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Family Apocynaceae

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir.
Jian guo gou ya hua

Scientific names Common names
Alstonia pacifica (Seem.) A. C. Sm. Agtimaloi (Buk.) 
Anartia recurva Miers Alibotbot (P. Bis.) 
Ervatamia angustisepala (Benth.) Domin Alibutbut (Pamp., Bis., Bik.) 
Ervatamia benthamiana Domin. Busbusilak (Ilk.)
Ervatamia biflora (Elmer) Pichon Halibutbut (Bik.) 
Ervatamia mindorensis (Merr.) Markgr. Kampupot (Tag.) 
Ervatamia pandacaqui (Lam.) Pichon Kudibetbet (Ig.)
Tabernaermontana arborescens Perrier Kukabulau-buntai (Ibn.) 
Tabernaemontana cumingiana  A. DC. Kuribetbet (Ilk.) 
Tabernaemontana mindanaensis Merr. Pandakaki (Tag., Bis., Pamp.) 
Tabernaemontana mindorensis Merr. Pandakaki-puti (Tag.) 
Tabernaermontana orientalis R. Br. Pandaya (Bik.) 
Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam. Sakang-manuk (Bik.) 
Tabernaemontana polygama Blanco Salibukbuk (P. Bis.)
Tabernaemontana pubescens R.Br.. Salimbabaya (C. Bis.) 
Tabernaemontana punctata Warb. Talanisog (Bik.) 
Tabernaemontana semperflorens Perr. Toar (Bik.) 
Tabernaemontana subglobosa Merr. Tunkal (P. Bis.) 
Tabernaemontana thailandensis  P.T.Li. Banana bush (Engl.) 
Tabernaemontana vitiensis Seem. Windmill bush (Engl.) 
Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam. is an accepted name The Plant List

Other vernacular names
CHINESE: Jian guo gou ya hua.
THAILAND: Put farang, Phut tum.

Pandakaki is an erect, branched and smooth shrub, 1 to 4 meters high. Leaves are elliptic-lanceolate to oblong-elliptic, 5 to 12 centimeters long, narrowed at both ends, shining and short-stalked. Inflorescences are axillary and terminal, peduncled, and have rather few flowers. Calyx is green, ovoid, and short. Corolla is white, tinged with green, slender-tubed, 1.7 centimeters long and slightly enlarged upward; limb is 2 to 2.5 centimeters in diameter, composed of five, spreading, falcate, lanceolate lobes. Follicles are red or yellowish-red, oblong, 2 to 4 centimeters long, and longitudinally ridged or keeled.

- Common in thickets at low altitudes at low altitudes from the Babuyan Islands and Luzon to Mindanao, in most Islands and provinces.
- Also reported in Taiwan and Celebes.

- Phytochemical screening of leaves yielded terpenoids, flavonoids, and anthraquinones while stems yielded alkaloids, and terpenoids. (see study below) (16)

Caution: Some reports of toxicity attributed to the milky sap.
• Fruit reported to be highly poisonous, with its many seeds with red fleshy covering.

• Studies have shown analgesic, antiprotozoal, anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, cytotoxic, CNS depressant, pesticidal, antimalarial properties.

Parts utilized
Leaves, roots, bark, sap.

· In the Philippines, leaves used as cataplasm on the belly to induce menstruation.
· For eczema: Boil 3 cups of chopped leaves in one gallon of water for 10 minutes; add 2 gallons of hot water.
· Fresh leaves are fried in oil and applied to itchy skins lesions for symptomatic relief.
· Leaf juice applied for wound healing.
· Hot Foot Baths: A local immersion bath covering the feet, ankles and legs used for a variety of conditions: To relieve head, chest and pelvic congestion; to stop nosebleeds; to relieve spasms and pains of feet and legs; to induce sweating; to relieve menstrual cramps and headaches.
· Poulticed leaves applied on the abdomen to hasten childbirth.
· Ifugao-migrants in the foothills of the Sierra Madre used the plant latex for wounds,
· Erectile dysfunction: In Tiaong, reportedly used as "herbal viagra."
Boil 15-25 leaves in 3 glasses of water for 10 minutes; drink the decoction. (Note: Like many of the herbal medicines touted as "herbal viagra," kampupot use is rural folkloric with no known scientific or pharmacologic basis for its claim.)
· Decoction of root and bark used for a variety of stomach and intestinal ailments.
· The white sap of the stem is applied to thorn injuries and to hasten the surfacing of the thorn fragment.

