatest impact on soil with 2%, 3%, and 4% levels of crude oil. (
22)
Antioxidant / Cytotoxic / Antileishmanial / Leaves:
Study evaluated an ethanol leaf extract of Eleusine indica for cytotoxicity activity against HeLa cells, antioxidative burst activity, and antileishmanial activity. The extract showed moderate cytostatic activity, significantly inhibited oxidative burst activity and also exhibited moderate antileishmanial activity against promastigotes of Leishmania major inn vitro. (
23)
• Anti-Herpes Simplex Virus Type-Activity: Study evaluated the antiviral activity of methanol extract of E. indica whole plant in relation to mode of action, attachment, penetration or virucidal activity. Results suggest E. indica is safe with an antiviral and prophylactic potential via inhibition of viral attachment, penetration, and virucidal effect. (25) MTT screening against Vero of crude extract showed the crude extract and hexane fraction showed non-cytotoxicity with CC50 values of 2.07 and 5.62 mg/ml, respectively. The antiviral activity towards HSV-1 for the ME and hexane fraction were 12.2 and 6.2, respectively. (27)
• Crude Oil Remediating Potential: Study compared the crude oil-remediating potential of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica in a completely randomized experimental screenhouse design. Results showed E. indica has a higher crude oil pollutant remediating potential on soil than C. dactylon. (28)
• Lipid-Lowering Effects on High-Fat-Diet Hyperlipidemic Rats: Study investigated the lipid-lowering effects of various extracts of E. indica using both in vitro and in vivo models. Hexane extract exhibited strong potential in the inhibition of porcine pancreatic lipase (27.01±5.68%). Acute oral toxicity on animal models was Category 5 (low hazard) on the Globally Harmonized System with no observed mortality, clinical toxicity symptoms, and pathologic changes. The HE also significantly reduced body weight, improved serum lipid profile, with reduction in TC, LDL, triglycerides and increase in HDL. (
30)
• Antimicrobial / Antidiarrheal / Anthelmintic: Study evaluated the antimicrobial activity of E. indica on selected pathogens usually associated with diarrhea i.e., S. dysenteriae, E. coli, S. typhi, S. aureus, S. faecalis and L. lactis. Results showed concentration dependent antimicrobial activity with the aqueous extract showing highest susceptibility. Plant also showed marked anthelmintic activity against Strongyloides stercoralis. (31)



Availability
Wild-crafted.

sUpdated September 2017
January 2013



IMAGE SOURCE: Line Drawing / Public Domain / Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. / USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database / Britton, N.L., and A. Brown. 1913. An illustrated flora of the northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions. Vol. 1: 229. AlterVISTA
Photo © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
(1)
Eleusine indica / Plants For A Future: Database Search Results
(2)
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. POACEAE / Plants For Use
(3)
C-glycosylflavones from the aerial parts of Eleusine indica inhibit LPS-induced mouse lung inflammation
Planta medica ISSN 0032-0943 CODEN PLMEAA / 2005, vol. 71, no4, pp. 362-363

(4)
A Review on Medicinal uses of Weeds in Sri Lanka / E.R.H.S.S. Ediriweera / Tropical Agricultural Research & Extension 10, 2007
(5)
Apoptotic induction activity of Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) P.B. and Eleusine indica (L.) Gaerth. extracts on human lung and cervical cancer cell lines / Pintusorn Hansakul, Chatri Ngamkitidechakul et al / Songklanakarin J. Sci. Technol., 31 (3), 273-279, May - Jun. 2009