· In Thailand, roots used to treat fever, pain and dysentery.
· The Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga use as repellent against hematophagous insects. Decoction of fresh leaf and roots is drunk, while leaves and stems are hung inside the house. (15)

Analgesic / Hypothermic: :
Vulcanian was isolated from T pandacaqui which exhibited significant analgesic and hypothermic effects in mice. (1)
Antiprotozoal: : In a study of 18 plants traditionally used in South Pacific archipelago Vanuatu, 15 plants showed strong cytotoxic effects specific for only one cancer line. T. pandacaqui leaves displayed activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. (6)
Anti-Inflammatory / Antipyretic / Antinociceptive: Study on Tabernaemontana pandacaqui using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema, yeast-induced hyperthermia in rat, and acetic acid induced writhing response showed significant antiinflammatory, antipyretic and antinociceptive activities attributable to alkaloidal components. (2)
Hypotensive / Bradycardic / Stem: Effects of a crude alkaloidal fraction from the stem of Tp on blood pressure and heart rate were investigated in rat models. Results showed a hypotensive and bradycardic responses that might involve cholinergic, central mechanisms, biogenic amines, acetylcholine and histamine. (3)

Cardiovascular / Hypotensive: Intravenous injection of ethanol extracts of stem, leaf and flower exhibited a hypotensive activity not mediated through histaminic and muscarinic stimulation, a-adrenoceptor blockade or interference of sympathetic transmission. (5)
Neuropharmacological / CNS Depressant: Study of crude alkaloidal fraction from the stem of Tp suggested CNS depressant activity in rats and mice through reduction in spontaneous motility, potentiation of pentobarbital sleeping time and antinociception. (4)
Cytotoxicity: Study evaluated a methanol extract for cytotoxic activity. Results showed potent activity against renal cancer cells, with an IC50 of 4.62 µg/ml. An ethyl acetate extract reduced the viability of lung cancer cells.
Pesticidal / Stems and Leaves / Rice Bugs: Study evaluated the effectiveness of leaves and stems of T. pandacaqui in eradicating rice bug during the milky stage of the rice cycle. Results suggest the pure pandacqui extract is as effective as commercial pesticide in the eradication of rice bugs, also providing a cheaper and eco-friendly alternative compared to chemical pesticide. (12)
Antibacterial / α-Amyrin Acetate / Leaves: A previous study showed the leaves to yield a bioactive constituent against Bacillus subtilis. Study yielded a major compound from a hexane/chloroform fraction and identified as a-amyrin acetate. (13)
Cytotoxicity Screening of Alkaloids / Leaves: Study evaluated the cytotoxic activity of alkaloids from T. pandacaqui and Voacanga globosa leaves using Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay. The alkaloid content of the extracts were quantified as milligrams of Vincristine Sulfate Equivalent (mg VSE) using Bromocresol Green Assay. TP yielded an alkaloid content of 46.7 mg VSE translating to a yield of 0.234%, with a LC50 value of 167 ppm. (14)
Antimalarial Screening: In a screening of Indonesian plants for antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falcifarum, Tabernaemontana pandacaqui leaves showed 38.6% ± 5.6% inhibition, while stems showed 37.6% ± 4.0% inhibition. (see constituents above) (:016)
Antinociceptive / Leaves: Screening of crude ethanol extract of leaves for antinociceptive activity produced significant writhing inhibition in acetic acid induced mice in doses of 250 and 500 mg/kbw (p<0.05, p<0.01), respectively. Results werecomparable to standard drug diclofenac. (17)
Anti-Inflammatory / Indole Alkaloid / Stem and Leaves: Study of alcoholic extracts and isolated indole alkaloid from stem and leaves of pandakaki-puti for anti-inflammatory activity using carrageenan induced inflammation model in mice. Results showed anti-inflammatory activity, with the highest mean percent inhibition at 93.9% and 94.68% with a concentration of 100:0 indole alkaloid: distilled water at dosage of 0.05 mg/g BW of mice. (17)


Godofredo U. Stuart Jr., M.D.

Last Update October 2016

Photos © Godofredo Stuart / StuartXchange

Additional Sources and Suggested Readings
Analgesic components from bornean medicinal plants, Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume and Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir / Chem Pharm Bull (Tokyo). 1992 Aug;40(8):2075-9.
Anti-inflammatory, antipyretic and antinociceptive activities of Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. / T. Taesotikula, A. Panthong et al / J Ethnopharmacol. 2003 Jan; 84 (1):31-5 / doi:10.1016/S0378 -8741(02)00264-7
Cardiovascular activity of the crude alkaloidal fraction from Tabernaemontana pandacaqui in the rat / T Taesotikul, A Panthong, D Kanjanapothi, R Verpoorte, J.J.C Scheffer / J-Ethnopharmacol. 1998 Jan; 59(3): 131-7

Neuropharmacological activities of the crude alkaloidal fraction from stems of Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir. / T Taesotikul et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology • Volume 62, Issue 3, October 1998, Pages 229-234 / doi:10.1016/S0378-8741(98)00081-6

Cardiovascular effects of Tabernaemontana pandacaqui / T Taesotiful, A Panthong et al / Journal of Ethnopharmacology, Volume 27, Issues 1-2, November 1989, Pages 107-119 / doi:10.1016/0378-8741(89)90083-4 |

In vitro cytotoxic, antiprotozoal and antimicrobial activities of medicinal plants from Vanuatu / Gesine Bradacs, Louisa Maes, Jorg Heilmann / Phytotherapy Research, 14 DEC 2009 / DOI: 10.1002/ptr.2981

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam / The Plant List

Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Lam. / Catalogue of Life, 2010
Tabernaemontana pandacaqui / Vernacular names / GLOBinMED
The use of medicinal plants by Ifugao-migrants in the foothills of the Sierra Madre mountain range
/ Jasper Wester
Tabernaemontana pandacaqui / Synonyms / The Plant List
Tabernaemontana pandacaqui Poir (pandakaki) as rice bug (Leptocorisa acuta) eradicator / An investigatory project entry to the 2005 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, Phoenix, Arizona, USA May 8-14, 2005 / Galapia, D.B. / 2005 Intel International Science and Engineering Fair, Sinait National High School, Sinait, Ilocos Sur
The major compound isolated from the active butanol extract of tabernaemontana pandacaqui poir / Villaraza, Ma. Cecilia M. / Master of Science in Chemistry, 1996
Toxicity screening of alkaloids from tabernaemontana pandacaqui POIR (Pandakaki-puti) and voacanga globosa (Blanco) MERR.(Bayag-Usa) leaf extracts using brine shrimp assay. / Andaya, Genesis Faye and Hulipas, Gladys Dianne / Undergraduate thesis, De La Salle University-Dasmarinas. 2012

A survey of plants used as repellents against hematophagous insects by the Ayta people of Porac, Pampanga province, Philippines / Jasper John A. Obico* and Elena M. Ragragio / Philippine Science Letters, Vol. 7, No. 1, 2014
Phytochemical and antinociceptive study of leaves of Tabernaemontana divaricata (L) / Shazid Md. Sharker*, Samabesh Chakma and Ahmed Ayedur Rahman / Journal of Medicinal Plants Research Vol. 5(2), pp. 245-247, 18 January, 2011
ISOLATION OF INDOLE ALKALOID FORM PANDAKAKI-PUTI (Tabernaemontana pandacaqui poir) AS ANTI-INFLAMATORY AGENT / Mercedes Q. Cabling, John Micah M. Gabriel and Rowelyn C. Cerin / Nueva Ecija University of Science and Technology

It is not uncommon for links on studies/sources to change. Copying and pasting the information on the search window or using the DOI (if available) will often redirect to the new link page.

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