(6)
ANTIPLASMODIAL AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF ELEUSINE INDICA / Okokon J E, Odomena C S et al / International Journal of Drug Development & Research, July-Sept 2010 | Vol. 2 | Issue 3
(7)
Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. / Chinese names / Catalogue of Life, China
(8)
Sorting Eleusine names / Maintained by: Michel H. Porcher / MULTILINGUAL MULTISCRIPT PLANT NAME DATABASE / Copyright © 1997 - 2000 The University of Melbourne.
(9)
A Guide to the Medicinal Plants of Coastal Guyana
/ Deborah A. Lachman-White, C. Dennis Adams, Ulric O'D Trotz / Google Books
(10)
Re-growth and Nutritional Potentials of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (Goose Grass) / P.R. Regmi, N.R. Devkota, J. Timsina / Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Vol 25 (2004)
(11)
Eleusine indica L. possesses antioxidant activity and precludes carbon tetrachloride (CCl₄)-mediated oxidative hepatic damage in rats. / Iqbal M, Gnanaraj C. / Environ Health Prev Med. 2012 Jul;17(4):307-15. / doi: 10.1007/s12199-011-0255-5. Epub 2011 Dec 30.
(12)
Eleusine indica / GLOBinMED
(13)
Eleucine indica Possesses Antioxidant, Antibacterial and Cytotoxic Properties / Adel S. Al-Zubairi, Ahmad Bustamam Abdul, Siddig Ibrahim Abdelwahab, Chew Yuan Peng, Syam Mohan, and Manal Mohamed Elhassan / Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2011 (2011 / http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ecam/nep091
(14)
Re-growth and Nutritional Potentials of Eleusine indica (L.) Gaertn. (Goose Grass) / P.R. Regmi, N.R. Devkota, J. Timsina / Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, Vol 25 (2004)
(15)
Ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA)-Assisted phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soil by Eleusine indica L. Gearth / Garba, Shuaibu Tela*, Osemeahon, Akuewanbhor Sunday, Maina, Humphrey Manji and Barminas, Jeffry Tsaware / Journal of Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology Vol. 4(5), pp. 103-109, 2 March, 2012 / DOI: 10.5897/JECE11.078
(16)
Liver Protective Effects of Eleusine indica and Thysanolaena latifolia: Chemopreventive and Antioxidative Effects of Eleusine indica and Thysanolaena latifolia / Mohammad Iqbal, Charles Gnanaraj / Liver Protective Effects of Eleusine indica and Thysanolaena latifolia—LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing (October 25, 2011)
(17)
IN VITRO LIPASE INHIBITORY EFFECT OF THIRTY TWO SELECTED PLANTS IN MALAYSIA / SIEW-LING ONG, SUGUNA PANEERCHELVAN, HOW-YEE LAI*, NALAMOLU KOTESWARA RAO / Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 7, Suppl 2, 2014, 19-24
(18)
Screening of Some Plants Used in the Cameroonian Folk Medicine for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases / Laure Brigitte Kouitcheu Mabeku / International Journal of Biology Vol. 3, No. 4; October 2011
(19)
Eleusine indica / Synonyms / The Plant List
(20)
ANTIPLASMODIAL AND ANTIDIABETIC ACTIVITIES OF ELEUSINE INDICA / OKOKON, J. E., ODOMENA C. S., IMABONG EFFIONG, OBOT J, UDOBANG J. A / International Journal of Drug Development and Research
(21)
Studies on Mineral Analysis of Grasses of Poaceae / R. Hari Babu* and N. Savithramma / International Journal of Pharma Sciences, Vol. 4, No. 3 (2014): 526-531
(22)
Evaluation of the Potentials of Three Grass Plants to Remediate Crude Oil Polluted Soil
/ Njoku, K.L., Akinola, M.O., Nkemdilim, C.M., Ibrahim, P.M., Olatunbosun, A.S. / Current Advances in Environmental Science CAES
(23)
ANTIOXIDATIVE BURST, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITIES OF ELEUSCINE INDICA / Jude E. Okokon, Anwanga E. Udoh, Ette O. Etebong, Azare B.A / International Journal of Pharmacology Research, Vol 4, Issue 3 (2014) pp 165-168.
(24)
A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters, Vol 7.No 1 (2014)
(25)
Anti-herpes simplex virus type-1 activity of Eleusine indica methanol extract / Rashidah Iberahim, Adibah Ahamad Bahtiar, Nazlina Ibrahim / Malaysian Journal of Microbiology, Vol 12, Issue 6 (2016)
(26)
Chemical Investigation and Hypotensive Activity Study on Some Myanmar Indigenous Medicinal Plants used in the Treatment of Hypertension / Myatt Hla Wai, Kyaw Naing, Daw Hla Ngwe, Nu Nu Aye, Myint U, Maung Maung Htay / Jour. Myan. Acad. Arts & Sc. 2005 Vol. III. No. 1
(27)
Phytochemistry, cytotoxicity and antiviral activity of Eleusine indica (sambau) / Rashidah Iberahim, Wan Ahmad Yaacob, and Nazlina Ibrahim / AIP Conference Proceedings 1678, 030013 (2015) / doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931234
(28)
A comparative assessment of the crude oil-remediating potential of Cynodon dactylon and Eleusine indica/ Stephen Oyedeji*, Idris Olawale Raimi, Anthony Ifechukwude Odiwe / Environmental and Experimental Biology (2013) 11: 145–150
(29)
USE OF ELEUSINE INDICA (L.) GAERTN. (KECHILA GHAS) AS AN ANTIPYRETIC MEDICINE OF HERBIVORES / Shibabrata Pattanayak, Debabrata Maity* / Explor Anim Med Res, Vol.7, Issue - 1, 2017, p. 94-96
(30)
Potential Lipid-Lowering Effects of Eleusine indica (L) Gaertn. Extract on High-Fat-Diet-Induced Hyperlipidemic Rats. / Ong SL, Nalamolu KR, Lai HY / Pharmacognosy Magazine, 01 Jan 2017, 13 (Suppl 1): S1-S9 / DOI: 10.4103/0973-1296.203986
(31)
ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ELEUSINE INDICA / Frank Morah, M E Otuk / Acta Scientiae et Intellectus, Vol 1, No 4 (2015)
(32)
Medicinal Plants Used by Folk Medicinal Practitioners of Four Adjoining Villages of Narail and Jessore Districts, Bangladesh / Kakoli Rani Biswas, Tania Khan, Mirza Nipa Monalisa, Auditi Swarna, Tasneema Ishika, Mehreen Rahman, Mohammed Rahmatullah / American-Eurasian Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, 5(1): 23-33, 2011



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